Stella Adler

Last updated

Stella Adler
Stella Adler in Shadow of The Thin Man trailer.jpg
Adler in a trailer for the 1941 film Shadow of the Thin Man.
Born(1901-02-10)February 10, 1901
DiedDecember 21, 1992(1992-12-21) (aged 91)
Resting place Mount Carmel Cemetery, Queens
Alma mater New York University
OccupationActress
Years active1919–1952
Spouse(s)
Children1

Stella Adler (February 10, 1901 – December 21, 1992) [1] was an American actress and acting teacher. [2] She founded the Stella Adler Studio of Acting in New York City in 1949. [3] Later in life she taught part time in Los Angeles, with the assistance of protégée, actress Joanne Linville [4] , who continues to teach Adler's technique. [5] [6] Her grandson Tom Oppenheim now runs the school in New York City, [2] which has produced alumni such as Marlon Brando, Robert De Niro, Harvey Keitel, Elaine Stritch, Kate Mulgrew, Kipp Hamilton, and Jenny Lumet. [7]

Stella Adler Studio of Acting

The Stella Adler Studio of Acting is a prestigious acting school that was founded by actress and teacher Stella Adler. The Stella Adler Studio of Acting has two locations: its original New York City conservatory, founded in 1949, and the Art of Acting Studio in Los Angeles. The Stella Adler Studio of Acting is not affiliated with the Stella Adler Conservatory, established in Los Angeles in 1985.

Joanne Linville actress

Beverly Joanne Linville is a retired American film and television actress. Linville and actress Irene Gilbert co-founded the Stella Adler Academy in Los Angeles in 1985.

Marlon Brando American actor, film director, and activist

Marlon Brando Jr. was an American actor and film director. With a career spanning 60 years, he is well-regarded for his cultural influence on 20th-century film. Brando's Academy Award-winning performances include that of Terry Malloy in On the Waterfront (1954) and Don Vito Corleone in The Godfather (1972). Brando was an activist for many causes, notably the civil rights movement and various Native American movements. He is credited with helping to popularize the Stanislavski system of acting, having studied with Stella Adler in the 1940s. He is often regarded as one of the first actors to bring Method Acting to mainstream audiences.

Contents

Irene Gilbert, a longtime protégée and friend, ran the Stella Adler Studio of Acting in Los Angeles, until her death. [4] [8] The Los Angeles school continues to function as an acting studio and houses several theaters. Alumni of the Stella Adler-Los Angeles school include Mark Ruffalo, Benicio del Toro, Brion James, Salma Hayek, Clifton Collins Jr., and Sean Astin.

Irene Gilbert was a German-born American actress and acting school director, who co-founded the Stella Adler Academy in Los Angeles, with actress Joanne Linville, in 1985. She served as the academy's director for around two decades after the its establishment.

Mark Ruffalo American actor

Mark Ruffalo is an American actor and producer. He began acting in the early 1990s and first gained recognition for his work in Kenneth Lonergan's play This Is Our Youth (1998) and drama film You Can Count On Me (2000). He went on to star in the romantic comedies 13 Going on 30 (2004) and Just like Heaven (2005) and the thrillers Zodiac (2007) and Shutter Island (2010). He gained wider recognition for his role as Bruce Banner / Hulk in the Marvel Cinematic Universe superhero films, including The Avengers (2012), Avengers: Age of Ultron (2015), Thor: Ragnarok (2017), Avengers: Infinity War (2018), and Avengers: Endgame (2019).

Benicio del Toro Puerto Rican actor and film producer

Benicio Monserrate Rafael del Toro Sánchez is a Puerto Rican actor who won an Academy Award, BAFTA Award, Golden Globe Award and Screen Actors Guild Award for his portrayal of the jaded but morally upright police officer Javier Rodriguez in the film Traffic (2000). Del Toro's performance as ex-con turned religious fanatic in despair, Jack Jordan, in Alejandro González Iñárritu's 21 Grams (2003) earned him a second Academy Award nomination for Best Supporting Actor, as well as a second Screen Actors Guild Awards nomination and a BAFTA Awards nomination for Best Actor in a Leading Role.

