Staunton, Virginia

Last updated

Staunton, Virginia
City-Scape-Sunrise slideshow.jpg
Overlook of downtown Staunton during sunrise
StauntonFlag.png
Staunton coat.jpg
Nickname(s): 
Queen City of the Shenandoah Valley
Staunton-Location.svg
Location of Staunton in the Commonwealth of Virginia
Shenandoah Valley.svg
Red pog.svg
Staunton
USA Virginia location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Staunton
Usa edcp location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Staunton
Coordinates: 38°9′29″N79°4′35″W / 38.15806°N 79.07639°W / 38.15806; -79.07639 Coordinates: 38°9′29″N79°4′35″W / 38.15806°N 79.07639°W / 38.15806; -79.07639
CountryUnited States
State Virginia
County None (Independent city)
Incorporated 1801
Area
[1]
  Total19.98 sq mi (51.74 km2)
  Land19.92 sq mi (51.59 km2)
  Water0.06 sq mi (0.15 km2)
Elevation
1,417 ft (432 m)
Population
 (2020)
  Total25,750
  Density1,300/sq mi (500/km2)
Time zone UTC−5 (Eastern (EST))
  Summer (DST) UTC−4 (EDT)
ZIP codes
24401-24402
Area code(s) 540
FIPS code 51-75216 [2]
GNIS feature ID1500154 [3]
Website http://www.staunton.va.us/

Staunton ( /ˈstæntən/ STAN-tən) is an independent city in the U.S. Commonwealth of Virginia. As of the 2020 census, the population was 25,750. [4] In Virginia, independent cities are separate jurisdictions from the counties that surround them, so the government offices of Augusta County are in Verona, which is contiguous to Staunton. [5] Staunton is a principal city of the Staunton-Waynesboro Metropolitan Statistical Area, which had a 2010 population of 118,502. Staunton is known for being the birthplace of Woodrow Wilson, the 28th U.S. president, and as the home of Mary Baldwin University, historically a women's college. The city is also home to Stuart Hall, a private co-ed preparatory school, as well as the Virginia School for the Deaf and Blind. It was the first city in the United States with a fully defined city manager system.

Contents

History

Bird's-eye view c. 1910 Bird's-eye View of Staunton, VA.jpg
Bird's-eye view c. 1910

The area was first settled in 1732 by John Lewis and family. In 1736, William Beverley, a wealthy planter and merchant from Essex County, was granted by the Crown over 118,000 acres (48,000 hectares) in what would become Augusta County. Surveyor Thomas Lewis in 1746 laid out the first town plat for Beverley of what was originally called Beverley's Mill Place. [6] Founded in 1747, it was renamed in honor of Lady Rebecca Staunton, wife to Royal Lieutenant-Governor Sir William Gooch. [7] Because the town was located at the geographical center of the colony (which then included West Virginia), Staunton served between 1738 and 1771 as regional capital for much of what was later known as the Northwest Territory, with the westernmost courthouse in British North America prior to the Revolution. [8] By 1760, Staunton was one of the major "remote trading centers in the backcountry" which coordinated the transportation of the vast amounts of grain and tobacco then being produced in response to the change of Britain from a net exporter of produce to an importer. Staunton thus played a crucial role in the mid 18th century expansion of the economies of the American Colonies which, in turn, contributed to the success of the American Revolution. [9] It served as capital of Virginia in June 1781, when state legislators fled Richmond and then Charlottesville to avoid capture by the British.

Lewis Miller, Sketchbook of Landscapes in the State of Virginia, 1853-1867. Courtesy, Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Folk Art Museum, Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, Williamsburg, Virginia; slide 84-896c.Titled, "Slave trader, Sold to Tennessee." The caption states: " The company going to Tennessee from Staunton, Augusta county, the law of Virginia suffered them to go on. I was astonished at this boldness, the carrier stopped a moment, then ordered the march, I saw the play it is commonly in this state, when the negro's in droves Sold." Stauntonslavetrade.jpg
Lewis Miller, Sketchbook of Landscapes in the State of Virginia, 1853–1867. Courtesy, Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Folk Art Museum, Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, Williamsburg, Virginia; slide 84-896c.Titled, "Slave trader, Sold to Tennessee." The caption states: " The company going to Tennessee from Staunton, Augusta county, the law of Virginia suffered them to go on. I was astonished at this boldness, the carrier stopped a moment, then ordered the march, I saw the play it is commonly in this state, when the negro’s in droves Sold."

Like most of colonial Virginia, slavery was present in Staunton. For instance, in 1815, a slave named Henry ran away from John G. Wright's Staunton plantation. Wright placed an ad in the Daily National Intelligencer in Washington, D.C. seeking Henry's return. It notes that Henry was an excellent cook and was widely travelled, having been as far as the West Indies. [10]

The Civil War and immediately prior

Letter from N.K. Trout, mayor of Staunton, describing a contribution of $80 to the 1st Georgia Regiment, then encamped at Monterey, Virginia. Published in the Daily Constitutionalist of Augusta, Georgia on August 6, 1861 1861.08.06.daily.constitutionalist.page.one.letter.from.mayor.of.staunton.virginia.jpg
Letter from N.K. Trout, mayor of Staunton, describing a contribution of $80 to the 1st Georgia Regiment, then encamped at Monterey, Virginia. Published in the Daily Constitutionalist of Augusta, Georgia on August 6, 1861

