|Duke of Slavonia, Duke of Transylvania|
Stephen's royal seal
|King of Hungary and Croatia|
17 May 1270
|Duke of Styria|
|Born||before 18 October 1239|
|Died||6 August 1272 (aged 32–33)|
Csepel Island, Kingdom of Hungary
|Spouse||Elizabeth the Cuman|
|Issue|| Catherine |
Ladislaus IV of Hungary
Andrew, Duke of Slavonia
|Father||Béla IV of Hungary|
Stephen V (Hungarian : V. István, Croatian : Stjepan V., Slovak : Štefan V; before 18 October 1239 – 6 August 1272, Csepel Island) was King of Hungary and Croatia between 1270 and 1272, and Duke of Styria from 1258 to 1260. He was the oldest son of King Béla IV and Maria Laskarina. King Béla had his son crowned king at the age of six and appointed him Duke of Slavonia. Still a child, Stephen married Elizabeth, a daughter of a chieftain of the Cumans whom his father settled in the Great Hungarian Plain.
King Béla appointed Stephen Duke of Transylvania in 1257 and Duke of Styria in 1258. The local noblemen in Styria, which had been annexed four years before, opposed his rule. Assisted by King Ottokar II of Bohemia, they rebelled and expelled Stephen's troops from most parts of Styria. After Ottokar II routed the united army of Stephen and his father in the Battle of Kressenbrunn on 12 July 1260, Stephen left Styria and returned to Transylvania.
Stephen forced his father to cede all the lands of the Kingdom of Hungary to the east of the Danube to him and adopted the title of junior king in 1262. In two years, a civil war broke out between father and son, because Stephen accused Béla of planning to disinherit him. They concluded a peace treaty in 1266, but confidence was never restored between them. Stephen succeeded his father, who died on 3 May 1270, without difficulties, but his sister Anna and his father's closest advisors fled to the Kingdom of Bohemia. Ottokar II invaded Hungary in the spring of 1271, but Stephen routed him. In next summer, a rebellious lord captured and imprisoned Stephen's son, Ladislaus. Shortly thereafter, Stephen unexpectedly fell ill and died.
Stephen was the eighth child and first son of King Béla IV of Hungary and his wife, Maria, a daughter of Theodore I Lascaris, Emperor of Nicaea.He was born in 1239. Archbishop Robert of Esztergom baptised him on 18 October. The child, heir apparent from birth, was named after Saint Stephen, the first King of Hungary.
Béla and his family, including Stephen, fled to Zagreb after the Mongols had annihilated the royal army in the Battle of Mohi on 11 April 1241.The Mongols crossed the frozen Danube in February 1242 and the royal family ran off as far as the well-fortified Dalmatian town of Trogir. The King and his family returned from Dalmatia after the Mongols unexpectedly withdrew from Hungary in March.
A royal charter of 1246 mentions Stephen as "King, and Duke of Slavonia". — Croatia, Dalmatia and Slavonia —were administered by royal governors, known as bans.Apparently, in the previous year, Béla had his son crowned as junior king and endowed with the lands between the river Dráva and the Adriatic Sea, according to historians Gyula Kristó and Ferenc Makk. The seven-year-old Stephen's provinces
In a letter addressed to Pope Innocent IV in the late 1240s, Béla IV wrote that "[o]n behalf of Christendom we had our son marry a Cuman girl".The bride was Elizabeth, the daughter of a leader of the Cumans whom Béla had invited to settle in the plains along the river Tisza. Elizabeth had been baptized, but ten Cuman chieftains present at the ceremony nevertheless took their customary oath upon a dog cut into two by a sword.
