Stellenbosch

Last updated

Stellenbosch
Eikestad
StellenboschWC-Aerial.jpg
Ou Hoofgebou 1.JPG
StellenboschTownHall.jpg
Voorgelegen 3.JPG
Powder Magazine 5.JPG
From top, Stellenbosch, South Africa's second-oldest urban area (town), with Great Drakenstein and Stellenbosch Mountains beyond. Ou Hoofgebou, the former administrative building for the University of Stellenbosch (centre left). Stellenbosch Town Hall (centre right). Voorgelegen, a historic building in the town centre (bottom left). The old VOC Power Magazine (bottom right).
Nickname: 
Eikestad ("City of Oaks")
South Africa Western Cape relief location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Stellenbosch
South Africa relief location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Stellenbosch
Africa relief location map.jpg
Red pog.svg
Stellenbosch
Coordinates: 33°56′12″S18°51′41″E / 33.93667°S 18.86139°E / -33.93667; 18.86139 Coordinates: 33°56′12″S18°51′41″E / 33.93667°S 18.86139°E / -33.93667; 18.86139
Country Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa
Province Western Cape
District Cape Winelands
Municipality Stellenbosch
Established1679
Area
[1]
  Total10.12 km2 (3.91 sq mi)
Elevation
136 m (446 ft)
Population
 (2011) [1]
  Total21,799
  Density2,200/km2 (5,600/sq mi)
Racial makeup (2011)
[1]
   White 66.6%
   Coloured 15.8%
   Black African 15.0%
   Indian/Asian 0.9%
  Other1.7%
First languages (2011)
[1]
   Afrikaans 70.4%
   English 20.8%
   Xhosa 1.8%
  Other7.0%
Time zone UTC+2 (SAST)
Postal code (street)
7600
PO box
7599
Area code 021

Stellenbosch ( /ˈstɛlənbɒʃ/ ; [2] Afrikaans:  [ˈstælənˌbɔs] ) [3] [4] is a town in the Western Cape province of South Africa, situated about 50 kilometres (31 miles) east of Cape Town, along the banks of the Eerste River at the foot of the Stellenbosch Mountain. The town became known as the City of Oaks or Eikestad in Afrikaans and Dutch due to the large number of oak trees that were planted by its founder, Simon van der Stel, to grace the streets and homesteads. [5]

Contents

Stellenbosch has its own municipality (incorporating the neighbouring towns of Pniel and Franschhoek), adjoining the metropolitan area of the City of Cape Town. The town is home to Stellenbosch University. Technopark is a modern science park situated on the southern side of the town near the Stellenbosch Golf Course. [ citation needed ]

Prehistory

Paleolithic biface from Stellenbosch Biface Stellenbosch MHNT PRE 2009.0.195.1 Global fond.jpg
Paleolithic biface from Stellenbosch

In 1899 Louis Péringuey discovered Paleolithic stone tools of the Acheulean type at a site named Bosman's Crossing near the Adam Tas Bridge at the western entrance to Stellenbosch. [6] [7]

History

Typical Cape Dutch style house in Stellenbosch Bletterman House (corner view).JPG
Typical Cape Dutch style house in Stellenbosch

The town was founded in 1679 by the Governor of the Cape Colony, Simon van der Stel, who named it after himself [8] – Stellenbosch means "(van der) Stel's Bush". It is situated on the banks of the Eerste River ("First River"), so named as it was the first new river he reached and followed when he went on an expedition over the Cape Flats to explore the territory towards what is now known as Stellenbosch. The town grew so quickly that it became an independent local authority in 1682 and the seat of a magistrate with jurisdiction over 25,000 square kilometers (9,700 sq mi) in 1685. [9]

The Dutch were skilled in hydraulic engineering and they devised a system of furrows to direct water from the Eerste River in the vicinity of Thibault Street through the town along van Riebeeck Street to Mill Street where a mill was erected. [10] [11] Early visitors commented on the oak trees and gardens. [5] [12]

During 1690 some Huguenot refugees settled in Stellenbosch, [13] grapes were planted in the fertile valleys around Stellenbosch and soon it became the centre of the South African wine industry. [10]

In 1710 a fire destroyed most of the town, including the first church, all the Company property and twelve houses. Only two or three houses were left standing. [14] When the church was rebuilt in 1723 it was located on what was then the outskirts of the town, to prevent any similar incident from destroying it again. This church was enlarged a number of times since 1723 and is currently known as the "Moederkerk" (Mother Church).

