Stewart Udall

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Stewart Udall
Stewart L Udall - 1960s.jpg
37th United States Secretary of the Interior
In office
January 21, 1961 January 20, 1969
President John F. Kennedy
Lyndon B. Johnson
Preceded by Fred A. Seaton
Succeeded by Wally Hickel
Member of the U.S.HouseofRepresentatives
from Arizona's 2nd district
In office
January 3, 1955 January 18, 1961
Preceded by Harold Patten
Succeeded by Mo Udall
Personal details
Born
Stewart Lee Udall

(1920-01-31)January 31, 1920
St. Johns, Arizona, U.S.
DiedMarch 20, 2010(2010-03-20) (aged 90)
Santa Fe, New Mexico, U.S.
Political party Democratic
Spouse(s)Ermalee Webb
Children6, including Tom
Education Eastern Arizona College
University of Arizona (LLB)
Military service
AllegianceFlag of the United States.svg  United States
Branch/serviceFlag of the United States Army (official proportions).svg  United States Army
Unit United States Army Air Corps
  Fifteenth Air Force
Battles/wars World War II

Stewart Lee Udall (January 31, 1920 – March 20, 2010) [1] [2] was an American politician and later, a federal government official. After serving three terms as a congressman from Arizona, he served as Secretary of the Interior from 1961 to 1969, under presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson. [3]

United States House of Representatives lower house of the United States Congress

The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper chamber. Together they compose the legislature of the United States.

Arizona state of the United States of America

Arizona is a state in the southwestern region of the United States. It is also part of the Western and the Mountain states. It is the sixth largest and the 14th most populous of the 50 states. Its capital and largest city is Phoenix. Arizona shares the Four Corners region with Utah, Colorado, and New Mexico; its other neighboring states are Nevada and California to the west and the Mexican states of Sonora and Baja California to the south and southwest.

United States Secretary of the Interior head of the Department of the Interior in the United States government

The United States Secretary of the Interior is the head of the United States Department of the Interior. The Department of the Interior in the United States is responsible for the management and conservation of most federal land and natural resources; it oversees such agencies as the Bureau of Land Management, the United States Geological Survey, and the National Park Service. The Secretary also serves on and appoints the private citizens on the National Park Foundation board. The Secretary is a member of the President's Cabinet. The U.S. Department of the Interior should not be confused with the Ministries of the Interior as used in many other countries. Ministries of the Interior in these other countries correspond primarily to the Department of Homeland Security in the U.S. Cabinet and secondarily to the Department of Justice.

Contents

Early life and career

Born January 31, 1920, in Saint Johns, Arizona, to Louisa Lee Udall (1893–1974) and Levi Stewart Udall (1891–1960). He had five siblings: Inez, Elma, Morris (Mo), Eloise, and David Burr. As a young boy Stewart worked on the family farm in St. Johns. Stewart was remembered by his mother as a child with tremendous energy and an unquenchable curiosity. [4]

Levi Stewart Udall was a U.S. lawyer who served as Chief Justice of the Arizona Supreme Court. He was a member of the Udall political family.

Mo Udall American politician

Morris King Udall was an American Democratic politician who served as a U.S. Representative from Arizona from May 2, 1961 to May 4, 1991, and was a leading contender for the 1976 Democratic presidential nomination. He was noted by many for his independent and liberal views.

Stewart Udall attended the University of Arizona for two years until World War II. He served four years in the Air Force as an enlisted gunner on a B-24 Liberator, flying fifty missions over Western Europe from Italy with the 736th Bomb Squadron, 454th Bomb Group, for which he received the Air Medal with three Oak Leaf Clusters. He returned to the University of Arizona in 1946, where he attended law school and played guard on a championship basketball team. In 1947, Udall, along with his brother Mo, helped integrate the University of Arizona cafeteria. Mo and Stewart were respected student athletes and Mo was student body president. On their way to lunch at the Student Union one day, they saw a group of black students eating lunch outside the building. Black students were allowed to buy food in the cafeteria, but had to eat outside. When Mo and Stewart invited Morgan Maxwell Jr., a black freshman, to share their table in the cafeteria, it helped to calm some long-simmering racial issues surrounding segregation at the university. [5]

University of Arizona Public university in Tucson, Arizona, United States

The University of Arizona is a public research university in Tucson, Arizona. Founded in 1885, the UA was the first university in the Arizona Territory. As of 2017, the university enrolls 44,831 students in 19 separate colleges/schools, including the University of Arizona College of Medicine in Tucson and Phoenix and the James E. Rogers College of Law, and is affiliated with two academic medical centers. The University of Arizona is governed by the Arizona Board of Regents. The University of Arizona is one of the elected members of the Association of American Universities and is the only representative from the state of Arizona to this group.

