Steny Hoyer

Last updated

Steny Hoyer
Steny Hoyer, official photo as Whip.jpg
House Majority Leader
Assumed office
January 3, 2019
Speaker Nancy Pelosi
Preceded by Kevin McCarthy
In office
January 3, 2007 January 3, 2011
Speaker Nancy Pelosi
Preceded by Roy Blunt
Succeeded by Eric Cantor
House Minority Whip
In office
January 3, 2011 January 3, 2019
Leader Nancy Pelosi
Preceded by Eric Cantor
Succeeded by Steve Scalise
In office
January 3, 2003 January 3, 2007
Leader Nancy Pelosi
Preceded by Nancy Pelosi
Succeeded by Roy Blunt
Chair of the House Democratic Conference
In office
June 21, 1989 January 3, 1995
Leader Tom Foley
Preceded by William H. Gray, III
Succeeded by Vic Fazio
Vice Chair of the House Democratic Conference
In office
January 3, 1989 June 21, 1989
Leader Jim Wright
Preceded by Mary Rose Oakar
Succeeded byVic Fazio
Member of the U.S.HouseofRepresentatives
from Maryland's 5th district
Assumed office
May 19, 1981
Preceded by Gladys Spellman
82nd President of the Maryland Senate
In office
January 3, 1975 January 3, 1978
Preceded by William S. James
Succeeded by James A. Clark Jr.
Member of the Maryland Senate
from the 26th district
In office
January 3, 1975 January 3, 1978
Preceded byConstituency established
Succeeded byMike Donovan
Member of the Maryland Senate
from the 4C district
In office
January 1967 January 1975
Preceded byConstituency established
Succeeded byConstituency abolished
Personal details
Born
Steny Hamilton Hoyer

(1939-06-14) June 14, 1939 (age 81)
New York City, New York, U.S.
Political party Democratic
Spouse(s)
Judith Pickett
(m. 1961;died 1997)
[1]
Children3
Residence Mechanicsville, Maryland
Education University of Maryland, College Park (BA)
Georgetown University (JD)
ProfessionLawyer
Signature Steny Hoyer Signature.svg
Website House website
Party website

Steny Hamilton Hoyer ( /ˈstɛniˈhɔɪ.ər/ STENN-ee HOY-ər; born June 14, 1939) is an American politician and attorney serving as U.S. Representative for Maryland's 5th congressional district since 1981 and as House Majority Leader since 2019. A Democrat, he was first elected in a special election on May 19, 1981, and is currently serving in his 20th term. The district includes a large swath of rural and suburban territory southeast of Washington, D.C. Hoyer is the dean of the Maryland Congressional delegation and the most senior Democrat in the House.

Contents

Since 2003, Hoyer has been the second ranking Democrat in the House of Representatives behind Nancy Pelosi. He is a two-time House Majority Leader, having previously served in the post from 2007 to 2011 under Speaker Pelosi. [2] [3] During two periods of Republican House control (2003–2007 and 2011–2019), Hoyer served as House Minority Whip, both times under Minority Leader Pelosi. As a result of the 2018 midterm elections, in which the Democrats took control of the House, Hoyer was re-elected Majority Leader in January 2019 on the opening of the 116th Congress, remaining the number two House Democrat behind Speaker Pelosi. [4] [5]

Early life and education

Hoyer was born in New York City, New York, and grew up in Mitchellville, Maryland, the son of Jean (née Baldwin) and Steen Theilgaard Høyer. His father was Danish and a native of Copenhagen; "Steny" is a variant of his father's name, "Steen". [6] His mother was an American, with Scottish, German, and English ancestry, and a descendant of John Hart, a signer of the Declaration of Independence. [7] He graduated from Suitland High School in Suitland, Maryland.

In his early years at the University of Maryland College Park, Hoyer held a 1.9 grade point average. His attitude towards school and politics changed after hearing a speech from then Senator John F. Kennedy before his election in 1960.[ citation needed ] In 1963, Hoyer received his B.A. degree magna cum laude from the University of Maryland, College Park, where he also became a member of the Sigma Chi fraternity. [8] He earned his J.D. degree from Georgetown University Law Center in Washington, D.C., in 1966. [8]

Early political career

For four years, from 1962 to 1966, Hoyer was a member of the staff of United States Senator Daniel Brewster (D-Maryland); also on Senator Brewster's staff at that time was Nancy Pelosi, who would later become a leadership colleague of Hoyer, as she served as Minority Leader and Speaker of the House. [9]

In 1966, Hoyer won a newly created seat in the Maryland State Senate, representing Prince George's County-based Senate district 4C. [10] The district, created in the aftermath of Reynolds v. Sims , was renumbered as the 26th district in 1975, [8] [11] the same year that Hoyer was elected President of the Maryland State Senate, the youngest in state history. [12]

