Stockholm Arlanda Airport
|Location||Sigtuna Municipality, Sweden|
|Opened||1 April 1962|
|Hub for||Scandinavian Airlines|
|Focus city for|
|Elevation AMSL||137 ft / 42 m|
Stockholm Arlanda Airport( IATA : ARN, ICAO : ESSA) is an international airport located in the Sigtuna Municipality of Sweden, near the town of Märsta, 37 kilometres (23 mi) north of Stockholm and nearly 40 kilometres (25 mi) south-east of Uppsala. The airport is located within Stockholm County and the province of Uppland. It is the largest airport in Sweden and the third-largest airport in the Nordic countries. The airport is the major gateway to international air travel for large parts of Sweden. Arlanda Airport was used by close to 27 million passengers in 2017, with 21.2 million international passengers and 5.5 million domestic.
Stockholm Arlanda Airport is the larger of Stockholm's two airports. The other, Stockholm–Bromma, is located north-west of the city's centre but can be used only by a small number of smaller aircraft. The smaller airports Stockholm-Skavsta and Stockholm-Västerås are both located around 100 kilometres (60 mi) away from the Swedish capital. Stockholm Arlanda serves as a major hub for Scandinavian Airlines and Norwegian Air Shuttle.
The airport was first used in 1959 but only for practice flights. It opened for limited civil traffic in 1960, and in 1962 the official opening ceremony took place. It was used from the start for intercontinental traffic because the runway at Bromma was too short. Scandinavian Airlines started using Douglas DC-8s on North American routes. The airport was also used very early by Pan American World Airways. The name Arlanda was decided after a competition prior to the airport opening. It is derived from Arland, an old name for the parish Ärlinghundra (now Husby-Ärlinghundra in Märsta) where the airport is situated. The '-a' was added in analogy with other Swedish place names ending with -landa and also plays on the Swedish verb "landa", which means "to land". The 1960s and 1970s saw increases in traffic with scheduled traffic and charter traffic. The Boeing 747 jumbojet started to be used in the 1970s, both on one-stop scheduled flights to New York and on weekend nonstop charters to the Canary Islands. Domestic flights to Gothenburg, Malmö, Luleå and Kiruna were operated by SAS DC-9s from Arlanda since they were considered too noisy to be used at downtown Bromma. The rest of domestic traffic operated out of Bromma and all international traffic out of Arlanda.
In 1983 the domestic traffic operated by Linjeflyg moved from Bromma to Arlanda, using the terminal now known as Terminal 4. In 1990 two new domestic terminals called "Domestic 2 and 3" were built south of the first domestic terminal. In 1992 the terminal 2 was partly abandoned because of traffic decrease. It started to be used for international traffic the year after, and the main domestic and international terminals were renumbered into 4 and 5. The third runway was built between 1998 and 2002. However, a recession in 2002 delayed its opening until 2003. At that time protests were raised by people living under its flight path in the municipality of Upplands Väsby. Traffic has recovered since and is now showing healthy increases but the third runway is only used during peak hours for environmental reasons. In September 2010 the first Airbus A380 superjumbo landed at the airport.
In early 2014, Swedavia announced plans for further expansions of the airport terminal complex, including the construction of an additional pier for Terminal 5 in order to better accommodate larger aircraft such as the Airbus A380 and Boeing 747-8 and address forecasts of rising passenger numbers.The plans were approved by the Environmental Court of Appeals in December 2014, and construction was scheduled to commence in the spring of 2015.
In the spring of 2020, most flights were cancelled due to the COVID-19 pandemic.SAS decided to from 6 April 2020 fly only four domestic departures and four domestic arrivals from Arlanda, plus some international while Norwegian cancelled all flights from Arlanda except to Oslo. Terminal 2, 3 and 4 closed and terminal 5 handled all passengers during this period (March 2020 – October 2021) The passenger figures were 97.7% lower in April 2020 than in April 2019. The figured picked up later, but were early 2021 still over 80% less per month than 2019.
In the spring of 2022, passenger figures rose again to more normal levels. This caused capacity problems, especially in the security check, because most of its staff were fired due to the pandemic recession, and it takes time to find and get security approval for and educate new staff. Terminal 4 could not open because transfer between it and Terminal 5 required a security check, and the security check was congested already, so Terminal 5 got itself congested.Swedavia built a new pedestrian tunnel between the two terminals bypassing the security check area. It opened together with Terminal 4 at the end of June 2022.