When Stephen attained the age of majority in 1257, his father appointed him Duke of Transylvania. — Vas and Zala —in Hungary from his father. He launched a plundering raid in Carinthia in the spring of 1259, in retaliation of Duke Ulrich III of Carinthia's support of the Styrian rebels.Stephen's rule in Transylvania was short-lived, because his father transferred him to Styria in 1258. Styria had been annexed in 1254, but the local lords rose up in rebellion and expelled Béla IV's governor, Stephen Gutkeled, before Stephen's appointment. Stephen and his father jointly invaded Styria and subdued the rebels. In addition to Styria, Stephen also received two neighboring counties
Stephen's rule remained unpopular in Styria. With support from King Ottokar II of Bohemia, the local lords again rebelled.Stephen could preserve only Pettau (present-day Ptuj, Slovenia) and its region. On 25 June 1260, Stephen crossed the river Morava to invade Ottokar's realm. His military force, which consisted of Székely, Romanian and Cuman troops, routed an Austrian army. However, in the decisive Battle of Kressenbrunn King Béla's and Stephen's united army was vanquished on 12 July, primarily because the main forces, which were under King Béla's command, arrived late. Stephen, who commanded the advance guard, barely escaped from the battlefield. The Peace of Vienna, which was signed on 31 March 1261, put an end to the conflict between Hungary and Bohemia, forcing Béla IV to renounce of Styria in favor of Ottokar II.
Stephen returned to Transylvania and started to rule it for the second time after 20 August 1260.He and his father jointly invaded Bulgaria and seized Vidin in 1261. His father returned to Hungary, but Stephen continued the campaign alone. He laid siege to Lom on the Danube and advanced as far as Tirnovo in pursuit of Tsar Constantine Tikh of Bulgaria. However, the Tsar succeeded in avoiding any clashes with the invaders and Stephen withdrew his troops from Bulgaria by the end of the year.
Stephen's relationship with Béla IV deteriorated in the early 1260s.Stephen's charters reveal his fear of being disinherited and expelled by his father. He also accused some unnamed barons of inciting the old monarch against him. On the other hand, Stephen's charters prove that he made land grants in Bihar, Szatmár, Ugocsa, and other counties which were situated outside Transylvania.
Archbishops Philip of Esztergom and Smaragd of Kalocsa undertook to mediate after some clashes occurred between the two kings' partisans in the autumn.According to the Peace of Pressburg, which was concluded around 25 November, Béla IV and his son divided the country and Stephen received the lands to the east of the Danube. When confirming the treaty on 5 December, Stephen also promised that he would not invade Slavonia which had been granted to his younger brother, Béla, by their father. On this occasion, Stephen styled himself "Junior King, Duke of Transylvania and Lord of the Cumans".
A Bulgarian nobleman, Despot Jacob Svetoslav sought assistance from Stephen after his domains, which were situated in the regions south of Vidin, were overrun by Byzantine troops in the second half of 1263.Stephen sent reinforcements under the command of Ladislaus II Kán, Voivode of Transylvania to Bulgaria. The Voivode routed the Byzantines and drove them out of Bulgaria. Stephen granted Vidin to Jacob Svetoslav who accepted his suzerainty.
The reconciliation of Stephen and his father was only temporary. —including Beszterce (present-day Bistrița, Romania) and Füzér —which were located in the lands under his rule. Béla IV's army crossed the Danube under Anna's command after 1 August 1264. She besieged and took Sárospatak and seized Stephen's wife and children. Voivode Ladislaus Kán turned against Stephen and led an army, which consisted of Cuman warriors, to Transylvania. Stephen routed him at the fort of Déva (now Deva, Romania). King Béla's Judge royal, Lawrence arrived at the head of a new army and forced Stephen to retreat to Feketehalom (now Codlea, Romania). The Judge royal lay siege to the fortress, but Stephen's partisans relieved it. Stephen launched a counter-offensive and forced his father's army to retreat. He gained a decisive victory over his father's army in the Battle of Isaszeg in March 1265. The two archbishops mediated a new consolidation between father and son, which confirmed the 1262 division of the country. Béla and Stephen signed the peace treaty in the Convent of the Blessed Virgin on the Rabbits' Island (now Margaret Island in Budapest) on 23 March 1266.Stephen confiscated the domains of his mother and sister, Anna
During the civil war in Hungary, Stephen's vassal, Despot Jacob Svetoslav submitted himself to Tsar Constantine Tikh of Bulgaria.In the summer of 1266, Stephen invaded Bulgaria, seized Vidin, Pleven and other forts and routed the Bulgarians in five battles. Jacob Svetoslav again accepted Stephen's suzerainty and was reinstalled in Vidin. From then on, Stephen used the title "King of Bulgaria" in his charters.