From 1969 to 1971, Hoyer served as the first vice president of the Young Democrats of America. [13]

In 1978, Hoyer sought the Democratic nomination for Lieutenant Governor of Maryland as the running mate of then acting Governor Blair Lee III, but he lost to Samuel Bogley 37%–34%. [14] In the same year, Hoyer was appointed to the Maryland Board of Higher Education, a position he served in until 1981. [8]

U.S. House of Representatives

An earlier congressional portrait of Hoyer. Steny Hoyer, official photo portrait, circa 1980s.jpg
An earlier congressional portrait of Hoyer.
Hoyer in 2007 as House Majority Leader Steny Hoyer.jpg
Hoyer in 2007 as House Majority Leader
Hoyer speaks during the second day of the 2008 Democratic National Convention in Denver, Colorado. Steny Hoyer DNC 2008.jpg
Hoyer speaks during the second day of the 2008 Democratic National Convention in Denver, Colorado.
Hoyer with Barbara Mikulski presenting a photo to Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip in Greenbelt, Maryland Rep. Hoyer and Sen. Mikulski present photo to Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Phillip, May 8, 2007.jpg
Hoyer with Barbara Mikulski presenting a photo to Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip in Greenbelt, Maryland

Elections

Fifth district Congresswoman Gladys Spellman fell into a coma three days before the 1980 election. She was reelected, but it soon became apparent that she would never regain consciousness, and Congress declared her seat vacant by resolution in February 1981. Hoyer narrowly won a crowded seven-way Democratic primary, beating Spellman's husband Reuben by only 1,600 votes. He then defeated a better-funded Republican, Audrey Scott, in the May 19 special election by 56%–44%, earning himself the nickname of "boy wonder". [15] [16] [17] In the 1982 general election, Hoyer won reelection to his first full term with 80% of the vote. [18] He has faced only one relatively close contest since then, when he defeated future Governor of Maryland Larry Hogan with just 53% of the vote in 1992. [19] His second worst performance was his 1996 bid against Republican State Delegate John Morgan, when he won reelection with 57% of the vote. [20] Hoyer has been reelected 14 times with no substantive opposition, and is the longest-serving House member ever from southern Maryland. [12]

Tenure

Domestic issues

Hoyer supports and has led on the Make It In America plan linking domestic manufacturing industry and overall US economic success. [21]

Hoyer is pro-choice on abortion rights. [22] He voted against the Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act in 2003. Hoyer supports affirmative action and LGBT rights. Hoyer is rated F by the NRA, indicating a pro-gun-control voting record.

In 2008, Hoyer said he opposed providing immunity to telecom companies, but then negotiated a bill, described by Senators Patrick Leahy and Russ Feingold as a "capitulation", that would provide immunity to any telecom company [23] that had been told by the Bush administration that their actions were legal. [24] [25] [26] [27] "No matter how they spin it, this is still immunity," said Kevin Bankston, a senior lawyer for the Electronic Frontier Foundation, a privacy rights group that has sued over President George W. Bush's wiretapping program. "It's not compromise, it's pure theater." [28]

In a 2009 USA Today opinion piece regarding healthcare reform, Steny Hoyer wrote that "[d]rowning out opposing views is simply un-American." [29]

In June 2010, Hoyer brought up the idea that Congress would extend only temporarily middle-class tax cuts that were set to expire at the end of the year, suggesting that making them permanent would cost too much. President Obama wanted to extend them permanently for individuals making less than $200,000 a year and families making less than $250,000. [30]

Hoyer voted against the impeachment of President Bill Clinton in 1999. In 2019, Hoyer voted for the impeachment of President Trump. [31] In 2021, Hoyer voted for the second impeachment of President Trump.

Foreign issues

Hoyer supports civilian nuclear cooperation with India. [32]

Hoyer initially supported the Iraq War and was even recognized by the DLC for his vocal leadership on this issue. After the war became publicly unpopular, Hoyer said he favored a "responsible redeployment". [33] However, he has repeatedly supported legislation to continue funding for the war without deadlines for troop withdrawal, most recently in return for increased funding of domestic projects. [34]

Hoyer is a supporter of Israel, and has often been allied with American Israel Public Affairs Committee (AIPAC). In September 2007, he criticized Rep. Jim Moran for suggesting that AIPAC "has pushed (the Iraq) war from the beginning", calling the comment "factually inaccurate." [35] In January 2017, Hoyer voted for a House resolution condemning the UN Security Council Resolution 2334, which called Israeli settlement building in the occupied Palestinian territories a flagrant violation of international law and a major obstacle to peace. [36] Hoyer supported President Donald Trump's decision to recognize Jerusalem as Israel's capital. [37]

Hoyer has stated that a nuclear Iran is "unacceptable" and that the use of force remains an option. [38]

In January 2019, Hoyer opposed President Donald Trump's planned withdrawal of U.S. troops from Syria and Afghanistan as "impulsive, irresponsible, and dangerous." [39] Hoyer supports former President Obama's call for authorizing limited but decisive military action in response to the Assad regime's alleged use of chemical weapons.