In August 1855, President Franklin Pierce visited Staunton. He gave a speech at the Virginia Hotel, in which he stated that his "feelings revolted from the idea of a dissolution of the union." He said that "[i]t would be the Iliad of innumerable woes, from the contemplation of which he shrank." [11]

Located along the Valley Pike, Staunton developed as a trade, transportation and industrial center, particularly after the Virginia Central Railroad arrived in 1854. Factories made carriages, wagons, boots and shoes, clothing and blankets. [12] In 1860, the Staunton Military Academy was founded. By 1860, Staunton had at least one pro-Union, pro-slavery [13] (the Staunton Spectator ) and at least one pro-secession, pro-slavery newspaper (the Staunton Vindicator ). [14] The Spectator ran editorials before the war urging its citizens to vote for union, [15] while the Vindicator ran, e.g., stories reporting on "unruly" slaves mutilating themselves to escape being sold. [16]

On May 23, 1861, shortly after the firing on Fort Sumter began the American Civil War, Virginians voted on whether to ratify articles of secession from the Union and join the Confederate States. The articles were overwhelmingly approved throughout the Commonwealth, even in the majority of the counties that would later become West Virginia. The vote in Staunton was 3300 in favor of secession,[ citation needed ] with only 6 opposed. [17] During the war, the town became an important Shenandoah Valley manufacturing center, a staging area, and a supply depot for the Confederacy.

On June 6, 1864, Union Major General David Hunter arrived [18] with 10,000 troops to cut supply, communication and railway lines useful to the Confederacy. The next day, they destroyed the railroad station, warehouses, houses, factories and mills. Union soldiers looted the stores and warehouses and confiscated supplies. [12]

Post-bellum Staunton

On July 10, 1902, Staunton became an independent city. [19]

Entrance gates, Stuart-Robertson House, Staunton, Historic American Buildings Survey Entrance Stuart-Robertson House Staunton.jpg
Entrance gates, Stuart-Robertson House, Staunton, Historic American Buildings Survey

In 1908, Staunton adopted the city manager form of government. Charles E. Ashburner was hired by Staunton as the nation's first city manager.

Western State Hospital

Staunton is also home to the former Western State Asylum, a hospital for the mentally ill, which originally began operations in 1828. The hospital was renamed Western State Hospital in 1894.

In its early days, the facility was a resort-style asylum. It had terraced gardens where patients could plant flowers and take walks, roof walks to provide mountain views, and many architectural details to create an atmosphere that would aid in the healing process. However, by the mid 19th Century, this utopian model of care had vanished, replaced by overcrowding in the facility and the warehousing of patients. Techniques such as "ankle and wrist restraints, physical coercion, and straitjackets" were used. [20] After the passage of the Eugenical Sterilization Act of 1924 in Virginia, [21] patients were forcibly sterilized at Western State [22] until the law authorizing the practice was repealed in the 1970s. [23] Later, electroshock therapy and lobotomies were practiced at the facility. [20]

When Western State vacated the property and moved its adult patients to its present site near Interstate 81, the facility was renamed the Staunton Correctional Center and turned into a medium-security men's penitentiary. The prison closed in 2003, and the site was left vacant for several years. In 2005, the state of Virginia gave the original property to the Staunton Industrial Authority. [24] It is now a condominium complex called The Villages at Staunton. [20]

A separate complex, The DeJarnette State Sanatoruim, was constructed in 1932 and acted as a location for patients with the ability to pay for their treatment. Dr. DeJarnette was the superintendent of the sanatorium from its opening until his retirement in 1947. [25]

Geography

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 20 square miles (52 km2), virtually all of which is land. [26] Staunton is located in the Shenandoah Valley in between the Blue Ridge and Allegheny Mountains of the Appalachian Mountains. It is drained by Lewis Creek. Lewis Creek flows into the Shenandoah River, which flows into the Potomac, and eventually to the Chesapeake Bay.

Climate

According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Staunton has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps. [27]

Climate data for Staunton water treatment plant (1991−2020 normals, extremes 1893−present)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °F (°C)79
(26)
82
(28)
89
(32)
94
(34)
95
(35)
102
(39)
106
(41)
103
(39)
100
(38)
97
(36)
88
(31)
79
(26)
106
(41)
Average high °F (°C)42.4
(5.8)
45.8
(7.7)
53.8
(12.1)
64.7
(18.2)
72.7
(22.6)
80.3
(26.8)
84.1
(28.9)
82.7
(28.2)
76.7
(24.8)
66.4
(19.1)
55.2
(12.9)
45.8
(7.7)
64.2
(17.9)
Daily mean °F (°C)33.6
(0.9)
36.2
(2.3)
43.3
(6.3)
53.6
(12.0)
62.1
(16.7)
70.1
(21.2)
73.9
(23.3)
72.4
(22.4)
66.2
(19.0)
55.3
(12.9)
45.3
(7.4)
37.1
(2.8)
54.1
(12.3)
Average low °F (°C)24.7
(−4.1)
26.6
(−3.0)
32.8
(0.4)
42.5
(5.8)
51.6
(10.9)
59.9
(15.5)
63.8
(17.7)
62.2
(16.8)
55.7
(13.2)
44.2
(6.8)
35.5
(1.9)
28.4
(−2.0)
44.0
(6.7)
Record low °F (°C)−16
(−27)
−12
(−24)
−3
(−19)
12
(−11)
26
(−3)
34
(1)
41
(5)
37
(3)
22
(−6)
18
(−8)
2
(−17)
−13
(−25)
−16
(−27)
Average precipitation inches (mm)2.88
(73)
2.38
(60)
3.43
(87)
3.26
(83)
4.06
(103)
4.11
(104)
4.15
(105)
3.97
(101)
4.21
(107)
2.61
(66)
2.62
(67)
2.96
(75)
40.64
(1,032)
Average snowfall inches (cm)5.4
(14)
6.8
(17)
4.1
(10)
0.1
(0.25)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.4
(1.0)
4.8
(12)
21.6
(55)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)8.67.49.410.713.311.311.511.89.58.47.59.1118.5
Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)2.22.61.60.10.00.00.00.00.00.00.22.08.7
Source: NOAA [28] [29]