Béla and Stephen together confirmed the liberties of the "royal servants", from then on known as noblemen, in 1267. —Stephen's son, Ladislaus married Charles's daughter, Elisabeth, and Charles's namesake son married Stephen's daughter, Mary —strengthened Stephen's international position in 1269. Confidence was never restored between Béla and Stephen. On his deathbed, the old King requested King Ottokar II of Bohemia to give shelter to his daughter Anna and his partisans after his death.A double marriage alliance between Stephen and King Charles I of Sicily
The senior King died on 3 May 1270. —Béla's closest advisors—followed her and handed over Kőszeg, Borostyánkő (Bernstein, Austria) and their other castles along the western borders to Ottokar II. Instead of leaving Hungary, Nicholas Hahót garrisoned Styrian soldiers in his fort at Pölöske, and made plundering raids against the nearby villages. Stephen nominated his own partisans to the highest offices; for instance, Joachim Gutkeled became Ban of Slavonia, and Matthew Csák was appointed Voivode of Transylvania. Stephen granted Esztergom County to Archbishop Philip who crowned him king in Esztergom on or after 17 May.His daughter, Anna, seized the royal treasury and fled to Bohemia. Henry Kőszegi, Nicholas Geregye, and Lawrence Aba
The Polish chronicler Jan Długosz writes that Stephen made "a pilgrimage to the tomb of St. Stanisław"in Cracow and visited his brother-in-law, Boleslaw the Chaste, Duke of Cracow at the end of August. The two monarchs renewed "the old alliance between Hungary and Poland" and entered into an alliance "to have the same friends and the same enemies". Stephen also met Ottokar II on an island of the Danube near Pressburg (present-day Bratislava, Slovakia), but they only concluded a truce.
Stephen launched a plundering raid into Austria around 21 December.King Ottokar invaded the lands north of the Danube in April 1271 and captured a number of fortresses, including Dévény (now Devín, Slovakia), Pressburg and Nagyszombat (present-day Trnava, Slovakia). Ottokar routed Stephen at Pressburg on 9 May, and at Mosonmagyaróvár on 15 May, but Stephen won the decisive battle on the Rábca River on 21 May. Ottokar withdrew from Hungary and Stephen chased his troops as far as Vienna. The two kings' envoys reached an agreement in Pressburg on 2 July. According to their treaty, Stephen promised that he would not assist Ottokar's opponents in Carinthia, and Ottokar renounced the castles he and his partisans held in Hungary. The Hungarians soon recaptured Kőszeg, Borostyánkő and other fortresses along the western border of Hungary.
According to the Life of Stephen's saintly sister, Margaret, who had died on 18 January 1270,Stephen was present when the first miracle attributed to her occurred on the first anniversary of her death. Stephen, in fact, initiated Margaret's canonization at the Holy See in 1271. In the same year, Stephen granted town privileges to the citizens of Győr. He also confirmed the liberties of the Saxon "guests" in the Szepesség region (present-day Spiš, Slovakia), contributing to the development of their autonomous community. On the other hand, Stephen protected the Archbishop of Esztergom's rights against the conditional nobles of the archbishopric who attempted to get rid of their obligations.
Ban Joachim Gutkeled kidnapped Stephen's ten-year-old son and heir, Ladislaus and imprisoned him in the castle of Koprivnica in the summer of 1272.Stephen besieged the fortress, but could not capture it. Stephen fell ill and was taken to the Csepel Island. He died on 6 August 1272. Stephen was buried near to the tomb of his sister, Margaret, in the Monastery of the Blessed Virgin on Rabbits' Island.
Stephen's wife, Elizabeth, was born around 1239, according to historian Gyula Kristó. century.A charter of her father-in-law, Béla IV, refers to one Seyhan, a Cuman chieftain as his kinsman, implying that Seyhan was Elizabeth's father. Stephen's first child by Elizabeth, Catherine, was born around 1256. She was given in marriage to Stephen Dragutin, the elder son and heir of King Stephen Uroš I of Serbia, in about 1268. Her sister Mary was born around 1257 and married the future Charles II of Naples in 1270. Their grandson Charles Robert became King of Hungary in the first decade of the 14th
According to historian Gyula Kristó, Stephen's third (unnamed) daughter was the wife of Despot Jacob Svetoslav.Stephen's third (or fourth) daughter, Elizabeth, who was born in about 1260, became a Dominican nun in the Monastery of the Blessed Virgin on Rabbits' Island. She was appointed prioress in 1277, but her brother, Ladislaus, kidnapped and married her to a Czech baron, Zavis of Falkenstein, in 1288. Stephen's youngest daughter, Anna, was born in about 1260. She married Andronikos Palaiologos, son and heir of the Byzantine Emperor, Michael VIII.