Hoyer is a former chairman of the Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe.

Legislation

On February 28, 2014, Hoyer introduced the bill To amend the National Law Enforcement Museum Act to extend the termination date (H.R. 4120; 113th Congress) into the United States House of Representatives. [40] The bill would extend until November 9, 2016, the authority of the National Law Enforcement Officers Memorial Fund, a nonprofit organization, to construct a museum on federal lands within the District of Columbia honoring law enforcement officers. [41]

Fundraising

Hoyer is a prolific fundraiser for House Democrats. He has been the top giver to fellow party members in the House. In the 2008 election cycle, he contributed more than $1 million to the party and individual candidates as of July 14, 2008. [42]

Party leadership

Then-President George W. Bush meets with soon to be Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi and soon to be House Majority Leader Steny Hoyer on November 9, 2006. Bush, Pelosi, and Hoyer meeting at White House, Nov 9, 2006.jpg
Then-President George W. Bush meets with soon to be Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi and soon to be House Majority Leader Steny Hoyer on November 9, 2006.
Hoyer with President Donald Trump in 2019 NPOMS 2019-130 (32917978187).jpg
Hoyer with President Donald Trump in 2019

Hoyer has served as chairman of the Democratic Caucus, the fourth-ranking position among House Democrats, from 1989 to 1994; the former co-chair (and a current member) of the Democratic Steering Committee; and as the chief candidate recruiter for House Democrats from 1995 to 2000. He also served as Deputy Majority Whip from 1987 to 1989. [8]

When David E. Bonior resigned as Minority Whip in early 2002, Hoyer ran but lost to Nancy Pelosi. After the 2002 midterm elections, Pelosi ran to succeed Dick Gephardt as Minority Leader, leaving the Minority Whip post open again. [43] On November 14, 2002, Hoyer was unanimously elected by his colleagues in the Democratic Caucus to serve as the Minority Whip, the second-highest-ranking position among House Democrats. [12]

Pelosi became the Speaker of the House in January 2007. Hoyer was elected by his colleagues to be House Majority Leader for the 110th Congress, defeating John Murtha of Pennsylvania by a vote of 149–86 within the caucus, despite Pelosi endorsing Murtha. [2] [44] Hoyer is the first Marylander to become Majority Leader. [45] and became the highest-ranking federal lawmaker in Maryland history. [12] In this post, Hoyer was the floor leader of the House Democrats and ranked second in the leadership after the Speaker who is the actual head of the majority party in the house.

The day after the 2010 midterm elections in which the Democrats lost control of the House, Hoyer had a private conversation with Pelosi and stated that he would not challenge her bid for Minority Leader (for Pelosi to remain Democratic House Leader). [46] He ran for minority whip, but was challenged by outgoing Majority Whip Jim Clyburn (the top House Democrats wanted to remain in the leadership, but the minority party in the House has one less position). Hoyer is moderate while Pelosi and Clyburn are more liberal, and a significant number of Hoyer's would-be supporters in the House who were moderate and conservative Democrats had been defeated for reelection. [47] [48] [49] The Congressional Black Caucus backed Clyburn, while 30 House Democrats have supported Hoyer, and Hoyer has also raised money and campaigned for many candidates. [50] [51] Hoyer received further support from outgoing Foreign Affairs Committee Chairman Howard L. Berman, Financial Services Committee Chairman Barney Frank, and outgoing Energy and Commerce Committee Chairman Henry A. Waxman [52] Pelosi intervened in the contest by supporting Hoyer as Minority Whip, while creating an "Assistant Leader" position for Clyburn which would keep him as the third-ranking Democrat in the House behind Pelosi and Hoyer (the existing "Assistant to the Leader" post formerly held by Chris Van Hollen is not officially part of the House leadership and was directly appointed by the Minority Leader). [53] [54]

Hoyer and the DCCC have been criticized for picking their preferred candidates through an undemocratic process. In 2018, it was reported that Hoyer sought to alter the outcome of the primary race in Colorado's 6th congressional district. Hoyer was recorded urging progressive candidate Levi Tillemann to drop out of the race. Hoyer acknowledged that the DCCC had already identified its choice candidate and discouraged a candid discussion about his weaknesses. [55] On November 28, 2018, Hoyer was selected to return as House Majority Leader. [4] [5]

Electoral history

[56] [57]