World War II 1939–1945 global war

World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. The major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China. It included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, and the only use of nuclear weapons in war.

736th Bombardment Squadron

The 736th Bombardment Squadron is an inactive United States Air Force unit. It was last assigned to the 454th Bombardment Wing at Columbus Air Force Base, Mississippi, where it was inactivated on 2 July 1969 as the United States reduced its inventory of older Boeing B-52 Stratofortresses..

Udall received his law degree and was admitted to the Arizona bar in 1948. He began his law practice in Tucson shortly thereafter. [4] Udall became increasingly active in public service, being elected to the School Board of Amphitheater Public Schools (District 10) in Tucson in June 1951. As a school board member, he participated in desegregating the Amphitheater School District before the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in Brown v. Board of Education. [6] Udall was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives from Arizona's Second District in 1954. He served with distinction in the House for three terms on the Interior and Education and Labor committees. [4]

<i>Brown v. Board of Education</i> United States Supreme Court case

Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483 (1954), was a landmark decision of the U.S. Supreme Court in which the Court ruled that American state laws establishing racial segregation in public schools are unconstitutional, even if the segregated schools are otherwise equal in quality. Handed down on May 17, 1954, the Court's unanimous (9–0) decision stated that "separate educational facilities are inherently unequal," and therefore violate the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution. However, the decision's 14 pages did not spell out any sort of method for ending racial segregation in schools, and the Court's second decision in Brown II only ordered states to desegregate "with all deliberate speed".

Arizonas 2nd congressional district

Arizona's 2nd congressional district is a congressional district located in the U.S. state of Arizona. It contains the southeastern corner of the state, including roughly two-thirds of Tucson.

Secretary of the Interior

Udall (rear) standing next to Mrs. John F. Kennedy at the president's Swearing In Ceremony, January 21, 1961. Udall at JFK Oath.jpg
Udall (rear) standing next to Mrs. John F. Kennedy at the president's Swearing In Ceremony, January 21, 1961.

Udall served as Secretary of the Interior from 1961 to 1969 under presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson. [7] Under his leadership, the Interior Department aggressively promoted an expansion of federal public lands and assisted with the enactment of major environmental legislation. Among his accomplishments, Udall oversaw the addition of four national parks, six national monuments, eight national seashores and lakeshores, nine national recreation areas, twenty national historic sites, and fifty-six national wildlife refuges, including Canyonlands National Park in Utah, North Cascades National Park in Washington, Redwood National Park in California, the Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge in New Jersey, and the Appalachian National Scenic Trail stretching from Georgia to Maine.

John F. Kennedy 35th president of the United States

John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy, often referred to by his initials JFK, was an American politician who served as the 35th president of the United States from January 1961 until his assassination in November 1963. He served at the height of the Cold War, and the majority of his presidency dealt with managing relations with the Soviet Union. A member of the Democratic Party, Kennedy represented Massachusetts in the U.S. House of Representatives and Senate prior to becoming president.

Lyndon B. Johnson 36th president of the United States

Lyndon Baines Johnson, often referred to as LBJ, was an American politician who served as the 36th president of the United States from 1963 to 1969. Formerly the 37th vice president of the United States from 1961 to 1963, he assumed the presidency following the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. A Democrat from Texas, Johnson also served as a United States Representative and as the Majority Leader in the United States Senate. Johnson is one of only four people who have served in all four federal elected positions.

Canyonlands National Park U.S. National Park located in southeastern Utah near the town of Moab

Canyonlands National Park is an American national park located in southeastern Utah near the town of Moab. The park preserves a colorful landscape eroded into numerous canyons, mesas, and buttes by the Colorado River, the Green River, and their respective tributaries. Legislation creating the park was signed into law by President Lyndon Johnson on September 12, 1964.