The first school had been opened in 1683, but education in the town began in earnest in 1859 with the opening of a seminary for the Dutch Reformed Church. Rhenish Girls' High School, established in 1860, is the oldest school for girls in South Africa. [15] A gymnasium, known as het Stellenbossche Gymnasium, was established in 1866. In 1874 some higher classes became Victoria College and then in 1918 University of Stellenbosch. The first men's hostel to be established in Stellenbosch was Wilgenhof, in 1903. In 1905 the first women's hostel to be established in Stellenbosch was Harmonie . [16] Harmonie and Wilgenhof were part of the Victoria College. In 1909 an old boy of the school, Paul Roos, captain of the first national rugby team to be called the Springboks, was invited to become the sixth rector of the school. He remained rector until 1940. On his retirement, the school's name was changed to Paul Roos Gymnasium.

In the early days of the Second Boer War (1899–1902) Stellenbosch was one of the British military bases, and was used as a "remount" camp; and in consequence of officers who had not distinguished themselves at the front being sent back to it, the expression "to be Stellenbosched" came into use; so much so, that in similar cases officers were spoken of as "Stellenbosched" even if they were sent to some other place.[ citation needed ]

Population

At the time of the 2011 census, the population of the urban area of Stellenbosch was 77,476 people in 23,730 households, in an area of 20.9 square kilometres (8.1 sq mi). A total of 50% of the residents spoke Afrikaans as their home language, 28% spoke isiXhosa, and 8% spoke English. (10% of the residents, principally those in student residences, were not asked their language.) 37% of the population identified themselves as "Black African", 35% as "Coloured", and 26% as "White". [1]

The Stellenbosch Municipality extends beyond the town of Stellenbosch itself to include rural areas, villages, and the town of Franschhoek. At the time of the 2011 census, the municipal population was 155,728, while by 2016 it was estimated to be 173,197. [17] In 2017, the municipality estimated that the population in 2018 would increase to 176,523 [18]

The 1936 census recorded a total population of 8,782 residents with 3,558 of them recorded as Coloured and 4,995 recorded as White. [19]

Climate and geography

Stellenbosch's eastern suburbs in the winter months. In the background are the snowcapped Jonkershoek Mountains, with the prominent peak "The Twins" (elevation of 1,494 m (4,902 ft)) visible. Stellenbosch WC ZA.jpg
Stellenbosch's eastern suburbs in the winter months. In the background are the snowcapped Jonkershoek Mountains, with the prominent peak "The Twins" (elevation of 1,494 m (4,902 ft)) visible.

Stellenbosch is 53 km (33 mi) east of Cape Town via National Route N1. Stellenbosch is in a hilly region of the Cape Winelands, and is sheltered in a valley at an average elevation of 136 m (446 ft), flanked on the west by Papegaaiberg (Afrikaans : Parrot Mountain), which is actually a hill.[ citation needed ] To the south is Stellenbosch Mountain; to the east and southeast are the Jonkershoek, Drakenstein, and Simonsberg mountains.[ citation needed ] Die Tweeling Pieke (Afrikaans : The Twin Peaks) has an elevation of 1,494 m (4,902 ft); the highest point is Victoria Peak 1,590 m (5,220 ft). Jonkershoek Nature Reserve lies about 9 km (5.6 mi) east of Stellenbosch, and the Helderberg Nature Reserve is about 23 km (14 mi) south via provincial route R44.[ citation needed ] Just south of the Helderberg Nature Reserve is Strand, a seaside resort town.[ citation needed ] The soils of Stellenbosch range from dark alluvium to clay.[ citation needed ] This, combined with the well-drained, hilly terrain and Mediterranean climate, prove excellent for viticulture.[ citation needed ] Summers are dry and warm to hot, with some February and March days rising to over 40 °C (104 °F).[ citation needed ] Winters are cool, rainy and sometimes quite windy, with daytime temperatures averaging 16 °C (61 °F).[ citation needed ] Snow is usually seen a couple of times in winter on the surrounding mountains.[ citation needed ] Spring and autumn are colder seasons, when daytime temperatures hover in the 20s.[ citation needed ]