YearOfficeElectionSubjectPartyVotes%OpponentPartyVotes%OpponentPartyVotes%OpponentPartyVotes%
1981 Congress, 5th district SpecialSteny Hoyer Democratic 42,57355.81Audrey Scott Republican 33,70844.19
1982 Congress, 5th district GeneralSteny Hoyer Democratic 83,93779.58William Guthrie Republican 21,53320.42
1984 Congress, 5th district GeneralSteny Hoyer Democratic 116,31072.18John Ritchie Republican 44,83927.82
1986 Congress, 5th district GeneralSteny Hoyer Democratic 82,09881.93John Sellner Republican 18,10218.07
1988 Congress, 5th district GeneralSteny Hoyer Democratic 128,43778.63John Sellner Republican 34,90921.37
1990 Congress, 5th district GeneralSteny Hoyer Democratic 84,74780.66Lee Breuer Republican 20,31419.34
1992 Congress, 5th district GeneralSteny Hoyer Democratic 113,28055.0 Larry J. Hogan, Jr. Republican 92,63645.0
1994 Congress, 5th district GeneralSteny Hoyer Democratic 98,82158.81Donald Devine Republican 69,21141.19
1996 Congress, 5th district GeneralSteny Hoyer Democratic 121,28856.92 John S. Morgan Republican 91,80643.08
1998 Congress, 5th district GeneralSteny Hoyer Democratic 126,79265.37Robert Ostrom Republican 67,17634.36
2000 Congress, 5th district GeneralSteny Hoyer Democratic 166,23165.09Thomas Hutchins Republican 89,01934.86
2002 Congress, 5th district GeneralSteny Hoyer Democratic 137,90369.27Joseph Crawford Republican 60,75830.52
2004 Congress, 5th district GeneralSteny Hoyer Democratic 204,86768.67Brad Jewitt Republican 87,18929.93Bob Auerbach Green 4,2241.42
2006 Congress, 5th district GeneralSteny Hoyer Democratic 168,11482.69Steve Warner Green 33,46416.46Write Ins: P.Kuhnert and Other6351,1100.86
2008 Congress, 5th district GeneralSteny Hoyer Democratic 253,85473.6Collins Bailey Republican 82,63124.0Darlene Nicholas Libertarian 7,8292.3
2010 Congress, 5th district GeneralSteny Hoyer Democratic 143,62064.3Charles Lollar Republican 79,12235.6H. Gavin Shickle Libertarian 2,3991.1
2012 [58] Congress, 5th district GeneralSteny Hoyer Democratic 238,61869.4 Tony O'Donnell Republican 95,27127.7Bob Auerbach Green 5,0401.5 Arvin Vohra Libertarian 4,5031.3
2014 [59] Congress, 5th district GeneralSteny Hoyer Democratic 144,72564.0Chris Chafee Republican 80,75235.7Write-ins5630.2
2016 [60] Congress, 5th district GeneralSteny Hoyer Democratic 242,98967.4Mark Arness Republican 105,93129.4Jason Summers Libertarian 11,0783.1Write-ins6060.2
2018 Congress, 5th district GeneralSteny Hoyer Democratic 213,79670.3William Devine III Republican 82,36127.1Patrick Elder Green 4,0821.3Write-ins2790.1
2020 [61] Congress, 5th district GeneralSteny Hoyer Democratic 274,21068.8Chris Palombi Republican 123,52531.0Write-ins1,1040.3

Personal life

Hoyer has three daughters, Anne, Susan, and Stefany, from his marriage to Judy Pickett Hoyer, who died of cancer in February 1997. [1] In 2012, after Hoyer announced his support of same-sex marriage, his daughter Stefany Hoyer Hemmer came out as a lesbian in an interview with the Washington Blade . [62]

His wife was an advocate of early childhood education, and child development learning centers in Maryland have been named in her honor ("Judy Centers"). [63] She also suffered from epilepsy, and the Epilepsy Foundation of America sponsors an annual public lecture in her name. [64] Hoyer, too, has been an advocate for research in this area, and the Epilepsy Foundation presented him in 2002 with their Congressional Leadership Award. [65]

Hoyer serves on the Board of Trustees for St. Mary's College of Maryland [8] and is a member of the board of the International Foundation for Electoral Systems, a nonprofit that supports international elections. [66] He is also an Advisory Board Member for the Center for the Study of Democracy. [67]

In July 2018, Hoyer was hospitalized at George Washington University Hospital for pneumonia. [68] [69]

Related Research Articles

Speaker of the United States House of Representatives Presiding officer of the United States House of Representatives

The speaker of the United States House of Representatives is the presiding officer of the United States House of Representatives. The office was established in 1789 by Article I, Section 2 of the U.S. Constitution. The speaker is the political and parliamentary leader of the House of Representatives, and is simultaneously the House's presiding officer, de facto leader of the body's majority party, and the institution's administrative head. Speakers also perform various other administrative and procedural functions. Given these several roles and responsibilities, the speaker usually does not personally preside over debates. That duty is instead delegated to members of the House from the majority party. Neither does the speaker regularly participate in floor debates.