Udall played a key role in the enactment of environmental laws such as the Clear Air, Water Quality and Clean Water Restoration Acts and Amendments, the Wilderness Act of 1964, the Endangered Species Preservation Act of 1966, the Land and Water Conservation Fund Act of 1965, the Solid Waste Disposal Act of 1965, the National Trail System Act of 1968, and Wild and Scenic Rivers Act of 1968.

Soon after becoming the Secretary of Interior, Udall told the Washington Redskins owner, George Preston Marshall, that he had to integrate the football team as every other franchise in the NFL already had, or risk being evicted from the Washington, D.C. stadium, which was federally owned. [8] [9] Marshall integrated the team in 1962.

During Udall's tenure as Secretary of the Interior, in September 1962, he was summoned unexpectedly into a meeting with Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev while on a tour of the Soviet Union. It was during this meeting that Khrushchev famously hinted at his secret deployment of nuclear missiles to Cuba by telling Udall: "It's been a long time since you could spank us like a little boy. Now we can swat your ass." This was a prelude to the Cuban Missile Crisis. [10]

Udall supported a plan created by the US Army Corps of Engineers to construct the Tocks Island Dam for the purpose of creating a reservoir for the benefit of the New York City water supply. After forcing homeowners out of their homes through buyouts and condemnation, the plan was abandoned. The homes that had not been bulldozed were simply left to deteriorate. Throughout the process, the federal government acted with impunity and a callous disregard for those who were displaced. With the election of President Reagan, the Tocks Island Dam project was shelved. [11]

Udall also helped spark a cultural renaissance in America by setting in motion initiatives that led to the Kennedy Center, Wolf Trap National Park for the Performing Arts, the National Endowment for the Arts, the National Endowment for the Humanities, and the revived Ford's Theatre. Upon Udall's recommendation President Kennedy asked former U.S. Poet Laureate Robert Frost to read an original poem at his inauguration, establishing a tradition for that occasion. [12]

Lady Bird Johnson and Udall on a trip to Grand Teton National Park, August 1964 Stewart Udall 1964.jpg
Lady Bird Johnson and Udall on a trip to Grand Teton National Park, August 1964

A pioneer of the environmental movement, Udall warned of a conservation crisis in the 1960s with his best-selling book on environmental attitudes in the United States, The Quiet Crisis (1963). [12] In the book, he wrote about the dangers of pollution, overuse of natural resources, and dwindling open spaces. Along with Rachel Carson's Silent Spring, The Quiet Crisis is credited with creating a consciousness in the country that led to the environmental movement. Udall was a staunch supporter of Rachel Carson and her work. Stewart Udall once stated, "Plans to protect air and water, wilderness and wildlife are in fact, plans to protect Man."

Udall also had the foresight, when he was Secretary of the Interior, to spearhead the use of NASA satellites to produce images of Earth from space for scientific research, leading to development of the Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) center at the U.S. Geological Survey. Over the course of more than forty years, that program mapped the Earth from space, showing the physical changes to the planet. [13]

In 1967, the National Audubon Society awarded Udall its highest honor, the Audubon medal. [14]

Energy policy

During the energy crisis in the 1970s, Udall advocated the use of solar energy as one remedy to the crisis. In October 1972, Udall published a seminal article in The Atlantic Monthly , entitled "The Last Traffic Jam". The article contains arguments for the proposition that "less is more" and foresaw problems with U.S. transportation and energy policy and competition with emerging markets for scarce resources. [15] In 1974, Udall, along with Charles Conconi and David Osterhout, wrote The Energy Balloon, discussing the energy policies of the United States.

Later years

After leaving government service in 1969, Udall taught for a year at the School of Forestry at Yale University as a Visiting Professor of Environmental Humanism. [16] He later devoted his time to writing books and articles about environmental issues and to practicing law. In 1971, he published America's Natural Treasures: National Nature Monuments and Seashores, which is about America's national parks, monuments, and reserves. [17]

In 1979, he left Washington to return to the West. In 1980, Udall was elected to the Central Arizona Water Conservation District Board and commissioned as a member of the Morrison Institute. [4] Udall was presented with the Ansel Adams Award in 1986, the Wilderness Society's highest conservation award. [4] He also was awarded the United Nations Gold Medal for Lifetime Achievement. [4] Udall received the Common Cause Public Service Achievement Award for his lifelong protection of the environment and defense of American citizens who were victims of nuclear weapons testing. [4]