Early life

Stella Adler was born in the Lower East Side of New York City. [9] She was the youngest daughter of Sara and Jacob P. Adler, [2] the sister of Luther and Jay Adler, and half-sister of Charles Adler and Celia Adler, star of the Yiddish Theater. All five of her siblings were actors. The Adlers comprised the Jewish American Adler acting dynasty, which had its start in the Yiddish Theater District and was a significant part of the vibrant ethnic theatrical scene that thrived in New York from the late 19th century to the 1950s. Adler became the most famous and influential member of her family. She began acting at the age of four as a part of the Independent Yiddish Art Company of her parents.

Lower East Side Neighborhood of Manhattan in New York City

The Lower East Side, sometimes abbreviated as LES, is a neighborhood in the southeastern part of the New York City borough of Manhattan, roughly located between the Bowery and the East River, and Canal Street and Houston Street. Traditionally an immigrant, working class neighborhood, it began rapid gentrification in the mid-2000s, prompting the National Trust for Historic Preservation to place the neighborhood on their list of America's Most Endangered Places.

New York City Largest city in the United States

The City of New York, usually called either New York City (NYC) or simply New York (NY), is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2018 population of 8,398,748 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles (784 km2), New York is also the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 19,979,477 people in its 2018 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 22,679,948 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural, financial, and media capital of the world, and exerts a significant impact upon commerce, entertainment, research, technology, education, politics, tourism, art, fashion, and sports. The city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.

Sara Adler was a Russian-born Jewish actress in Yiddish theater who made her career mainly in the United States.

Career

Adler began her acting career at the age of four in the play Broken Hearts at the Grand Street Theatre on the Lower East Side, as a part of her parents' Independent Yiddish Art Company. [5] [10] She grew up acting alongside her parents, often playing roles of boys and girls. Her work schedule allowed little time for schooling, but when possible, she studied at public schools and New York University. She made her London debut, at the age of 18, as Naomi in Elisa Ben Avia with her father's company, in which she appeared for a year before returning to New York. In London, she met her first husband, Englishman Horace Eliashcheff; their brief marriage, however, ended in a divorce.

New York University private research university in New York, NY, United States

New York University (NYU) is a private research university based in New York City. Founded in 1831, NYU's historical campus is in Greenwich Village, Lower Manhattan. NYU also has degree-granting campuses in Abu Dhabi and Shanghai, and academic centers in Accra, Berlin, Buenos Aires, Florence, London, Los Angeles, Madrid, Paris, Prague, Sydney, Tel Aviv, and Washington, D.C.

Adler made her English-language debut on Broadway in 1922 as the Butterfly in The World We Live In, and she spent a season in the vaudeville circuit. In 1922–23, the renowned Russian actor-director Konstantin Stanislavski made his only U.S. tour with his Moscow Art Theatre. Adler and many others saw these performances, which had a powerful and lasting impact on her career and the 20th-century American theatre. [9] She joined the American Laboratory Theatre in 1925; there, she was introduced to Stanislavski's theories, from founders and Russian actor-teachers and former members of the Moscow Art TheaterRichard Boleslavsky and Maria Ouspenskaya. In 1931, with Sanford Meisner and Elia Kazan, among others, she joined the Group Theatre, New York, founded by Harold Clurman, Lee Strasberg, and Cheryl Crawford, through theater director and critic, Clurman, whom she later married in 1943. With Group Theatre, she worked in plays such as Success Story by John Howard Lawson, two Clifford Odets plays, Awake and Sing! and Paradise Lost , and directed the touring company of Odets's Golden Boy and More to Give to People. Members of Group Theatre were leading interpreters of the method acting technique based on the work and writings of Stanislavski.

Vaudeville genre of variety entertainment in the United States and Canada from the early 1880s until the early 1930s

Vaudeville is a theatrical genre of variety entertainment born in France at the end of the 18th century. A vaudeville was originally a comedy without psychological or moral intentions, based on a comical situation: a kind of dramatic composition or light poetry, interspersed with songs or ballets. It became popular in the United States and Canada from the early 1880s until the early 1930s, but the idea of vaudeville's theatre changed radically from its French antecedent.