Nancy Pelosi 52nd Speaker of the United States House of Representatives

Nancy Patricia Pelosi is an American politician serving as Speaker of the United States House of Representatives since 2019, and previously from 2007 to 2011. Pelosi has served as a U.S. representative from California since 1987. A member of the Democratic Party, she is the only woman in U.S. history to serve as Speaker and, until the inauguration of Kamala Harris as vice president, is the highest-ranking female elected official in United States history. As House Speaker, Pelosi is second in the presidential line of succession, after the vice president.

Dick Gephardt American politician

Richard Andrew Gephardt is an American politician who served as a United States Representative from Missouri from 1977 to 2005. A member of the Democratic Party, he was House Majority Leader from 1989 to 1995 and Minority Leader from 1995 to 2003. He ran unsuccessfully for the Democratic nomination for President of the United States in 1988 and 2004. Gephardt was mentioned as a possible vice presidential nominee in 1988, 1992, 2000, 2004, and 2008.

Jim Clyburn American politician

James Enos Clyburn is an American politician and a Democratic member of the U.S. House of Representatives from South Carolina. He has served as House Majority Whip since 2019. He is a two-time Majority Whip, having previously served in the post from 2007 to 2011, and served as House Assistant Minority Leader from 2011 to 2019.

Kevin McCarthy (California politician) U.S. House Minority Leader

Kevin Owen McCarthy is an American politician serving as House Minority Leader in the United States House of Representatives since 2019. A member of the Republican Party, he previously served as House Majority Leader under Speakers John Boehner and Paul Ryan from 2014 to 2019. He has been the U.S. Representative for California's 23rd congressional district since 2007. The district, numbered as the 22nd district from 2007 to 2013, is based in Bakersfield and includes large sections of Kern and Tulare counties, as well as part of the Quartz Hill neighborhood in northwest Los Angeles County.

In the United States House of Representatives, the two major political parties maintain policy and steering committees. Their primary purpose is to assign fellow party members to other House committees, and they also advise party leaders on policy.

The House Democratic Caucus is a congressional caucus composed of all Democratic Representatives in the United States House of Representatives and is responsible for nominating and electing the Democratic Party leadership in the chamber. In its roles as a party conference, the caucus writes and enforces rules of conduct and discipline for its members, approves committee assignments, and serves as the primary forum for development of party policy and legislative priorities. It hosts weekly meetings for these purposes and to communicate the party's message to members. The caucus has a Caucus Chairman and Caucus Vice-Chair.

In a governmental system, a party leader acts as the official representative of their political party. The party leader is typically responsible for managing the party's relationship with the general public. As such, they will take a leading role in developing and communicating party policy, especially election platforms, to the electorate. They are also typically the public face of the respective party and the principal media contact.

Alex Mooney American politician

Alexander Xavier Mooney is the U.S. Representative for West Virginia's 2nd congressional district since 2015. He is a member of the Republican Party. He served in the Maryland State Senate, representing District 3, from 1999 to 2011 and is a former Chairman of the Maryland Republican Party. He is the first Hispanic elected to Congress from West Virginia.

115th United States Congress 2017–2019 legislative term

The 115th United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States of America federal government, composed of the Senate and the House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C., from January 3, 2017, to January 3, 2019, during the final weeks of Barack Obama's presidency and the first two years of Donald Trump's presidency. The seats in the House were apportioned based on the 2010 United States Census.

116th United States Congress 2019–2021 meeting of U.S. legislature

The 116th United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the Senate and the House of Representatives. It convened in Washington, D.C., on January 3, 2019, and ended on January 3, 2021, during the final two years of Donald Trump's presidency. Senators elected to regular terms in 2014 are finishing their terms in this Congress, and House seats were apportioned based on the 2010 Census.

2008 United States House of Representatives elections in Maryland Elections for U.S. House members from Maryland

The 2008 congressional elections in Maryland were held on November 4, 2008 to determine who would represent the state of Maryland in the United States House of Representatives, coinciding with the presidential election. Representatives are elected for two-year terms; those elected serve in the 111th Congress from January 3, 2009 until January 3, 2011.

Party leaders of the United States House of Representatives Wikimedia list article

Party leaders and whips of the United States House of Representatives, also known as floor leaders, are elected by their respective parties in a closed-door caucus by secret ballot. With the Democrats holding a majority of seats and the Republicans holding a minority, the current leaders are: Majority Leader Steny Hoyer, Majority Whip Jim Clyburn, Minority Leader Kevin McCarthy and Minority Whip Steve Scalise.