Climate data for Stellenbosch, Western Cape
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °C (°F)25.7
(78.3)
24.6
(76.3)
21.5
(70.7)
19.7
(67.5)
15.4
(59.7)
11.8
(53.2)
9.8
(49.6)
7.3
(45.1)
11.2
(52.2)
15.6
(60.1)
19.5
(67.1)
23.2
(73.8)
17.1
(62.8)
Average low °C (°F)11.6
(52.9)
11.5
(52.7)
9.5
(49.1)
6.8
(44.2)
3.9
(39.0)
2.3
(36.1)
1.5
(34.7)
2.2
(36.0)
4.3
(39.7)
6.9
(44.4)
9
(48)
11.6
(52.9)
6.8
(44.1)
Average precipitation mm (inches)23
(0.9)
20
(0.8)
23
(0.9)
64
(2.5)
95
(3.7)
141
(5.6)
127
(5.0)
107
(4.2)
70
(2.8)
47
(1.9)
43
(1.7)
27
(1.1)
787
(31.1)
Source: Stellenbosch climate

Sport

Stellenbosch is a warm weather training venue for cyclists, track and field squads, and triathletes. The Stellenbosch Sports Academy opened its doors in 2012 and hosts several rugby teams on a permanent basis, such as the Springbok Sevens and Western Province.[ citation needed ]

Viticulture and winemaking

Vineyards on the outskirts of Stellenbosch, with Helderberg in the background Stellenbosch Vineyard.jpg
Vineyards on the outskirts of Stellenbosch, with Helderberg in the background

The Stellenbosch, Paarl and Franschhoek valleys form the Cape Winelands, the larger of the two main wine growing regions in South Africa. The South African wine industry produces about 1,000,000,000 litres of wine annually. Stellenbosch is the primary location for viticulture and viticulture research. Professor Perold was the first Professor of Viticulture at Stellenbosch University. The Stellenbosch Wine Route established in 1971 by Frans Malan from Simonsig, Spatz Sperling from Delheim, Neil Joubert from Spier and David van Velden from Overgaauw, known as Stellenbosch American Express® Wine Routes since 2002, is a world-renowned and popular tourist destination. This route provides visitors the opportunity to experience a wide range of cultivars and includes farms such as Warwick and JC Le Roux. [20]

The region has a Mediterranean climate with hot dry summers and cool wet winters. Stellenbosch lies at the foot of the Cape Fold mountain range, which provides soil favourable to viticulture. Grapes grown in this area are mainly used for wine production, as opposed to table grapes. The region possesses a wide range of soils in the area, from light, sandy soils to decomposed granite. Stellenbosch Cabernet Sauvignon is beginning to get a good reputation as a fine wine. [21]

Stellenbosch University

Eerste River in Stellenbosch after heavy rains Eerste River from De Oewer.JPG
Eerste River in Stellenbosch after heavy rains
View over the "Red Square" of Stellenbosch University with the peak, "The Twins" beyond UniStellenbosch.jpg
View over the "Red Square" of Stellenbosch University with the peak, "The Twins" beyond

Stellenbosch University is one of South Africa's leading universities.[ citation needed ] This institution has a rich history dating back to 1863 and has 10 faculties, including Engineering, Commerce, Science and Arts.[ citation needed ] The Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering is the only university department in the southern hemisphere which has successfully built a communications satellite Sunsat which was launched in 2000 and orbited the earth for three years.[ citation needed ]

The University currently has about 29,000 students. White students in 2014, namely 18 636, constitute 63.4% of all students enrolled. [22] Although the official language of the university is Afrikaans, most post-graduate courses are presented in English. The university is in the process of introducing more English centered undergraduate courses following mass protest by the student body. The university council with the concurrence of the senate approved a new language policy on 22 June 2016 for implementation from 1 January 2017. Since the campuses are situated in the Western Cape, the university has committed to introducing multilingualism by using the province’s three official languages, namely Afrikaans, English and isiXhosa. [23]