Russians are an East Slavic ethnic group and nation native to European Russia and other parts of Eastern Europe, the most numerous ethnic group in Europe. The majority of ethnic Russians live in the Russian Federation, notable minorities exist in other former Soviet states such as Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Ukraine and the Baltic states. A large Russian diaspora also exists all over the world, with notable numbers in the United States, Germany, Brazil, and Canada. The culture of the ethnic Russian people has a long tradition and it is a foundation for the modern culture of the whole of Russia. The Russian language originally was the language of ethnic Russians. They are historically Orthodox Christians by religion.

Konstantin Stanislavski Russian and Soviet actor and theatre director

Konstantin Sergeievich Stanislavski was a seminal Russian theatre practitioner. He was widely recognised as an outstanding character actor and the many productions that he directed garnered him a reputation as one of the leading theatre directors of his generation. His principal fame and influence, however, rests on his 'system' of actor training, preparation, and rehearsal technique.

In 1934, Adler went to Paris with Harold Clurman and studied intensively with Stanislavski for five weeks. During this period, she learned that Stanislavski had revised his theories, emphasizing that the actor should create by imagination rather than memory. Upon her return, she broke away from Strasberg on the fundamental aspects of method acting. [11]

In January 1937, Adler moved to Hollywood. There, she acted in films for six years under the name Stella Ardler, occasionally returning to the Group Theater until it dissolved in 1941. Eventually, she returned to New York to act, direct, and teach, the latter first at Erwin Piscator's Dramatic Workshop at the New School for Social Research, New York City, [12] before founding Stella Adler Studio of Acting in 1949. In the following years, she taught Marlon Brando, Judy Garland, Elizabeth Taylor, Dolores del Río, Lena Horne, Robert De Niro, Elaine Stritch, Martin Sheen, Manu Tupou, Harvey Keitel, Melanie Griffith, Peter Bogdanovich, and Warren Beatty, among others, the principles of characterization and script analysis. She also taught at the New School, [13] and the Yale School of Drama. For many years, Adler led the undergraduate drama department at New York University, [5] [14] and became one of America's leading acting teachers. [11]

Stella Adler was much more than a teacher of acting. Through her work she imparts the most valuable kind of information—how to discover the nature of our own emotional mechanics and therefore those of others. She never lent herself to vulgar exploitations, as some other well-known so-called "methods" of acting have done. As a result, her contributions to the theatrical culture have remained largely unknown, unrecognized, and unappreciated. [15]

—Marlon Brando

In 1988, she published The Technique of Acting with a foreword by Marlon Brando. [13] From 1926 until 1952, she appeared regularly on Broadway. Her later stage roles include the 1946 revival of He Who Gets Slapped and an eccentric mother in the 1961 black comedy Oh Dad, Poor Dad, Mama's Hung You in the Closet and I'm Feelin' So Sad. Among the plays she directed was a 1956 revival of the Paul Green/Kurt Weill antiwar musical Johnny Johnson. [16] She appeared in only three films: Love on Toast (1937), Shadow of the Thin Man (1941), and My Girl Tisa (1948). She concluded her acting career in 1961, after 55 years. During that time, and for years after, she became a renowned acting teacher. [10]

Stanislavski and the method

Adler was the only member of the Group Theatre to study with Konstantin Stanislavski. [15] [17] She was a prominent member of the Group Theatre, but differences with Lee Strasberg over the Stanislavski's system (later developed by Strasberg into method acting) made her leave the group. [17] She once said: "Drawing on the emotions I experienced — for example, when my mother died — to create a role is sick and schizophrenic. If that is acting, I don't want to do it."

Adler met with Stanislavski again later in his career and questioned him on Strasberg's interpretation. He told her that he had abandoned emotional memory, which had been Strasberg's dominant paradigm, but that they both believed that actors did not have what is required to play a variety of roles already instilled inside them, and that extensive research was needed to understand the experiences of characters who have different values originating from different cultures.

Like Stanislavski, Adler understood the "gold hidden" inside the circumstances of the text. Actors should stimulate emotional experience by imagining the scene's "given circumstances," rather than recalling experiences from their own lives. She also understood that 50% of the actors job is internal (imagination, emotion, action, will) and 50% is externals (characterization, way of walking, voice, fencing, sports). To find what works for the character, the actors must study the circumstances of the text and make their choices based on what one gets from the material.

For instance, if a character talks about horse riding, one needs to know something about horse riding as an actor, otherwise one will be faking. More importantly, one must study the values of different people to understand what situations would have meant to people, when those situations might mean nothing in the actor's own culture. Without this work, Adler said that an actor walks onto the stage "naked". This approach is one for which both Marlon Brando and Robert De Niro became famous.