Stephen's first son, Ladislaus IV, was born in 1262.He succeeded his father in 1272. Stephen's youngest child, Andrew, was born in 1268 and died at the age of 10.
Andrew II, also known as Andrew of Jerusalem, was King of Hungary and Croatia between 1205 and 1235. He ruled the Principality of Halych from 1188 until 1189/1190, and again between 1208/1209 and 1210. He was the younger son of Béla III of Hungary, who entrusted him with the administration of the newly conquered Principality of Halych in 1188. Andrew's rule was unpopular, and the boyars expelled him. Béla III willed property and money to Andrew, obliging him to lead a crusade to the Holy Land. Instead, Andrew forced his elder brother, King Emeric of Hungary, to cede Croatia and Dalmatia as an appanage to him in 1197. The following year, Andrew occupied Hum.
Ladislaus IV, also known as Ladislas the Cuman, was king of Hungary and Croatia from 1272 to 1290. His mother, Elizabeth, was the daughter of a chieftain from the pagan Cumans who had settled in Hungary. At the age of seven, he married Elisabeth, a daughter of King Charles I of Sicily. Ladislaus was only 10 when a rebellious lord, Joachim Gutkeled, kidnapped and imprisoned him.
Ladislaus I or Ladislas I, also Saint Ladislaus or Saint Ladislas was King of Hungary from 1077 and King of Croatia from 1091. He was the second son of King Béla I of Hungary. After Béla's death in 1063, Ladislaus and his elder brother, Géza, acknowledged their cousin, Solomon as the lawful king in exchange for receiving their father's former duchy, which included one-third of the kingdom. They cooperated with Solomon for the next decade. Ladislaus's most popular legend, which narrates his fight with a "Cuman" who abducted a Hungarian girl, is connected to this period. The brothers' relationship with Solomon deteriorated in the early 1070s, and they rebelled against him. Géza was proclaimed king in 1074, but Solomon maintained control of the western regions of his kingdom. During Géza's reign, Ladislaus was his brother's most influential adviser.
Géza I was King of Hungary from 1074 until his death. He was the eldest son of King Béla I. His baptismal name was Magnus. With German assistance, Géza's cousin Solomon acquired the crown when his father died in 1063, forcing Géza to leave Hungary. Géza returned with Polish reinforcements and signed a treaty with Solomon in early 1064. In the treaty, Géza and his brother, Ladislaus acknowledged the rule of Solomon, who granted them their father's former duchy, which encompassed one-third of the Kingdom of Hungary.
The Árpáds or Arpads was the ruling dynasty of the Principality of Hungary in the 9th and 10th centuries and of the Kingdom of Hungary from 1000 to 1301. The dynasty was named after Grand Prince Árpád who was the head of the Hungarian tribal federation during the conquest of the Carpathian Basin, c. 895. It is also referred to as the Turul dynasty, but rarely.
Béla IV was King of Hungary and Croatia between 1235 and 1270, and Duke of Styria from 1254 to 1258. As the oldest son of King Andrew II, he was crowned upon the initiative of a group of influential noblemen in his father's lifetime in 1214. His father, who strongly opposed Béla's coronation, refused to give him a province to rule until 1220. In this year, Béla was appointed Duke of Slavonia, also with jurisdiction in Croatia and Dalmatia. Around the same time, Béla married Maria, a daughter of Theodore I Laskaris, Emperor of Nicaea. From 1226, he governed Transylvania with the title Duke. He supported Christian missions among the pagan Cumans who dwelled in the plains to the east of his province. Some Cuman chieftains acknowledged his suzerainty and he adopted the title of King of Cumania in 1233. King Andrew died on 21 September 1235 and Béla succeeded him. He attempted to restore royal authority, which had diminished under his father. For this purpose, he revised his predecessors' land grants and reclaimed former royal estates, causing discontent among the noblemen and the prelates.
Emeric, also known as Henry or Imre, was King of Hungary and Croatia between 1196 and 1204. In 1184, his father, Béla III of Hungary, ordered that he be crowned king, and appointed him as ruler of Croatia and Dalmatia around 1195. Emeric ascended the throne after the death of his father. During the first four years of his reign, he fought his rebellious brother, Andrew, who forced Emeric to make him ruler of Croatia and Dalmatia as appanage.