List of suburbs

A panorama of Stellenbosch, as seen from Papegaaiberg Stellenbosch fan Papagaaiberch grut.jpg
A panorama of Stellenbosch, as seen from Papegaaiberg
Bird Street, Stellenbosch Central Bird Street Stellenbosch.jpg
Bird Street, Stellenbosch Central
The township of Kayamandi located on the outskirts of Stellenbosch Kayamandi Stellenbosch.jpg
The township of Kayamandi located on the outskirts of Stellenbosch
View of Nuutgevonden Estate, Cloetesville and Welgevonden Estate in the foreground and the Simonsberg Mountain in the background Simonsberg Stellenbosch.jpg
View of Nuutgevonden Estate, Cloetesville and Welgevonden Estate in the foreground and the Simonsberg Mountain in the background
  • Annandale
  • Arbeidslus
  • Brandwacht
  • Cloetesville
  • Coetzenburg
  • Dalsig
  • Dennesig
  • De Zalze
  • De Novo
  • Devon Valley
  • Die Boord, previously Rhodes Fruit Farms
  • Die Rant
  • Ida's Valley
  • Jamestown
  • Jonkershoek
  • Karindal
  • Kayamandi
  • Klapmuts
  • Koelenhof
  • Krigeville
  • Kylemore
  • Welbedaght
  • La Colline
  • Lanquedoc
  • Meerlust
  • Mostertsdrift
  • Onderpapegaaiberg, also known as Voëltjiesdorp
  • Paradyskloof
  • Plankenberg
  • Pniel
  • Raithby
  • Rozendal
  • Simondium
  • Simonsrust
  • Simonswyk
  • Techno Park
  • Tennantville
  • Town central
  • Uniepark
  • Universiteitsoord
  • Vlottenburg
  • Weides
  • Welbedaght
  • Welgevonden

List of schools

Notable people

Coats of arms

The municipality currently uses a badge [24] consisting of a fleur de lis and a cross issuing from a stylised bunch of grapes. In the past, the various local authorities used coats of arms.

Stellenbosch Divisional Council coat of arms (1970) Arms of the Divisional Council of Stellenbosch, WC, ZA.svg
Stellenbosch Divisional Council coat of arms (1970)

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Paarl</span> Town in Western Cape, South Africa

Paarl is a town with 112,045 inhabitants in the Western Cape province of South Africa. It is the third-oldest city and European settlement in the Republic of South Africa and the largest town in the Cape Winelands. Due to the growth of the Mbekweni township, it is now a de facto urban unit with Wellington. It is situated about 60 kilometres (37 mi) northeast of Cape Town in the Western Cape Province and is known for its scenic environment and viticulture and fruit-growing heritage.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Stellenbosch University</span> University in South Africa

Stellenbosch University is a public research university situated in Stellenbosch, a town in the Western Cape province of South Africa. Stellenbosch is the oldest university in South Africa and the oldest extant university in Sub-Saharan Africa, together with the University of Cape Town - which received full university status on the same day in 1918. Stellenbosch University designed and manufactured Africa's first microsatellite, SUNSAT, launched in 1999.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Franschhoek</span> Place in Western Cape, South Africa

Franschhoek is a small town in the Western Cape Province and one of the oldest towns in South Africa. Formerly known as Oliphants hoek. It is situated about 75 kilometres from Cape Town a 45 minute drive away. The whole area including townships such as Groendal and suburbs such as Wemmershoek has a population of slightly over 20,000 people while the town proper, known as Hugenote, has a population of around 1,000. Since 2000, it has been incorporated into Stellenbosch Municipality. Mentioned in Time (magazine) top 50 places in the world to visit for 2022.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Swellendam</span> Town in Western Cape, South Africa

Swellendam is the fifth oldest town in South Africa, a town with 17,537 inhabitants situated in the Western Cape province. The town has over 50 provincial heritage sites, most of them buildings of Cape Dutch architecture. Swellendam is situated on the N2, approximately 220 km from both Cape Town and George.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Strand, Western Cape</span> Seaside town in the Western Cape, South Africa

Strand is a seaside resort town in the Western Cape, South Africa. It forms part of the Helderberg region of the City of Cape Town Metropolitan Municipality, situated on the north-eastern edge of False Bay and near the foot of the Helderberg Mountains. Its geographical position is between Somerset West and Gordon's Bay, and is about 50 km southeast of Cape Town City Bowl. Strand is in the Western Cape province of South Africa, and has a population of approximately 50,000. Strand's main attraction is the beach; 5 km of white sandy beach off False Bay.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Worcester, South Africa</span> Town in Western Cape, South Africa

Worcester is a town in the Western Cape, South Africa. It is located 120 kilometres (75 mi) north-east of Cape Town on the N1 highway north to Johannesburg.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Somerset West</span> Town in the Western Cape, South Africa

Somerset West is a town in the Western Cape, South Africa. Organisationally and administratively it is included in the City of Cape Town metropolitan municipality as a suburb of the Helderberg region . The vehicle registration code for Somerset West is CFM and the post code is 7130 for street addresses, and 7129 for post office boxes.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kuils River</span> Place in Western Cape, South Africa

Kuils River is a town in the Western Cape, South Africa, 25 km east of Cape Town CBD at the gateway of the Cape Winelands. It is also the name of the main tributary of the Eerste River.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Wynberg, Cape Town</span> Place in Western Cape, South Africa

Wynberg is a southern suburb of the City of Cape Town in Western Cape, South Africa. It is situated between Plumstead and Kenilworth, and is a main transport hub for the Southern Suburbs of Cape Town.