Adler also trained actors' sensory imagination to help make the characters' experiences more vivid. She believed that mastery of the physical and vocal aspects of acting was necessary for the actor to command the stage, and that all body language should be carefully crafted and voices need to be clear and expressive. She often referred to this as an actor's "size" or "worthiness of the stage". Her biggest mantra was perhaps "in your choices lies your talent", and she encouraged actors to find the most grand character interpretation possible in a scene; another favorite phrase of hers regarding this was "don't be boring".

Singer-songwriter Janis Ian studied under Adler in the early 1980s to help her feel more comfortable on stage, and the two women remained close friends until Adler's death. In her autobiography Society's Child (2008), Ian recalled that Adler had little patience for students who weren't progressing as she wanted, going so far on one occasion as to give one of her students a dime and tell her to call her mother to pick her up because "she had no business in the theater." On another occasion, Ian relates, Adler forcibly ripped a dress off another actress's body to get the actress to play a scene a different way.

Devo Cutler-Rubenstein credits Stella Adler for inspiring her that a character is made real through one's imagination. She cites a story when she studied with Stella Adler who slowly peeled her bra off under her clothes, while lecturing about Tennessee Williams in Los Angeles, "You listened to me, didn't you, because you were fascinated with what I was doing with my bra?" Devo says Stella insisted on the truth living in our imagination and that was "unending pool of information and research to be accessed."

Personal life

Adler was related to Jerry Adler, an actor and theatre director. [18]

Adler married three times, first to Horace Eliascheff, the father of her only child Ellen, then from 1943 to 1960 to director and critic Harold Clurman, one of the founders of the Group Theatre. She was finally married to physicist and novelist Mitchell A. Wilson, who died in 1973. From 1938 to 1946, she was sister-in-law to actress Sylvia Sidney. Sidney was married to her brother Luther at the time and provided Stella with a nephew. Even after Sidney and Luther divorced, she and Sylvia remained close friends.

Death

On December 21, 1992, Adler died from heart failure at the age of 91 in Los Angeles. She was survived by her daughter Ellen, her sister Julia, and two grandchildren, including Tom Oppenheim, current president and artistic director of the Stella Adler Studio of Acting in New York. [2] She was interred in the Mount Carmel Cemetery in Glendale, New York.

Legacy

Adler's technique, based on a balanced and pragmatic combination of imagination and memory, is hugely credited with introducing the subtle and insightful details and a deep physical embodiment of a character. [19] Elaine Stritch once said: "What an extraordinary combination was Stella Adler—a goddess full of magic and mystery, a child full of innocence and vulnerability." [19] In the book Acting: Onstage and Off, Robert Barton wrote: "[Adler] established the value of the actor putting himself in the place of the character rather than vice versa ... More than anyone else, Stella Adler brought into public awareness all the close careful attention to text and analysis Stanislavski endorsed." [19]

In 1991, Stella Adler was inducted into the American Theater Hall of Fame. [20]

In 2004, the Harry Ransom Center at the University of Texas at Austin acquired Adler's complete archive along with a small collection of her papers from her former husband Harold Clurman. The collection includes correspondence, manuscripts, typescripts, lecture notes, photographs, and other materials. [21] Over 1,100 audio and video recordings of Adler teaching from the 1960s to the 1980s have been digitized by the Center and are accessible on site. The archive traces her career from her start in the New York Yiddish Theater District to her encounters with Stanislavski and the Group Theatre to her lectures at the Stella Adler Studio of Acting. [22]

In 2006, she was honored with a posthumous star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame in front of the Stella Adler Theatre at 6773 Hollywood Boulevard. [23]

Stella Adler schools

The acting schools Adler founded still operate today in New York City and Los Angeles. Her method, based on use of the actor's imagination, has been studied by actors such as Robert De Niro, Elaine Stritch, Martin Sheen, Diana Muldaur, Dolores del Rio, Bob Crane, Roy Scheider, Vincent D'Onofrio, Mark Ruffalo, Warren Beatty, Michael Imperioli, Salma Hayek, Sean Astin, Barbara Stuart, Joyce Meadows, Stephen Bauer, Judd Nelson, Christoph Waltz, Benicio del Toro, and Marlon Brando, who served as the New York studio's honorary chairman until his death and was replaced by Warren Beatty. The Stella Adler Studio of Acting in New York opened a new studio in Los Angeles named the Art of Acting Studio in 2010 and is run by the Adler family [4] .