Governance

Presidential Elections Results [30]
Year Republican Democratic Third Parties
2020 43.8% 5,69553.7%6,9812.4% 314
2016 45.6% 5,13347.4%5,3337.0% 789
2012 47.0% 5,27251.1%5,7281.9% 210
2008 48.4% 5,33050.6%5,5691.1% 116
2004 60.3%5,80539.0% 3,7560.7% 68
2000 57.3%4,87839.0% 3,3243.7% 312
1996 53.7%4,52637.5% 3,1628.9% 747
1992 54.0%4,98930.9% 2,85115.1% 1,392
1988 69.3%5,77529.5% 2,4571.2% 102
1984 74.9%6,13724.6% 2,0120.6% 47
1980 60.8%4,81933.5% 2,6585.7% 450
1976 59.5%4,68137.5% 2,9512.9% 231
1972 78.3%5,53120.0% 1,4161.7% 121
1968 61.4%4,43423.9% 1,72914.7% 1,058
1964 52.3%2,96947.6% 2,7050.1% 6
1960 69.2%2,78930.6% 1,2330.3% 10
1956 74.9%2,90821.7% 8433.4% 130
1952 73.1%2,57826.8% 9450.1% 5
1948 49.5%1,32334.2% 91416.3% 436
1944 42.1% 84757.6%1,1590.3% 6
1940 39.4% 68759.8%1,0420.9% 15
1936 34.1% 56865.4%1,0910.5% 9
1932 35.4% 55163.5%9881.0% 16
1928 58.3%1,02641.7% 733
1924 34.1% 54963.5%1,0222.4% 38
1920 42.9% 70556.6%9310.6% 9
1916 37.3% 31161.3%5111.3% 11
1912 6.6% 6564.2%63229.2% 287

Staunton operates under a council-manager form of government. In 1908, Staunton was the first city in the United States to give an appointed employee authority over city affairs through statute. In 1912, Sumter, South Carolina, was the first U.S. city to implement the council-manager form of city government. [31] The city of Staunton refers to itself on its website as the "birthplace of President Woodrow Wilson, and the city manager form of government." [32]

Staunton is part of Virginia's 6th congressional district.

Sister cities

Vişeu de Sus, Romania. Dabas, Hungary.

Demographics

Historical population
CensusPop.
1860 3,875
1870 5,12032.1%
1880 6,66430.2%
1890 6,9754.7%
1900 7,2894.5%
1910 10,60445.5%
1920 10,6230.2%
1930 11,99012.9%
1940 13,33711.2%
1950 19,92749.4%
1960 22,23211.6%
1970 24,50410.2%
1980 21,857−10.8%
1990 24,46111.9%
2000 23,853−2.5%
2010 23,746−0.4%
2020 25,7508.4%
U.S. Decennial Census [33]
1790-1960 [34] 1900-1990 [35]
1990-2000 [36] 2010 [37] 2020 [38]

2020 census

Staunton city, Virginia - Demographic Profile
(NH = Non-Hispanic)
Race / EthnicityPop 2010 [37] Pop 2020 [38] % 2010% 2020
White alone (NH)19,58419,95982.47%77.51%
Black or African American alone (NH)2,8592,88212.04%11.19%
Native American or Alaska Native alone (NH)41650.17%0.25%
Asian alone (NH)1823200.77%1.24%
Pacific Islander alone (NH)3110.01%0.04%
Some Other Race alone (NH)611550.26%0.60%
Mixed Race/Multi-Racial (NH)5031,2702.12%4.93%
Hispanic or Latino (any race)5131,0882.16%4.23%
Total23,74625,750100.00%100.00%

Note: the US Census treats Hispanic/Latino as an ethnic category. This table excludes Latinos from the racial categories and assigns them to a separate category. Hispanics/Latinos can be of any race.

2000 Census

As of the census [39] of 2000, there were 23,853 people, 9,676 households, and 5,766 families residing in Staunton. The population density was 1,210.3 people per square mile (467.3/km2). There were 10,427 housing units at an average density of 529.1 per square mile (204.3/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 83.29% White, 13.95% Black or African American, 0.22% Native American, 0.46% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.52% from other races, and 1.55% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.11% of the population.

There were 9,676 households, out of which 24.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.4% were married couples living together, 11.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 40.4% were non-families. 34.7% of all households were made up of individuals, and 14.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.19 and the average family size was 2.81.

In the city, the population was spread out, with 19.8% under the age of 18, 10.2% from 18 to 24, 27.8% from 25 to 44, 24.1% from 45 to 64, and 18.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 89.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.0 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $32,941, and the median income for a family was $44,422. Males had a median income of $30,153 versus $22,079 for females. The per capita income for the city was $19,161. About 7.7% of families and 11.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.9% of those under age 18 and 10.7% of those age 65 or over.