Arlanda has three runways: Runway 1 (01L/19R), Runway 2 (08/26) and Runway 3 (01R/19L). Runway 1 is 3,301 m (10,830 ft) long and can handle take-offs and landings of the heaviest aircraft in use today. Runways 2 and 3 are 2,500 m (8,202 ft) long. As indicated, runways 1 and 3 are parallel runways that can be operated independently of one another. Runways 1 and 3 are equipped with CAT III systems for instrument landings. The airport can handle simultaneous take offs and landings using runways 1 and 3 at the same time. Simultaneous aircraft takeoffs and landings can be performed in instrument meteorological conditions (IMC). Runway 3 (01R/19L) is reached from the main terminal area via taxiway bridges constructed to be able to handle the heaviest and largest aircraft in traffic, although its length practically limits this. Since runway 3 (01R/19L) is located at a distance from the terminals, a deicing area is placed close to the runway to avoid long waits between deicing and take off in winter conditions. Another deicing area is located in connection with the southern ramp area close to the take off positions at runway 01L. There are high speed taxiway exits from all runways, except runway 08, to enable aircraft to exit the runways quickly after landing. That increases runway capacity during rush hours. Use of parallel taxiways around the terminal area separates arriving and departing traffic. Arlanda can handle all aircraft types in service including the Airbus A380.
The airport has four terminals. As of 2022, three terminals are in use, and there is no real separation of domestic and international flights anymore. From 1992 to 2019 terminals 2 and 5 were used for international flights, and 3 and 4 for domestic flights. There has been a modification of usage due to the COVID-19 pandemic when only terminal 5 was used, and during the capacity build up of 2022, which is still not settled and is subject of change.
The central building, Arlanda North, opened in late 2003, connecting terminal 5 with the newly built Pier F. Between terminals 4 and 5 is a shopping and restaurant area with a railway station below, called "Sky City", which is outside the security check area on the landside to cater to the needs of passengers and visitors to the airport. In 2022 terminals 4 and 5 were connected on the airside after the security check area, making them more connected to each other.
There are hotels at the airport in connection with the terminals (only outside the security check and passport check area) and in its surroundings. There are also conference facilities at the airport.
Stockholm Arlanda has extensive cargo flight activity. There is a cargo area with cargo terminals and cargo transit facilities in the southern part of the airport area. The cargo area is labeled "Cargo City" with warehouses operated by Cargo Center,DHL, Swedish postal service (Posten) and Spirit Air Cargo. A large part of mail and express parcels from Sweden is handled through the facilities at the airport. SAS Cargo has its cargo operation east of the passenger terminals close to the SAS hangars.
Dedicated scheduled cargo flights are operated by Korean Air Cargo with Boeing 747 cargo aircraft, as well as Lufthansa Cargo and Turkish Airlines. DHL, FedEx and UPS operate express freight services at the airport. West Air Sweden and Amapola operate shorter cargo sectors. A number of airlines operate ad hoc cargo flights with various equipment. Outsize cargo is frequently hauled with the Antonov An-124 and similar cargo planes. TNT had their operations at Arlanda but have since moved to Västerås Airport.
Swedavia, the Swedish airport management company, has its head office in the airport control tower facility.The company Sollentuna Cabin Interiors has its head office in Hangar 4 at Arlanda.
Oxford Aviation Academy has a flight simulator centre for some of the most common airliners of today (like Boeing 737) at Arlanda. Arlanda has hangars and aircraft maintenance facilities operated by SAS Scandinavian Airlines and Priority Aero Maintenance.TUI fly Nordic based at the airport also has a large hangar for widebody jets. There is also a helicopter repair facility operated by Patria Helicopters. A decommissioned Boeing 747 jumbo jet renovated into a hostel, the Jumbo Stay (formerly Jumbo Hostel), is located at the entrance to Arlanda Airport. There are four additional hotels at the airport (Clarion Hotel Arlanda Airport, Radisson Blu Arlandia Hotel, Radisson Blu SkyCity Hotel and Rest and Fly); in addition there are several hotels nearby with transfer buses.