In 1987, he published To the Inland Empire: Coronado and our Spanish Legacy, which retraces the trails of Spanish explorer Francisco Vásquez de Coronado as he searched for the "golden cities" of Cibola in what now is Arizona, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas. [4] Udall published The Quiet Crisis and the Next Generation in 1988, a revised edition with nine new chapters of The Quiet Crisis (1963). "The Quiet Crisis" introduced the Myth of Superabundance. [4] In 1990, he co-authored Beyond the Mythic West, which examines effects of change upon the inhabitants and lands of the western United States. [4] In 1998, he published The Myths of August: A Personal Exploration of Our Tragic Cold War Affairs with the Atom. [18]

One of Udall's last essays was his "Letter to My Grandchildren", written with his wife, Ermalee, which asked for their grandchildren's assistance in advocating for protection of the Earth. This letter resulted in Udall being contacted by the VillageTown Stewards who asked that they videotape the thoughts in that letter, since it was more likely that the generation of his grandchildren watch internet videos than read letters. Udall agreed, and the video may be seen on-line at, Stewart Udall on History: the greatest mistake. This video was then transcribed and adapted to a chapter of a book, Life Liberty Happiness. Udall also agreed to serve as Chairman Emeritus of the VillageTown Stewards. The video was filmed coincidentally on the Summer solstice of 2009 and Udall died nine months later on the Spring equinox. His public memorial was held on the Summer solstice of 2010. It is believed this video was the last recording of Udall's views.

In November 2009, Congress enacted legislation to honor Stewart Udall by renaming the Morris K. Udall Foundation as the Morris K. Udall and Stewart L. Udall Foundation, in recognition of the historic Interior Secretary's contributions. The Udall Foundation, an independent federal agency, was created initially to honor the legacy of the late Morris Udall, who represented Southern Arizona in the U.S. House of Representatives for thirty years. Stewart Udall, who also represented Southern Arizona in Congress from 1955 to 1961, is Morris Udall's older brother. The two worked together on many environmental and Native American initiatives while Stewart Udall was Secretary of the Interior and Morris Udall a member of Congress. Congress recognized that the Udall legacy really was a shared legacy, rooted in the work of the Udall brothers, which dominated environmental reform for three decades.

Death and legacy

The still-active Stewart Udall at home January 23, 2010, less than two months before his death at age 90 Stewart Udall 2010.jpg
The still-active Stewart Udall at home January 23, 2010, less than two months before his death at age 90

At the age of 90, Stewart L. Udall died peacefully at his home in the foothills of Santa Fe, New Mexico, in the early hours of the Spring Equinox, March 20, 2010. [19] After his death, President Obama noted on March 20, 2010, "For the better part of three decades, Stewart Udall served this nation honorably. Whether in the skies above Italy in World War II, in Congress, or as Secretary of the Interior, Stewart Udall left an indelible mark on this nation and inspired countless Americans who will continue his fight for clean air, clean water, and to maintain our many natural treasures." [20]

On June 8, 2010, President Barack Obama signed legislation to designate the United States Department of the Interior Building as the "Stewart Lee Udall Department of the Interior Building." [21]

Point Udall, on St. Croix in the U.S. Virgin Islands, considered the easternmost point of the United States, was named for him in 1968, honoring Udall's work to support the economy of the island group. [22] The westernmost spot, Point Udall, Guam, is named for his brother Mo. This means that "America's day ... begin(s) and end(s) at a Point Udall." [23]

Awards and Decorations

During his USAAF service, Udall earned the following decorations: [24]

USAAF Aerial Gunner Badge.png Army Air Forces Aerial Gunner Badge
Bronze oakleaf-3d.svg
Bronze oakleaf-3d.svg
Bronze oakleaf-3d.svg
Air Medal ribbon.svg
Air Medal with three bronze oak leaf cluster
Bronze oakleaf-3d.svg
AF Presidential Unit Citation Ribbon.png
Presidential Unit Citation with bronze oak leaf cluster
Army Good Conduct Medal ribbon.svg Army Good Conduct Medal
American Campaign Medal ribbon.svg American Campaign Medal
Bronze-service-star-3d-vector.svg
Bronze-service-star-3d-vector.svg
European-African-Middle Eastern Campaign ribbon.svg
European–African–Middle Eastern Campaign Medal with two bronze campaign stars
World War II Victory Medal ribbon.svg World War II Victory Medal