Economy

Top employers

According to Staunton's 2015 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, [40] the top employers in the city are:

#Employer# of Employees
1 Western State Hospital 500-599
2Staunton City Schools500-599
3 Mary Baldwin University 250-499
4City of Staunton250-499
5 Walmart 250-499
6Fisher Auto Parts250-499
7Home Instead Senior Care100-249
8 Cadence, Inc. 100-300
9 VDOT 100-249
10 Virginia School for the Deaf and the Blind 100-249

Culture

The By & By Cafe and Beer Garden, with Blackfriars Playhouse and the Stonewall Jackson Hotel behind Coffee on the Corner building, Staunton, Virginia.jpg
The By & By Café and Beer Garden, with Blackfriars Playhouse and the Stonewall Jackson Hotel behind
The Masonic Building StauntonVA Masonicbuilding.jpg
The Masonic Building

Staunton is home to the American Shakespeare Center, a theatrical company centered at the Blackfriars Playhouse, a replica of Shakespeare's Blackfriars Theatre. In 2012, it also became the home of the Heifetz International Music Institute, named for renowned violinist Daniel Heifetz, a summer music school and festival dedicated to the artistic growth and career development of some of the World's most talented and promising classical musicians. The Woodrow Wilson Presidential Library is open for visitors, as well as the Museum of American Frontier Culture, which provides insight into life in early America.

The Staunton Music Festival – which celebrated its 20th year in 2017 – features multiple concerts each day, with programs of music from the Renaissance to the present. The festival takes place during the early part of August annually. All performances take place at historic venues in downtown Staunton. [41]

The Queen City Mischief and Magic festival - which celebrated its 4th year in 2019 - is a new but quickly-growing festival for Harry Potter fans, attracting over 10,000 people in its 3rd year. Visitors from all over the east coast come to take part in games, events, and shopping throughout downtown. Businesses contribute the activities for the festival and the majority of West Beverly St is shut down for the weekend event.

Staunton is also the center of numerous galleries and art schools, the widely regarded Beverley Street Studio School and its associated Co-Art Gallery. In addition, Staunton is home to the Hypnagogia Film Collective, a collection of avant-garde experimental filmmakers.

Staunton is home to the Statler Brothers, country music legends who until 1994 performed free concerts at the annual Fourth of July celebration, accompanied by other country music artists. Statler Brothers members Don Reid, Harold Reid, and Phil Balsley grew up in the city. Lew DeWitt was also a notable member of the Statlers who grew up in Staunton, VA.

Film

Downtown Staunton and Sherwood Avenue were used in the American Civil War film Gods and Generals . The local Shenandoah Valley Railroad as well as a number of nearby houses were used in filming of Hearts in Atlantis . In 1993, a portion of the Showtime production of Assault at West Point: The Court-Martial of Johnson Whittaker was filmed here. In the summer of 2006, some scenes for the movie Evan Almighty were also filmed in Staunton. Some scenes for Familiar Strangers were also filmed in Staunton in 2007. In 2013, scenes from the documentary film Rita Dove: An American Poet were filmed in and around Staunton's Temple House of Israel synagogue.

Attractions

Staunton is home to nearly 200 buildings designed by architect Thomas Jasper Collins (1844–1925), who worked in various styles during the Victorian era. [42] His firm, T. J. Collins & Sons, is still in business.

The city was once home to about ten hotels, but only one of them is still in operation - Hotel 24 South. This hotel was renovated in the early 2000s, and is now in operation as both a hotel and a conference center. The Ingleside Resort is no longer in operation. During World War II it was used by the INS as a detention center for enemy aliens held under Executive Order 9066. [43] Some of the hotels that are no longer in operation are The Virginia Hotel, the Eakleton Hotel, the Valley Hotel, the American Hotel and the Hotel Beverley. All of these buildings are still standing except for the Virginia Hotel, which was demolished in 1930 to make way for a planned addition to the Stonewall Jackson Hotel which was never built. The New Street Parking Garage now stands on the site.

National Register of Historic Places

Houses in Staunton on the National Register of Historic Places include:

Parks and recreation

Sports

In 1894, Staunton fielded a baseball team in the original Virginia League: The Staunton Hayseeds. [54] In 1914, the city fielded a team in the Virginia Mountain League: The Staunton Lunatics. [54] The Lunatics moved to Harrisonburg in July 1914, just before the league disbanded.[ citation needed ] From 1939 to 1942, the city fielded a team in the second Virginia League: the Staunton Presidents. [54] Staunton currently has no minor league baseball, but the Staunton Braves represent the city in the Valley Baseball League, a collegiate summer baseball league that plays in the Shenandoah Valley.

Infrastructure

Transportation

Roads and highways

US 11 in Staunton 2016-05-19 17 21 59 View north along Commerce Road (U.S. Route 11) just north of Woodrow Wilson Parkway (Virginia State Route 262) in Staunton, Virginia.jpg
US 11 in Staunton

The main highways through Staunton include U.S. Route 11, U.S. Route 11 Business, U.S. Route 250, Virginia State Route 252, Virginia State Route 254, Virginia State Route 261 and Virginia State Route 262. U.S. Route 11 and U.S. Route 250 are the most prominent roads passing directly through Staunton, with US 11 following a northeast to southwest alignment (but signed north–south), and US 250 following a northwest to southeast alignment (but signed east–west). US 11 Business follows a slower route through downtown compared to the main US 11 routing which passes just outside downtown. State Routes 252 and 254 are minor roads leading to nearby rural areas of adjacent Augusta County. State Route 261 provides a better route for trucks following US 11 and US 250 through the city. State Route 262 forms a limited access beltway around the outskirts of Staunton. Interstate 64 and Interstate 81 both pass just outside the city limits and provide the main high-speed, high-volume roads to the Staunton region.