Career on Broadway

All works are the original Broadway productions unless otherwise noted.

Works

Quotes

See also

Related Research Articles

Method acting training and rehearsal techniques

Method acting is a range of training and rehearsal techniques that seek to encourage sincere and emotionally expressive performances, as formulated by a number of different theatre practitioners. These techniques are built on Stanislavski's system, developed by the Russian actor and director Konstantin Stanislavski and captured in his books An Actor Prepares, Building a Character, and Creating a Role.

Uta Hagen German-born American actress and drama teacher

Uta Thyra Hagen was an American actress and theatre practitioner. She originated the role of Martha in the 1962 Broadway premiere of Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? by Edward Albee. Because Hagen was on the Hollywood blacklist, in part because of her association with Paul Robeson, her film opportunities dwindled and she focused her career on New York theatre.

Group Theatre (New York City)

The Group Theatre was a theater collective based in New York City and formed in 1931 by Harold Clurman, Cheryl Crawford and Lee Strasberg. It was intended as a base for the kind of theatre they and their colleagues believed in— a forceful, naturalistic and highly disciplined artistry. They were pioneers of what would become an "American acting technique", derived from the teachings of Konstantin Stanislavski, but pushed beyond them as well. The company included actors, directors, playwrights, and producers. The name "Group" came from the idea of the actors as a pure ensemble; a reference to the company as "our group" led them to "accept the inevitable and call their company The Group Theatre."

Stanislavskis system a progression of techniques used to train actors to create believable characterizations for their performances.

Stanislavski's system is a systematic approach to training actors that the Russian theatre practitioner Konstantin Stanislavski developed in the first half of the 20th century. Stanislavski was the first in the West to propose that actor training should involve something more than merely physical and vocal training. His system cultivates what he calls the "art of experiencing". It mobilises the actor's conscious thought and will in order to activate other, less-controllable psychological processes—such as emotional experience and subconscious behaviour—sympathetically and indirectly. In rehearsal, the actor searches for inner motives to justify action and the definition of what the character seeks to achieve at any given moment.

Lee Strasberg American actor, drama teacher, acting coach, theorist

Lee Strasberg was a Polish-American actor, director, and theatre practitioner. He co-founded, with directors Harold Clurman and Cheryl Crawford, the Group Theatre in 1931, which was hailed as "America's first true theatrical collective". In 1951 he became director of the nonprofit Actors Studio in New York City, considered "the nation's most prestigious acting school," and in 1966 he was involved in the creation of Actors Studio West in Los Angeles.

Sanford Meisner American actor and acting teacher

Sanford Meisner, also known as Sandy, was an American actor and acting teacher who developed an approach to acting instruction that is now known as the Meisner technique. While Meisner was exposed to method acting at the Group Theatre, his approach differed markedly in that he completely abandoned the use of affective memory, a distinct characteristic of method acting. Meisner maintained an emphasis on "the reality of doing", which was the foundation of his approach.

Richard Boleslawski Polish theatre and film director, actor

Richard Boleslavsky or Richard Boleslawski was a Polish theatre and film director, actor and teacher of acting.

Luther Adler American actor

Luther Adler was an American actor best known for his work in theatre, but who also worked in film and television. He also directed plays on Broadway.

Cheryl Crawford was an American theatre producer and director.

Celia Adler American television actor

Celia Feinman Adler was an American actress, known as the "First Lady of the Yiddish Theatre".

Harold Edgar Clurman was an American theatre director and drama critic, "one of the most influential in the United States". He was most notable as one of the three founders of New York City's Group Theatre (1931–1941). He directed more than 40 plays in his career and, during the 1950s, was nominated for a Tony Award as director for several productions. In addition to his directing career, he was drama critic for The New Republic (1948–52) and The Nation (1953–1980), helping shape American theater by writing about it. Clurman wrote seven books about the theatre, including his memoir The Fervent Years: The Group Theatre and the Thirties (1961).

The Meisner technique is an approach to acting which was developed by the American theatre practitioner Sanford Meisner.