Solomon, also Salomon was King of Hungary from 1063. Being the elder son of Andrew I, he was crowned king in his father's lifetime in 1057 or 1058. However, he was forced to flee from Hungary after his uncle, Béla I, dethroned Andrew in 1060. Assisted by German troops, Solomon returned and was again crowned king in 1063. On this occasion he married Judith, sister of Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor. In the following year he reached an agreement with his cousins, the three sons of Béla I. Géza, Ladislaus and Lampert acknowledged Solomon's rule, but in exchange received one-third of the kingdom as a separate duchy.
Andrew III the Venetian was King of Hungary and Croatia between 1290 and 1301. His father, Stephen the Posthumous, was the posthumous son of Andrew II of Hungary although Stephen's brothers considered him a bastard. Andrew grew up in Venice, and first arrived in Hungary upon the invitation of a rebellious baron, Ivan Kőszegi, in 1278. Kőszegi tried to play Andrew off against Ladislaus IV of Hungary, but the conspiracy collapsed and Andrew returned to Venice.
Csák (I) from the kindred Hahót was a Hungarian noble who held several secular positions during the reign of King Béla IV. Initially, he was a strong and influential supporter of the king's son, Duke Stephen, later returned to Béla's allegiance.
Matthew (II) from the kindred Csák was a powerful Hungarian baron, landowner and military leader, who held several secular positions during the reign of kings Béla IV, Stephen V and Ladislaus IV. He was the first notable member of the Trencsén branch of the gens ("clan") Csák. His nephew and heir was the oligarch Matthew III Csák, who, based on his uncles' acquisitions, became the de facto ruler of his domain independently of the king and usurped royal prerogatives on his territories.
Béla was the youngest and favorite child of King Béla IV of Hungary. His father appointed him Duke of Slavonia in 1260, but he only started to govern his duchy from 1268. He died childless.
Andrew, Duke of Slavonia was the youngest son of King Stephen V of Hungary and his wife, Elizabeth the Cuman. Two rebellious lords kidnapped him in 1274 in an attempt to play him off against his brother, Ladislaus IV of Hungary, but the king's supporters liberated him. He was styled "Duke of Slavonia and Croatia" in a 1274 letter. Years after his death, two adventurers claimed to be identical with Andrew, but both failed.
Peter (I) from the kindred Csák was a powerful Hungarian baron, landowner and military leader, who held several secular positions during the reign of kings Stephen V and Ladislaus IV. His son and heir was the oligarch Matthew III Csák, who, based on his father and uncles' acquisitions, became the de facto ruler of his domain independently of the king and usurped royal prerogatives on his territories.
Stephen (I) from the kindred Gutkeled was a Hungarian influential lord, an early prominent member of the gens Gutkeled and ancestor of its Majád branch. He governed the Duchy of Styria on behalf of claimants Duke Béla and Duke Stephen from 1254 until his death.
Roland (I) from the kindred Rátót was a Hungarian influential lord, who held several important secular positions for decades. He was also the ancestor of the Paksi family.
Henry (I) Kőszegi from the kindred Héder, commonly known as Henry the Great, was a Hungarian influential lord in the second half of the 13th century, founder and first member of the powerful Kőszegi family. Henry was one of the most notable earlier "oligarchs", who ruled de facto independently their dominion during the era of feudal anarchy.
Nicholas (III) from the kindred Monoszló was a Hungarian baron, who served as Judge royal between 1270 and 1272, during the reign of Stephen V.
Gregory (III) from the kindred Monoszló was a Hungarian lord, who served as the first known Judge of the Cumans in 1269. Through his marriage, he was a relative of the royal Árpád dynasty.
Rubinus from the kindred Hermán was a Hungarian soldier and nobleman, who served as Judge royal in 1283, during the reign of Ladislaus IV of Hungary.
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Stephen V of HungaryBorn: before 18 October 1239 Died: 6 August 1272
Title last held byColoman
| Duke of Slavonia |
Title next held byBéla
Title last held byBéla
| Duke of Transylvania |
Title next held byLouis
| Duke of Styria |
| King of Hungary and Croatia |