Public transportation

Staunton Amtrak station Staunton Amtrak station.jpg
Staunton Amtrak station

Staunton is served by Amtrak's Cardinal . The train station, which is located downtown, is the closest station to the nearby cities of Harrisonburg and Lexington. The Buckingham Branch also has a small railyard.

Staunton had a municipal bus system during the 20th century, known as the Staunton Transit Service, but it was dissolved in 1989. [55] In 1944, World War II veteran S. Melvin Johnson wrote to Truman Gibson, assistant to William H. Hastie, advisor to Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson, regarding segregated seating on the Staunton Transit Service and stating that returning African-American soldiers would not stand for such conditions. [56] This letter was an indication of the role that African-American veterans would later play in the American civil rights movement. In 1946, after the United States Supreme Court decision Irene Morgan v. Commonwealth of Virginia , which found that Virginia's segregated seating law was unconstitutional with respect to interstate bus routes, Ethel New, a black woman from Lynch, Kentucky, was arrested for violating the law because she had purchased an intrastate ticket. [57] New suffered a miscarriage subsequent to her arrest and sued Greyhound Lines and the arresting officer in Staunton. [57] In September 1947, meeting in Staunton, the Virginia Supreme Court of Appeals upheld the all-white jury's verdict exonerating both the bus line and the officer. [57]

Blue Ridge Intercity Transit Express (BRITE) provides fixed-route transit bus service in Staunton on three routes: the Downtown Trolley, West Route, and North Route. [58] The Coordinated Area Transportation Services (CATS) operates a demand-response service throughout the Staunton area, as well as a fixed shuttle service between the downtown areas of Staunton and Waynesboro. [59] Virginia Breeze provides intercity bus service between Blacksburg and Washington, with a stop in Staunton. [60]

The city is adjacent to the northernmost junction of I-81 and I-64. Virginia State Route 262 forms a partial beltway around the city, and both US 250 and US 11 pass through the city.

The nearest commercial airport is Shenandoah Valley Regional Airport in Weyers Cave, Virginia.

Healthcare

Education

Staunton High School Robert E. Lee High School, Staunton, VA.jpg
Staunton High School

Staunton City Schools is the school district of the city. [61]

Black Virginians were largely barred from education until Reconstruction. [62] The first school in Staunton which allowed African-Americans to attend was established by the Freedmen's Bureau under the supervision of the commanding general of the occupying Union army in late 1865. Arrangements were made to bring in women from the North as teachers, and the jury rooms of the Augusta County Courthouse, located at 1 E. Johnson Street, were to be used as classrooms. The court protested this plan, however, and it is possible that another location was found. [63]

In 1964 the Staunton chapter of the NAACP threatened the city with a lawsuit if they did not immediately desegregate the public schools. [64] The City School Board, headed by Thomas W. Dixon, declined to take further action, contending that the schools were already desegregated as ten black children had been allowed to attend previously all-white schools. [64] Attorneys for the city of Staunton submitted a plan for the desegregation of its public schools in 1965 by eliminating all negro schools in time for the 1967–1968 school year, which was approved by the Department of Health, Education and Welfare. However, the implementation of this plan was delayed to such an extent that a group of African-American parents brought suit in the United States District Court for the Western District of Virginia against the city. This case, Bell v. School Board of Staunton, was decided on January 5, 1966, with the court stating that the delay was a violation of the rights of the students under the Fourteenth Amendment and ordering that the schools and their faculty be desegregated in time for the 1966–1967 school year. [50]

The Staunton city school district was one of 21 in Virginia which take elementary school students out of class for Bible lessons on a voluntary basis, a practice known as Weekday Religious Education. [65] Although the U.S. Supreme Court ended taxpayer-funded religious education in 1948 in McCollum v. Board of Education , four years later they opened the door to privately funded voluntary classes held during school hours but away from school premises in Zorach v. Clauson . In 2005, a group of parents in Staunton asked the school board to halt the practice. [66] The challenge was successful, and the Bible classes are no longer being taught as of April 2017. [65]

Public

District schools:

State-operated:

Private

Former:

Media

Notable people

President Woodrow Wilson Thomas Woodrow Wilson.jpg
President Woodrow Wilson

See also

Related Research Articles

Waynesboro, Virginia Independent city in Virginia, United States

Waynesboro is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia. As of the 2020 census, the population was 22,196.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Virginia Beach, Virginia</span> Most populous city in Virginia

Virginia Beach is an independent city located on the southeastern coast of the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States. The population was 459,470 as of the 2020 census. Although mostly suburban in character, it is the most populous city in Virginia, fifth-most populous city in the Mid-Atlantic, ninth-most populous city in the Southeast and the 43rd-most populous city in the nation. Located on the Atlantic Ocean at the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay, Virginia Beach is the largest city in the Hampton Roads metropolitan area. This area, known as "America's First Region", also includes the independent cities of Chesapeake, Hampton, Newport News, Norfolk, Portsmouth, and Suffolk, as well as other smaller cities, counties, and towns of Hampton Roads.