Robert Lewis (director) American actor

Robert Lewis was an American actor, director, teacher, author and founder of the influential Actors Studio in New York in 1947.

Jack Garfein American film director

Jack Garfein is a key historical figure of the Actors' Studio, director, writer, teacher and producer.

The Michael Howard Studios is an acting studio for the performing arts located in at 152 West 25th Street in Chelsea, Manhattan, New York City; the studio was founded in 1953 by actor/director Michael Howard.

Dramatic Workshop was the name of a drama and acting school associated with the New School for Social Research in New York City. It was launched in 1940 by German expatriate stage director Erwin Piscator. Among the faculty were Lee Strasberg and Stella Adler, among the students Robert De Niro, Marlon Brando, Tony Curtis, Walter Matthau, Tennessee Williams and Elaine Stritch. The Dramatic Workshop considerably contributed to the resurgence of the Off-Broadway theatre.

The American Laboratory Theatre was an American drama school and theatrical company located in New York City that existed during the 1920s and 1930s. It was a publicly subsidized, student-subscription organization that held fund-raising campaigns to support itself.

Chantal Thuy is a Canadian actress known for her role as Grace Choi in Black Lightning.

References

  1. Stella Adler Feb 10, 1901 – Dec 21, 1992 (New York, New York, NY) 563-22-9174 California; Social Security Death Index
  2. 1 2 3 4 A New Act Unfolds in Drama Dynasty The New York Times , April 9, 2008
  3. "About | Stella Adler Studio of Acting". Archived from the original on December 4, 2018.
  4. 1 2 3 "A Stella Adler turf war in L.A."
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Stella Adler, 91, an Actress And Teacher of the Method The New York Times , December 22, 1992.
  6. Stella Adler Britannica.com .
  7. "Jenny Lumet". imdb.com.
  8. "Stella Adler Academy of Acting Los Angeles". stellaadler-la.com.
  9. 1 2 Adler Stella Notable American Women: A Biographical Dictionary Completing the Twentieth Century, by Susan Ware, Stacy Lorraine Braukman, Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study. Harvard University Press, 2004. ISBN   0-674-01488-X. pp. 9–10
  10. 1 2 Brestoff, Richard (1995). The Great Acting Teachers and Their Methods. Smith & Kraus. ISBN   978-1-57525-012-0.
  11. 1 2 Twentieth Century Actor Training: Principles of Performance, by Alison Hodge. Routledge, 2000. ISBN   0-415-19451-2. p. 139
  12. Stella Adler Great Jewish Women, by Elinor Slater, Robert Slater. Published by Jonathan David Company, Inc., 1994. ISBN   0-8246-0370-2. pp. 14–16.
  13. 1 2 Theater; Stella Adler In Her Latest Role: Author The New York Times , September 4, 1988.
  14. Stella Adler (1901–1992) – Biographical Sketch Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center, University of Texas at Austin.
  15. 1 2 Adler, Stella; Kissel, Howard (2000). The Art of Acting. Applause Books. preface. ISBN   1-55783-373-7.
  16. Vilga, Edward (January 1, 1997). "Acting Now: Conversations on Craft and Career". Rutgers University Press via Google Books.
  17. 1 2 Clurman, Harold; Adler, Stella (1983). The Fervent Years: The Group Theatre and the Thirties. Da Capo Press. ISBN   0-306-80186-8.
  18. "The Sunshine Boys lights up Connecticut stage…with two veteran Jewish actors". Jewish Ledger. June 4, 2014. Retrieved April 23, 2019.
  19. 1 2 3 Barton, Robert (2011). Acting: Onstage and Off. Cengage Learning. pp. 136–7. ISBN   0-495-89886-4.
  20. "On Stage, and Off". New York Times. December 6, 1991.
  21. "Stella Adler and Harold Clurman: An Inventory of their Papers in the Performing Arts Collection at the Harry Ransom Center". norman.hrc.utexas.edu. Retrieved March 15, 2017.
  22. Ransom Center acquires Stella Adler archive The University of Texas at Austin, April 26, 2004.
  23. Adler Gets Posthumous Hollywood Walk Star Fox News , Friday, August 4, 2006.
  24. "Stella Adler Quotes – BrainyQuote". brainyquote.com.