South African wine has a history dating back to 1659 with the first bottle being produced in Cape Town by its founder and gouverner Jan van Riebeeck. Access to international markets led to new investment in the South African wine market. Production is concentrated around Cape Town, with major vineyard and production centres at Constantia, Paarl, Stellenbosch and Worcester. There are about 60 appellations within the Wine of Origin (WO) system, which was implemented in 1973 with a hierarchy of designated production regions, districts and wards. WO wines must only contain grapes from the specific area of origin. "Single vineyard" wines must come from a defined area of less than 6 hectares. An "Estate Wine" can come from adjacent farms if they are farmed together and wine is produced on site. A ward is an area with a distinctive soil type or climate and is roughly equivalent to a European appellation.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Durbanville</span> Town in Western Cape, South Africa

Durbanville is a town in the Western Cape province of South Africa, part of the greater Cape Town metropolitan area. Durbanville is a semi-rural residential suburb on the north-eastern outskirts of the metropolis and is surrounded by farms producing wine and wheat.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Drakenstein</span>

The Drakenstein mountain opposite Simonsberg Mountain named after ex military man and Colonial administrator of the Dutch East India Company Hendrik Adriaan van Rheede tot Drakenstein is part of the Cape Fold Belt and are in the Western Cape province of South Africa.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Western Cape wine</span> Geographical Unit within the Wine of Origin classification system of South African wine

Western Cape is a Geographical Unit within the Wine of Origin classification system of South African wine. Corresponding to the province of Western Cape it includes most of the vineyards in South Africa.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Assegaaibosch Nature Reserve</span>

Assegaaibosch Nature Reserve is an historic estate and currently a CapeNature nature reserve and World Heritage Site situated in the Jonkershoek Valley near Stellenbosch in the Western Cape province of South Africa. The historic estate was established by Dirk Coetsee, the progenitor of the Coetsee family in South Africa.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Stellenbosch High School</span> Public & boarding school in Stellenbosch, Western Cape, South Africa

Hoërskool Stellenbosch is a public Afrikaans medium co-educational in the town of Stellenbosch, Western Cape, South Africa. It was founded in 1978 as a business-oriented technical school, located in the center of town, but moved to the suburbs in the 1980s. It was reserved for white students during Apartheid, but was opened to all races in 1992.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Jamestown, Western Cape</span> Place in Western Cape, South Africa

Jamestown, also known as Webersvallei, is a quiet rural settlement on the southern outskirts of Stellenbosch in the Cape Winelands District of the Western Cape province of South Africa. It is situated next to Blaauwklippen Vineyards, on the eastern side of route R44 from Stellenbosch to Somerset West and the Strand coastal resort. The main access from the R44 is via Webersvallei Road, the main road in Jamestown with watererven – long, narrow agricultural plots on the south bank of Blouklip River – on the north side of the road and residential plots on the south side of the road.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Stellenbosch Mountain</span>

Stellenbosch Mountain is a mountain forming a prominent landmark overlooking the town of Stellenbosch in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. The mountain forms part of the Coetsenburg Estate, the Jonkershoek Nature Reserve, the Assegaaibosch Nature Reserve and the larger Hottentots-Holland Mountains Catchment Area.

Coetsenburg is an historic wine estate and one of the oldest estates in South Africa, established in 1682. It is located at the foot of the Stellenbosch Mountain, which forms part of the estate, in the town of Stellenbosch, 31 miles (50 km) east of Cape Town, in the Cape Winelands of the Western Cape Province. The estate has historically been owned by the Coetsee family and is currently not open to the public. The north-western portion of the original estate is now the Coetsenburg Sports Grounds which belongs to the University of Stellenbosch.