Rockingham County, Virginia County in Virginia, United States

Rockingham County is a county located in the U.S. state of Virginia. As of the 2020 census, the population was 83,757. Its county seat is the independent city of Harrisonburg.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Prince William County, Virginia</span> County in Virginia, United States

Prince William County is located on the Potomac River in the U.S. state of Virginia. As of the 2020 census, the population sits at 482,204, making it Virginia's second-most populous county. Its county seat is the independent city of Manassas.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Manassas, Virginia</span> Independent city in Virginia, United States

Manassas (;), formerly Manassas Junction, is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia, United States. The population was 42,772 at the 2020 Census. The city borders Prince William County, and the independent city of Manassas Park, Virginia. The Bureau of Economic Analysis includes both Manassas and Manassas Park with Prince William County for statistical purposes.

Highland County, Virginia County in Virginia, United States

Highland County is a county located in the Commonwealth of Virginia. As of the 2020 census, the population was 2,232. Its county seat is Monterey. Known as "Virginia's Switzerland" or "Virginia's Little Switzerland", Highland County is the least populous jurisdiction in Virginia, including counties and independent cities. Highland lays claim to being one of the least populous counties and one of the highest average elevations east of the Mississippi River.

Harrisonburg, Virginia Independent city in Virginia, United States

Harrisonburg is an independent city in the Shenandoah Valley region of the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States. It is also the county seat of the surrounding Rockingham County, although the two are separate jurisdictions. As of the 2020 census, the population was 51,814. The Bureau of Economic Analysis combines the city of Harrisonburg with Rockingham County for statistical purposes into the Harrisonburg, Virginia Metropolitan Statistical Area, which has a 2011 estimated population of 126,562.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Fairfax, Virginia</span> Independent city in Virginia, United States

The City of Fairfax, colloquially known as Fairfax City, Downtown Fairfax, Old Town Fairfax, Fairfax Courthouse, or simply Fairfax, is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States. As of the 2010 census the population was 22,565, which had risen to 24,146 at the 2020 Census.

Charlottesville, Virginia Independent city in Virginia, United States

Charlottesville, colloquially known as C'ville, is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia. It is the county seat of Albemarle County, which surrounds the city, though the two are separate legal entities. It is named after Queen Charlotte. As of the 2020 census, the population was 46,553. The Bureau of Economic Analysis combines the City of Charlottesville with Albemarle County for statistical purposes, bringing its population to approximately 150,000. Charlottesville is the heart of the Charlottesville metropolitan area, which includes Albemarle, Buckingham, Fluvanna, Greene, and Nelson counties.

Augusta County, Virginia County in Virginia, United States

Augusta County is a county in the Shenandoah Valley on the western edge of the Commonwealth of Virginia. The second-largest county of Virginia by total area, it completely surrounds the independent cities of Staunton and Waynesboro. Its county seat is Staunton, but most of the administrative services have offices in neighboring Verona.

Craigsville, Virginia Town in Virginia, United States

Craigsville is a town in Augusta County, Virginia, United States. The population was 923 at the 2010 census. It is part of the Staunton–Waynesboro Micropolitan Statistical Area.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Culpeper, Virginia</span> Town in Virginia, United States

Culpeper is an incorporated town in Culpeper County, Virginia, United States. The population was 20,062 at the 2020 census, up from 16,379 at the 2010 census. It is the county seat of Culpeper County.

Bridgewater, Virginia Town in Virginia, United States

Bridgewater is an incorporated town in Rockingham County, Virginia, United States. The population was 5,644 at the 2010 census. It is included in the Harrisonburg, Virginia Metropolitan Statistical Area.

Sterling, Virginia Census-designated place in Virginia

Sterling, Virginia refers most specifically to a census-designated place (CDP) in Loudoun County, Virginia, United States. The population of the CDP as of the 2010 United States Census was 27,822. The CDP boundaries are confined to a relatively small area between Virginia State Route 28 on the west and Virginia State Route 7 on the northeast, excluding areas near SR 606 and the Dulles Town Center.

Virginia State Route 254

State Route 254 is a primary state highway in the U.S. state of Virginia. The state highway runs 25.01 miles (40.25 km) from SR 42 near Buffalo Gap east to U.S. Route 340 in Waynesboro. SR 254 provides a northerly alternate route to US 250 between Waynesboro and Staunton, where the highway provides access to the Woodrow Wilson Presidential Library.

Virginia State Route 261

State Route 261 is a primary state highway in the U.S. state of Virginia. Known as Statler Boulevard, the state highway runs 2.21 miles (3.56 km) from U.S. Route 11 north to Coalter Street within the independent city of Staunton. SR 261 is an unsigned four-lane divided highway that provides an eastern truck bypass of downtown Staunton. The state highway is marked along much of its route as U.S. Route 11 Truck and US 250 Truck.

George M. Cochran American judge

George Moffett Cochran IV was a Virginia lawyer, banker and legislator who later served as a justice of the Virginia Supreme Court. Cochran served part-time representing Staunton, Virginia in the Virginia General Assembly for nearly two decades, first as a delegate, then briefly as state senator. His opposition to the Byrd Organization's policy of Massive Resistance helped integrate Virginia's schools.

The Commonwealth Center for Children and Adolescents, formerly known as The DeJarnette Center for Human Development, is a children's mental hospital located in the city of Staunton, Virginia, in the United States.