Family

Stewart Udall was married to Ermalee Webb (died 2001) with whom he had two daughters, (Lori and Lynn) and four sons, (Denis, Jay, Scott, and Tom). He was the brother of U.S. Representative and 1976 presidential candidate, Mo Udall; he served as Mo's campaign manager during the Democratic primary election, which Mo lost to Jimmy Carter. Stewart Udall's son Tom Udall and nephew Mark Udall (Mo's son), both former members of the U.S. House of Representatives, were elected to the United States Senate from New Mexico and Colorado, respectively, in 2008. Mark lost his seat in 2014.

Books written by Stewart L. Udall

Books co-authored by Stewart L. Udall

Books about Stewart L. Udall and Ermalee Udall

Other information

Robert Frost and Stewart Udall in 1962

The file above's purpose is being discussed and/or is being considered for deletion. See files for discussion to help reach a consensus on what to do. Robert Frost and Stewart Udall 6749.jpg
Robert Frost and Stewart Udall in 1962

The file above's purpose is being discussed and/or is being considered for deletion. See files for discussion to help reach a consensus on what to do.

See also

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References

  1. Statement from the Udall Family, March 20, 2010, retrieved March 20, 2010
  2. Stewart L. Udall, 90, Conservationist in Kennedy and Johnson Cabinets, Dies., The New York Times , March 20, 2010. Accessed March 21, 2010
  3. Obituary Los Angeles Times , March 21, 2010; page A39.
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 "career". Library.arizona.edu. January 31, 1920. Retrieved September 28, 2016.
  5. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on May 27, 2010. Retrieved July 22, 2010.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  6. [ dead link ]
  7. Vanity Fair, May 2007 issue 561, pg. 163
  8. [Thomas G. Smith, "Showdown: JFK and the Integration of the Washington Redskins", Boston, Mass.: Beacon Press, 2011, p. 151]
  9. [Niall Ferguson, "The War of the World: Twentieth-Century Conflict and the Descent of the West", New York: Penguin Books, 2006, pp. 600-601]
  10. https://vimeo.com/142291370
  11. 1 2 "Archived copy". Archived from the original on May 27, 2010. Retrieved July 22, 2010.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  12. "Statement of Terrence L. Bracy Chair of the Board of Trustees, Morris K. Udall Foundation" (PDF). Republicans.resourcescommittee.house.gov. Retrieved September 28, 2016.
  13. "Previous Audubon Medal Awardees". Audubon.org. Retrieved September 28, 2016.
  14. Udall, Stewart (October 1972), "The Last Traffic Jam: Too many cars, too little oil. An argument for the proposition that 'less is more'", The Atlantic Monthly, retrieved August 21, 2011]
  15. Karen Meyers (January 31, 1920). "Stewart Lee Udall: Biography". Library.arizona.edu. Retrieved September 28, 2016.
  16. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on May 27, 2010. Retrieved July 22, 2010.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  17. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on April 5, 2010. Retrieved July 22, 2010.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  18. New York Times obituary, March 20, 2010; accessed March 21, 2010.
  19. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on May 27, 2010. Retrieved July 22, 2010.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  20. "Statement by the Press Secretary on H.R. 5128 and H.R. 5139". Whitehouse.gov. June 8, 2010. Archived from the original on October 2, 2016. Retrieved September 28, 2016.
  21. Tolchin, Martin; Binder, David (February 17, 1989). "The Pillars of Udall". The New York Times . Retrieved October 12, 2018.
  22. Smith, Denny; Blaz, Ben. "Bill Would Name Guam Point After Morris Udall". Associated Press . University of Arizona . Retrieved October 12, 2018.
  23. "Stewart L. Udall". Together We Served. Retrieved February 5, 2018.

Further reading

U.S. House of Representatives
Preceded by
Harold A. Patten
U.S. Representative, Arizona 2nd Congressional District
19551961
Succeeded by
Mo Udall
Political offices
Preceded by
Fred Seaton
U.S. Secretary of the Interior
Served under: John F. Kennedy, Lyndon B. Johnson

19611969
Succeeded by
Wally Hickel