2014 United States House of Representatives elections in Maryland

The 2014 United States House of Representatives elections in Maryland were held on Tuesday, November 4, 2014 to elect the eight U.S. Representatives from the state of Maryland, one from each of the state's eight congressional districts. The elections coincided with other elections to the United States Senate and House of Representatives and various state and local elections, including the Governor of Maryland, Attorney General of Maryland and Comptroller of Maryland.

117th United States Congress 2021–2023 meeting of U.S. legislature

The 117th United States Congress is the current meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the U.S. Senate and the U.S. House of Representatives. It convened in Washington, D.C., on January 3, 2021, during the final weeks of Donald Trump's presidency, and will end on January 3, 2023. It will meet during the first two years of Joe Biden's presidency.

October 2015 Speaker of the United States House of Representatives election

The October 2015 Speaker of the United States House of Representatives election took place on October 29, 2015, during the 114th United States Congress. This unusual intra-term election for Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives was necessitated by the impending resignation of John Boehner from the speakership and the House, set for October 30. Boehner was the first speaker to resign in the middle of a Congressional term since Jim Wright in 1989.

2020 United States House of Representatives elections in Maryland Upcoming House elections in Maryland

The 2020 United States House of Representatives elections in Maryland was held on November 3, 2020, to elect the eight U.S. Representatives from the state of Maryland, one from each of the state's eight congressional districts. The elections coincided with the 2020 U.S. presidential election, as well as other elections to the House of Representatives, elections to the United States Senate and various state and local elections. On March 17, 2020, Governor Larry Hogan announced that the primary election would be postponed from April 28 to June 2 due to coronavirus concerns. On March 26, the Maryland Board of Elections met to consider whether in-person voting should be used for June's primary, and recommended that voting in June be mail-in only.

2019 Speaker of the United States House of Representatives election

The 2019 Speaker of the United States House of Representatives election took place on January 3, 2019, on the opening day of the 116th United States Congress, two months after the United States 2018 elections. This was the 126th Speaker of the House of Representatives election since the office was created in 1789. House Democratic leader Nancy Pelosi received 220 votes, a majority of the chamber, to become its speaker. House Republican leader Kevin McCarthy garnered 192 votes, with 18 more going to others. As only 430 representatives in the 435-member House cast a vote, 216 votes were necessary in order to win.

2018 United States House of Representatives Democratic Caucus leadership election

A leadership election was held by the United States House of Representatives Democratic Caucus before the beginning of the 116th United States Congress on January 3, 2019. The election determined who will be nominated by the caucus for the speakership election as well as who would occupy other leadership positions within the House Democratic Caucus. The following positions were nominated or elected on November 29: Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives, House Majority Leader, House Majority Whip, House Assistant Majority Leader, Democratic Caucus Chair, and Democratic Caucus Vice Chair. The Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee Chair, the Policy and Communications Committee's Chair and its three Co-Chairs, Junior Caucus Representative and Freshman Class Representative were elected the next day, and a third co-chair was added to the Steering and Policy Committee by the Leader.

A leadership election was held by the United States House of Representatives Democratic Caucus on November 17, 2006. The election determined who would be nominated by the caucus for Speaker of the House as well as who would occupy other leadership positions within the House Democratic Caucus in the 110th United States Congress. The following positions were nominated or elected on November 29: Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives, House Majority Leader, House Majority Whip, House Assistant Majority Leader, Democratic Caucus Chair, and Democratic Caucus vice-Chair.