Dirk Coetzee/Coetsee was the Hoofdheemraad (Chancellor) of the District of Stellenbosch and Drakenstein in South Africa for most of the 1690s and early 1700s. He also served as captain of the Stellenbosch Infantry and deacon of the Stellenbosch Moederkerk at different points in time. As captain of the Stellenbosch Infantry, which comprised mostly Huguenots, he provided military backing for a rebellion which began in 1706 against the Governor of the Cape Colony, Willem Adriaan van der Stel, whom the vrijburghers had accused of tyranny, corruption and racketeering. Coetsee was imprisoned in the dungeon of the Castle of Good Hope along with the other leaders of the Huguenots but he was released after a year. The rebellion ultimately succeeded in 1707 when the Dutch East India Company recalled the Governor and other colonial officials. An account of the rebellion is vividly described in the "Diary of Adam Tas".

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 Combined population statistics of the Main Places Stellenbosch, La Colline, and Dalsig, which constitute the main urban area.
  2. "Definition of STELLENBOSCH". www.merriam-webster.com. Retrieved 16 June 2018.
  3. A Universal Pronouncing Gazetteer. Thomas Baldwin, 1852. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Grambo & Co.
  4. A Grammar of Afrikaans. Bruce C. Donaldson. 1993. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. ISBN   3-11-013426-8
  5. 1 2 The Cyclopædia; or, Univeal Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, and Literature. Abraham Rees, 1819. London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme & Brown
  6. Seddon, J. D. (October 1966). "The Early Stone Age at Bosman's Crossing, Stellenbosch". The South African Archaeological Bulletin. South African Archaeological Society. 21 (83): 133–137. doi:10.2307/3888433. JSTOR   3888433.
  7. Deacon, H. J. (1975). "Demography, Subsistence, and Culture During the Acheulian in Southern Africa". In Butzer, Karl W.; Isaac, Glynn L. (eds.). After the Australopithecines: Stratigraphy, Ecology, and Culture Change in the Middle Pleistocene. pp. 543–570. ISBN   9783110878837.
  8. Fairbridge, Dorothea (1922). "XII – Stellenbosch". Historic houses of South Africa. London: H. Milford, Oxford University press. p. 109. Retrieved 31 January 2011.
  9. "History of Stellenbosch". ShowMe™ – Stellenbosch. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  10. 1 2 Statistics of the Colonies of the British Empire in the West Indies, South America, North America, Asia, Austral-Asia, Africa and Europe: From the Official Records of the Colonial Office. Robert Montgomery Martin, 1839. London: W.H. Allen and Co. (p. 496)
  11. State of the Cape of Good Hope, in 1822. William Wilberforce Bird. 1823. London: J. Murray.
  12. The Life and Labours of George Washington Walker: of Hobart Town, Tasmania. James Backhouse and Charles Tylor, 1862. Tasmania: Thomas Brady (pp. 498–499)
  13. Botha, Colin Graham (1921). The French refugees at the Cape. Cape Town: Cape Times Limited. p. 155. Retrieved 31 January 2011.
  14. Trotter, A.F. (1903). Old Cape Colony a chronicle of her men and houses from 1652–1806. Westminster: A. Constable & co., ltd. pp. 174, 179. Retrieved 31 January 2011.
  15. "Rhenish prepare for their 150th birthday". Eikestad News. Eikestadnuus. 17 February 2006. Archived from the original on 20 January 2008. Retrieved 13 November 2007.
  16. "Huisdinge: Harmonie Dameskoshuis". Sun.ac.za. Retrieved 29 July 2013.
  17. Community Survey 2016: Provincial profile: Western Cape (PDF) (Report). Statistics South Africa. 2018. p. 8. Retrieved 26 July 2018.
  18. Stellenbosch Municipality 2017 – Western Cape Government
  19. Malherbe, E.G. (1939). Official Year Book of the Union of South Africa and of Basutoland, Bechuanaland Protectorate, and Swaziland. Vol. 20. Pretoria: Union of South Africa. p. 1044.
  20. "Stellenbosch American Express® Wine Routes – Our Story". Archived from the original on 9 February 2014. Retrieved 2 March 2014.
  21. The-Wine-Library Archived 23 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine Short Description of wine in Stellenbosch
  22. "Core statistics 2014", Stellenbosch University, 2014, [online] http://www.sun.ac.za/english/statistical-profile-2014-test, Accessed: 04/08/2015
  23. http://www.sun.ac.za/english/Documents/Language/Final%20Language%20Policy%20June%202016.pdf [ bare URL PDF ]
  24. Stellenbosch
  25. Pama, C. (1965), Lions and Virgins
  26. Cape Town Gazette No 418 (15 January 1814).
  27. changes
  28. new coat of arms
  29. 1 2 3 National Archives of South Africa: Data of the Bureau of Heraldry