Gypsy Hill Park is a recreational park situated in the center of Staunton, Virginia, United States, where Churchville Avenue and Thornrose Avenue intersect. The park contains various public services and attractions, including football and baseball fields, the Thomas D. Howie Memorial National Guard Armory, a large bandstand pavilion, a golf course, a basketball court, a gym, and the central duck pond equipped with food dispensers, allowing visitors to feed the ducks and fish. Throughout the park are picnic tables, grills and covered pavilions. Constitution Drive, an almost 1+12-mile-long (2.4 km) road, runs through the park and is often used as a walking and bike path.

References

  1. "2019 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved August 7, 2020.
  2. "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on December 27, 1996. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
  3. "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. October 25, 2007. Archived from the original on February 12, 2012. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
  4. "QuickFacts Staunton city, Virginia".
  5. "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on June 26, 2015. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
  6. "Chapter 3: From the First Court to the First Indian War - Page 52, Waddell's Annals of Augusta County, Virginia, from 1726 to 1871". Roanetnhistory.org. Retrieved June 14, 2009.
  7. Room, Adrian (1989). Dictionary of World Place Names Derived from British Names. Taylor & Francis. p. 168. ISBN   978-0-415-02811-0. Archived from the original on January 18, 2016. Retrieved November 26, 2015.
  8. "Augusta County, VA : History". Co.augusta.va.us. Archived from the original on June 27, 2014. Retrieved June 14, 2009.
  9. Gordon S. Wood (2002). The American Revolution: a history . Modern Library. p.  13. ISBN   0-679-64057-6.
  10. "Wanted: Experienced Cook, World Traveler, Runaway Slave". The History Engine at the University of Richmond. Archived from the original on October 8, 2011. Retrieved August 2, 2011.
  11. "The President in Staunton, Va". New York Daily Times (reprinted from the Staunton Vindicator). August 22, 1855. p. 1.
  12. 1 2 "Staunton During the Civil War". Encyclopedia Virginia. Archived from the original on September 3, 2011. Retrieved August 17, 2011.
  13. "The Sensible Negro". Valley of the Shadow: Civil War-Era Newspapers. Valley of the Shadow. Archived from the original on February 23, 2016. Retrieved March 11, 2016.
  14. Fritz Umbach. "A Disunited South: Augusta and its Pro-Unionists". Archived from the original on October 4, 2011. Retrieved August 2, 2011.
  15. "How to Vote". The Staunton Spectator. September 11, 1860. Archived from the original on October 8, 2011. Retrieved August 2, 2011.
  16. "Desperate Negro Woman". The Staunton Vindicator. 1861. Archived from the original on September 25, 2011. Retrieved August 2, 2011.
  17. "The Vote for Secession in Virginia". New York Times. June 1, 1861. p. 8.
  18. "From General Hunter, Capture of Staunton, Virginia". The Daily Age. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. June 13, 1864. p. 1.
  19. "Virginia: Individual County and Independent City Chronologies". Archived from the original on August 31, 2006. Retrieved December 26, 2006.
  20. 1 2 3 "The HooK: On architecture - Historic treatment: Staunton commits to Western State". Readthehook.com. February 2, 2006. Archived from the original on April 15, 2009. Retrieved June 14, 2009.
  21. HOUSE JOINT RESOLUTION NO. 607 (HJ607ER), "Expressing the General Assembly's regret for Virginia's experience with eugenics", Virginia Legislative Information System Archived July 9, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  22. Amanda Brocato (2008). "The Campaign for Eugenics in Virginia: The Influence of Dr. J.S. DeJarnette". Augusta Historical Bulletin: 105–117.
  23. "Eugenics in Virginia". Claude Moore Health Sciences Library, University of Virginia. Archived from the original on August 10, 2011. Retrieved July 31, 2011.
  24. "Virginia HB1943/SB1015". Archived from the original on October 18, 2012. Retrieved July 30, 2011.
  25. "A Guide to the Records of Western State Hospital, 1825-2000". Archived from the original on April 15, 2014. Retrieved April 14, 2014.
  26. "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. February 12, 2011. Archived from the original on August 24, 2019. Retrieved April 23, 2011.
  27. "Staunton, Virginia Köppen Climate Classification (Weatherbase)". Archived from the original on January 9, 2017. Retrieved July 3, 2016.
  28. "NowData – NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved July 3, 2021.
  29. "Station: Staunton WTP, VA". U.S. Climate Normals 2020: U.S. Monthly Climate Normals (1991-2020). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved July 3, 2021.
  30. David Leip. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". Uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved December 8, 2020.
  31. Todd Donovan; Daniel A. Smith & Christopher Z. Mooney (2010). State & Local Politics: Institutions & Reform: The Essentials . Cengage. p.  265. ISBN   978-0-495-56789-9. (available on Google books) Archived January 18, 2016, at the Wayback Machine
  32. "Economic Development". City of Staunton. Archived from the original on September 12, 2011. Retrieved August 17, 2011.