References

  1. 1 2 Rasmussen, Fred (February 7, 1997). "Judith Hoyer, 57, school official, congressman's wife". The Baltimore Sun . Retrieved March 25, 2019.
  2. 1 2 Ferraro, Thomas; Cowan, Richard (November 16, 2006). "Corrected - Democrats defy Pelosi, elect Hoyer House leader". Toronto Star . Reuters . Retrieved June 18, 2018.
  3. Alexander Mooney (November 16, 2006). "Hoyer beats out Murtha for majority leader". CNN Political Ticker. CNN . Retrieved November 16, 2006.
  4. 1 2 McPherson, Lindsey (November 28, 2018). "Steny Hoyer Elected House Majority Leader". Roll Call .
  5. 1 2 Barker, Jeff (November 28, 2018). "Democrats select Maryland's Steny Hoyer to return as U.S. House majority leader; Pelosi nominated for speaker". The Baltimore Sun .
  6. Valdez, Jessica (August 28, 2004). "For Hoyer, a Balancing of Roles". The Washington Post via majorityleader.gov.
  7. "Steny Hoyer ancestry". Ancestry.com .
  8. 1 2 3 4 5 6 "Steny H. Hoyer, U.S. Representative (Maryland)". Maryland Manual On-Line. Maryland State Archives. January 3, 2019. Retrieved January 27, 2020.
  9. Jonathan Weisman and Lois Romano (November 16, 2006). "Pelosi Splits Democrats With Push For Murtha". The Washington Post . Retrieved November 16, 2006.
  10. "Maryland Senate, Legislative District 4, 4A, 4B, 4C". msa.maryland.gov.
  11. "Our Campaigns - MD State Senate 26 Race - Nov 05, 1974". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  12. 1 2 3 4 "Biography of Steny Hoyer" . Retrieved November 18, 2006.
  13. "YDA past officers (1932-2019)". Young Democrats of America . 2019. Retrieved January 27, 2020.
  14. "Our Campaigns - MD Lt. Governor - D Primary Race - Sep 12, 1978". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  15. Shailagh Murray "Political Pragmatism Carried Hoyer to the Top". The Washington Post , page A6. Friday, November 17, 2006.
  16. "Our Campaigns - MD District 5 - Special D Primary Race - Apr 07, 1981". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  17. "Our Campaigns - MD - District 5 - Special Election Race - May 19, 1981". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  18. "Our Campaigns - MD District 5 Race - Nov 02, 1982". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  19. "Our Campaigns - MD District 5 Race - Nov 03, 1992". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  20. "Our Campaigns - Candidate - Steny H. Hoyer". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  21. "House Democrats' Make It In America Plan". The Office of Majority Leader Steny Hoyer. June 13, 2016. Retrieved December 31, 2020.
  22. "Steny Hoyer on the Issues". On the Issues . Retrieved January 12, 2021.
  23. "House Prepares to Debate New Surveillance Law". CNBC . Associated Press. June 20, 2008. Retrieved December 5, 2018.
  24. Sargent, Greg (October 25, 2007). "Steny Hoyer Says Some Strong Words Against Telecom Immunity". Election Central. Talking Points Memo . Archived from the original on April 7, 2008. Retrieved June 18, 2008.
  25. Fertik, Bob (June 15, 2008). "Wiretapping: Impeachment Not Immunity". Democrats.com. Archived from the original on June 18, 2008. Retrieved June 17, 2008.
  26. Kagro X (June 18, 2008). "Hoyer: I've lost all control". Daily Kos . Archived from the original on July 30, 2012. Retrieved June 18, 2008.
  27. Greenwald, Glenn (June 17, 2008). "Targeting Steny Hoyer for his contempt for the rule of law". Salon.com . Retrieved June 19, 2008.
  28. Lichtblau, Eric (June 20, 2008). "Deal Reached in Congress to Rewrite Rules on Wiretapping". The New York Times. Retrieved May 24, 2010.
  29. Pelosi, Nancy; Hoyer, Steny (August 10, 2009). "'Un-American' attacks can't derail health care debate". USA Today . Archived from the original on January 18, 2010. Retrieved August 23, 2010.
  30. "Hoyer: Permanent middle class tax cuts too costly". The Columbian . Vancouver, Washington. Associated Press. June 22, 2010. Retrieved January 12, 2021.
  31. Panetta, Grace (December 18, 2019). "WHIP COUNT: Here's which members of the House voted for and against impeaching Trump". Business Insider .
  32. "Roll Call 541 | Bill Number: H. R. 5682". Office of the Clerk . U.S. House of Representatives. December 8, 2006. Retrieved April 27, 2018.
  33. "Rep. Steny Hoyer :: newsroom". Archived from the original on July 25, 2007.
  34. Weisman, Jonathan; Kane, Paul (December 8, 2007). "Hill Close To Deal on War Funds". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 24, 2010.
  35. Soraghan, Mike (September 18, 2007). "Hoyer takes aim at Moran's AIPAC comment". The Hill . Retrieved September 19, 2007.
  36. "House votes to rebuke UN on Israeli settlement resolution". The Hill. January 5, 2017.
  37. "In US Congress, robust backing for Trump's Jerusalem move". The Times of Israel. December 6, 2017.
  38. Krieger, Hillary Leila (January 7, 2007). "Democrats: Nuclear Iran unacceptable". The Jerusalem Post . Retrieved January 8, 2007.
  39. "Don't Let Democrats Become the Party of War". Foreign Policy. February 4, 2019.
  40. "H.R. 4120 - All Actions". Congress.gov . Library of Congress . Retrieved April 30, 2014.
  41. "CBO - H.R. 4120". Congressional Budget Office . Retrieved April 28, 2014.
  42. "Hoyer Is a Giver". Congressional Quarterly . July 14, 2008.
  43. "Hoyer has won contested leadership races before - FoxNews.com". Fox News. November 5, 2010.
  44. "CNN: Scramble is on to replace Congressional leaders". CNN. November 9, 2006. Retrieved November 9, 2006.
  45. "About the Majority Leader". Office of the House Democratic Majority Leader. Archived from the original on January 15, 2007.
  46. Murphy, Patricia (November 3, 2010). "Nancy Pelosi Has 'No Regrets' Following Midterm Rout". The Capitolist. Politics Daily . Archived from the original on November 4, 2010.
  47. Camia, Catalina (November 8, 2010). "Democrats Hoyer, Clyburn fight for leadership post". USA Today.
  48. "Hire Hoyer". The Washington Post.
  49. O'Connor, Patrick (November 8, 2010). "Hoyer, Clyburn: An Impromptu Leadership Fight". The Wall Street Journal.
  50. "High Profile Dems Back Hoyer In Whip Race".
  51. Burner, Darcy (May 25, 2011). "The Progressive Case for Steny Hoyer as Minority Whip". Huffington Post.
  52. Kane, Paul (November 10, 2010). "In race for whip, Hoyer gets liberals' support". The Washington Post.
  53. Rowley, James (November 13, 2010). "Pelosi Heads Off Democratic Leadership Fight, Backs Hoyer for No. 2 Post". Bloomberg.
  54. "'Assistant leader' for Clyburn".
  55. Fang, Lee (April 26, 2018). "SECRETLY TAPED AUDIO REVEALS DEMOCRATIC LEADERSHIP PRESSURING PROGRESSIVE TO LEAVE RACE". The Intercept. Retrieved April 26, 2018.
  56. "CQ Press Library". library.cqpress.com. Archived from the original on February 16, 2016.
  57. "MD - District 5 - Special Election Race - May 19, 1981". Our Campaigns. Retrieved August 23, 2010.
  58. "Official 2012 Presidential General Election results for Representative in Congress". Maryland State Board of Elections. November 28, 2012. Retrieved December 27, 2012.
  59. "Official 2014 Gubernatorial General Election results for Representative in Congress". Maryland State Board of Elections. December 2, 2014. Retrieved October 18, 2015.
  60. "Official 2016 Presidential General Election results for Representative in Congress". Maryland State Board of Elections. December 9, 2016. Retrieved May 26, 2017.
  61. "Official 2020 Presidential General Election results for Representative in Congress". Maryland State Board of Elections. December 4, 2020. Retrieved October 18, 2015.
  62. Pershing, Ben (June 6, 2012). "Steny Hoyer's daughter comes out as a lesbian". The Washington Post.
  63. "The Judy Center website". Archived from the original on March 1, 2007. Retrieved November 18, 2006.
  64. "Epilepsy Foundation announcement of Judith Hoyer lectureship program". Epilepsy Foundation . January 28, 2002. Archived from the original on October 28, 2007. Retrieved November 18, 2006.
  65. "Epilepsy Foundation Recognizes the Honorable Steny H. Hoyer For Longstanding Support". Epilepsy Foundation . March 26, 2002. Archived from the original on December 14, 2007. Retrieved November 18, 2006.
  66. "Board". International Foundation for Electoral Systems . 2018. Retrieved July 5, 2018.
  67. "Advisory Board - Center for the Study of Democracy". Center for the Study of Democracy. Archived from the original on April 27, 2018. Retrieved July 6, 2017.
  68. Ehrlich, Jamie (July 4, 2018). "Steny Hoyer admitted to hospital, diagnosed with pneumonia". CNN. Retrieved July 5, 2018.
  69. Schwartzman, Paul (July 4, 2018). "Maryland Rep. Steny Hoyer Hospitalized with Pneumonia". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 5, 2018.
U.S. House of Representatives
Preceded by
Gladys Spellman
Member of the  U.S. House of Representatives
from Maryland's 5th congressional district

1981present
Incumbent
Preceded by
Al D'Amato
Chair of the Joint Helsinki Commission
1987–1989
Succeeded by
Dennis DeConcini
Preceded by
Dennis DeConcini
Chair of the Joint Helsinki Commission
1991–1993
Preceded by
Nancy Pelosi
House Minority Whip
2003–2007
Succeeded by
Roy Blunt
Preceded by
John Boehner
House Majority Leader
2007–2011
Succeeded by
Eric Cantor
Preceded by
Eric Cantor
House Minority Whip
2011–2019
Succeeded by
Steve Scalise
Preceded by
Kevin McCarthy
House Majority Leader
2019–present
Incumbent
Party political offices
Preceded by
Mary Rose Oakar
Vice Chair of the House Democratic Conference
1989
Succeeded by
Vic Fazio
Preceded by
William Gray
Chair of the House Democratic Conference
1989–1995
U.S. order of precedence (ceremonial)
Preceded by
Chris Smith
United States Representatives by seniority
4th
Succeeded by
Marcy Kaptur