  33. "Census of Population and Housing from 1790-2000". US Census Bureau . Retrieved January 24, 2022.
  34. "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Archived from the original on August 11, 2012. Retrieved January 6, 2014.
  35. "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on December 15, 2013. Retrieved January 6, 2014.
  36. "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Archived (PDF) from the original on December 18, 2014. Retrieved January 6, 2014.
  37. 1 2 "P2 HISPANIC OR LATINO, AND NOT HISPANIC OR LATINO BY RACE - 2010: DEC Redistricting Data (PL 94-171) - Staunton city, Virginia". United States Census Bureau .
  38. 1 2 "P2 HISPANIC OR LATINO, AND NOT HISPANIC OR LATINO BY RACE - 2020: DEC Redistricting Data (PL 94-171) - Staunton city, Virginia". United States Census Bureau .
  39. "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on December 27, 1996. Retrieved May 14, 2011.
  40. "City of Staunton Comprehensive Annual Financial Report". Archived from the original on September 14, 2016. Retrieved August 31, 2016.
  41. "Staunton Music Festival | Rethink Classical". Archived from the original on April 29, 2017. Retrieved April 27, 2017.
  42. "Eye candy: Staunton cures visual blues". The Hook. January 5, 2006. Archived from the original on May 21, 2006. Retrieved December 13, 2006.
  43. Tetsuden Kashima (2004). Judgment without Trial: Japanese American Imprisonment during World War II. University of Washington Press. p.  264. ISBN   0-295-98451-1.
  44. Keith Jones (July 12, 2008). "Staunton's Other Park". WHSV-TV. Archived from the original on March 22, 2012. Retrieved August 17, 2011.
  45. Chris Graham (July 10, 2008). "The true story of 'Staunton's Other Park'". Augusta Free Press. Archived from the original on November 5, 2013. Retrieved August 17, 2011.
  46. "PDGA Disc Golf Course Details | Professional Disc Golf Association". Pdga.com. Retrieved June 14, 2009.
  47. William Ramsey (July 17, 2016). "New pool at Montgomery Hall draws swimmers". The Staunton News Leader. Retrieved May 13, 2019.
  48. "Area Overview: History -- African-Americans". The Staunton News Leader. Retrieved August 17, 2011.
  49. "Montgomery Hall Park entry on Staunton City website". Archived from the original on October 3, 2011. Retrieved July 31, 2011.
  50. 1 2 "Bell v. School Board of Staunton at findacase". Archived from the original on March 28, 2012. Retrieved July 30, 2011.
  51. "Nelson Street Teen Center". City of Staunton. Archived from the original on October 3, 2011. Retrieved August 14, 2011.
  52. 1 2 3 4 "Small Parks | City of Staunton". www.ci.staunton.va.us. Archived from the original on September 29, 2019. Retrieved December 2, 2019.
  53. "Woodrow Park". Archived from the original on September 29, 2019.
  54. 1 2 3 "Staunton, Virginia Minor League City Encyclopedia". Archived from the original on October 6, 2011. Retrieved August 3, 2011.
  55. "1973 GMC TDH3302 Staunton Transit at Commonwealth Coach and Trolley". Archived from the original on May 14, 2011. Retrieved July 31, 2011.
  56. Letter from S. Melvin Johnson to Truman Gibson, collected in Subject Files of Judge William H. Hastie, Civilian Aide to the Secretary of War, "N" through "Z". National Archives, College Park, Maryland.
  57. 1 2 3 "Must Occupy Back Seat, VA Supreme Court says". The Afro American. September 6, 1947. Archived from the original on December 8, 2015. Retrieved November 26, 2015.
  58. "BRITE Bus Transit Services". Archived from the original on December 13, 2017. Retrieved December 12, 2017.
  59. "Staunton VA". Archived from the original on July 3, 2014. Retrieved July 3, 2016.
  60. "The Virginia Breeze: Bus from Blacksburg to Washington, DC". The Virginia Breeze: Bus from Blacksburg to Washington, DC | DRPT. Archived from the original on March 21, 2020. Retrieved January 20, 2020.
  61. "2020 CENSUS - SCHOOL DISTRICT REFERENCE MAP: Staunton city, VA" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau . Retrieved August 1, 2022. - Text list
  62. "Beginnings of Black Education". Virginia State Historical Society. 2004. Archived from the original on July 21, 2009. Retrieved August 5, 2011.
  63. "Freedmen's School". Staunton Spectator. October 31, 1865. p. 3. Archived from the original on October 8, 2011. Retrieved August 5, 2011.
  64. 1 2 "Staunton Keeps Pupil System, Faces Suit". The Free Lance-Star. May 12, 1964. Archived from the original on December 8, 2015. Retrieved November 26, 2015.
  65. 1 2 Bob Stuart (June 16, 2013). "Donations needed to keep Religious Ed program operating". The News-Virginian.
  66. Carol Morello (January 23, 2005). "Bible Breaks at Public Schools Face Challenges in Rural Virginia". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on February 18, 2011. Retrieved July 31, 2011.
  67. "News Leader web site" . Retrieved August 5, 2011.
  68. "A. Caperton Braxton (1862–1914)". Encyclopedia of Virginia. Archived from the original on December 28, 2011. Retrieved August 19, 2011.
  69. "A. C. Gordon Jr. Dies; Virginia Professor". New York Times. May 14, 1953. p. 29.
  70. "Henry W. Holt Dies; A Virginia Jurist, 83". New York Times. October 5, 1947. p. 68.
  71. Bill McKelway (May 10, 1995). "Right Rebellious - Guru Wages a War of Words on Conservatism's Fringe". Richmond Times-Dispatch.
  72. "Wilton B. Persons is Dead at 81; Chief Assistant to Eisenhower". New York Times. September 6, 1977. p. 42.