|Aegean Airlines|| Athens |
|Air France|| Paris–Charles de Gaulle |
|All Nippon Airways||Tokyo–Haneda|
|Amapola Flyg||Hagfors, Hemavan, Kokkola, Kramfors, Lycksele, Torsby, Vilhelmina|
|AnadoluJet||Seasonal: Ankara, Bodrum|
|Austrian Airlines|| Vienna |
Seasonal charter: Innsbruck [ citation needed ]
|China Eastern Airlines||Seasonal: Shanghai–Pudong|
|Corendon Airlines||Seasonal: Chania, Rhodes |
Seasonal charter: Hurghada, Sharm El Sheikh
|Croatia Airlines||Seasonal: Split|
|Delta Air Lines||New York–JFK|
|easyJet||Berlin, Geneva, Milan–Malpensa|
|Ethiopian Airlines||Addis Ababa, Oslo|
|Eurowings|| Alicante, Barcelona, Berlin, Birmingham, Düsseldorf, Faro, Hamburg, Málaga, Nice, Palma de Mallorca, Prague, Rome–Fiumicino |
Seasonal: Cologne/Bonn, Heraklion, Larnaca, Mykonos, Rhodes
|Finnair||Doha (begins 1 November 2022), Helsinki, Los Angeles (ends 26 October 2022), New York-JFK (ends 28 October 2022)|
|FlyErbil||Seasonal: Erbil, Sulaimaniyah|
|Iran Air||Tehran–Imam Khomeini|
|LOT Polish Airlines||Warsaw–Chopin|
|Norwegian Air Shuttle|| Alicante, Amsterdam, Barcelona, Belgrade, Bergen, Berlin, Budapest, Copenhagen, Edinburgh, Faro, Gdańsk, Helsinki, Kiruna, Kraków, Larnaca, Lisbon, London–Gatwick, Luleå, Málaga, Manchester, Munich, Nice, Oslo, Palanga, Palma de Mallorca, Pisa, Prague, Riga, Rome–Fiumicino, Tallinn, Tel Aviv, Umeå, Venice, Vilnius |
Seasonal: Antalya, Athens, Burgas, Catania, Chania, Corfu, Dubrovnik, Gran Canaria, Grenoble (resumes 21 January 2023), Heraklion, Kos, Lyon (begins 21 January 2023), Marrakesh (resumes 24 December 2022), Mykonos, Olbia, Östersund (resumes 22 December 2022), Palermo, Paris–Charles de Gaulle, Pristina, Rhodes, Salzburg (resumes 25 December 2022), Santorini, Sarajevo, Split, Thessaloniki, Visby
|Nouvelair||Seasonal charter: Monastir|
|Novair||Seasonal charter: Antalya, Chania, Corfu, Fuerteventura, Funchal, Gran Canaria, Hurghada, Ioannina, Kos, Preveza/Lefkada, Rhodes, Tenerife–South, Zakynthos|
|Pegasus Airlines||Ankara (begins 1 November 2022), Antalya, Istanbul–Sabiha Gökçen|
|Ryanair|| Aalborg, Alicante, Banja Luka, Barcelona, Bergamo, Birmingham (begins 30 October 2022), Bologna, Budapest, Charleroi, Cologne/Bonn, Gdańsk, Gothenburg, Karlsruhe/Baden-Baden, Kaunas, Kraków, Liverpool, London–Stansted, Luleå, Málaga, Malmö, Malta (begins 1 November 2022), Niš, Poznań, Riga, Rome–Fiumicino, Skellefteå, Tallinn, Thessaloniki, Tuzla (begins 2 November 2022), Vienna, Visby, Warsaw–Modlin, Wrocław |
Seasonal: Béziers, Brindisi, Chania, Corfu, Palma de Mallorca, Pisa (begins 1 November 2022), Rijeka, Turin (begins 2 November 2022), Valencia (begins 8 January 2023), Venice, Zadar
|Scandinavian Airlines|| Alicante, Amsterdam, Ängelholm, Athens, Barcelona, Bergen, Berlin, Billund, Brussels, Chicago–O'Hare, Copenhagen, Dublin, Düsseldorf, Edinburgh, Faro, Frankfurt, Geneva, Gothenburg, Hamburg, Helsinki, Kalmar, Kiruna, London–Heathrow, Luleå, Málaga, Malmö, Malta, Manchester, Milan–Linate, Milan–Malpensa, Newark, Nice, Oslo, Östersund, Palma de Mallorca, Paris–Charles de Gaulle, Prague, Rome–Fiumicino, Ronneby, Skellefteå, Stavanger, Sundsvall, Tallinn, Tampere, Thessaloniki, Tromsø, Trondheim, Turku, Umeå, Vaasa, Vilnius, Visby, Warsaw–Chopin, Zürich |
Seasonal: Beirut, Biarritz, Bologna, Catania, Chania, Dubrovnik, Gazipaşa, Gran Canaria, Innsbruck, Miami, Naples, Olbia, Palermo, Pärnu, Pisa, Pula, Reykjavík–Keflavík, Split, Tivat, Toronto–Pearson
Seasonal charter: Chios,[ citation needed ] Corfu, Ioannina, Karpathos, Kavala,[ citation needed ] Kefalonia,[ citation needed ] Kos, Larnaca, Lemnos, Mytiline, Palma de Mallorca, Preveza/Lefkada, Samos, Santorini, Skiathos, Tirana, Volos
|Sunclass Airlines||Charter: Gran Canaria |
Seasonal charter: Antalya, Boa Vista, Chania, Fuerteventura, Gazipaşa, Heraklion, Larnaca, Palma de Mallorca, Preveza/Lefkada, Rhodes, Sal, Skiathos, Tenerife–South, Varna
|SunExpress||Seasonal: Antalya, İzmir, Konya|
|Swiss International Air Lines||Zürich|
|TAP Air Portugal||Lisbon|
|Thai Airways International||Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi|
|Transavia||Seasonal: Lyon, Montpellier|
|TUI Airways||Seasonal charter: Cancún, Krabi, Mauritius, Phuket, Phu Quoc|
|TUI fly Nordic||Charter: Gran Canaria |
Seasonal charter: Antalya, Boa Vista, Burgas, Chania, Dalaman, Kos, Lanzarote, Larnaca, Palma de Mallorca, Pula, Rhodes, Sal, Samos, Sälen–Trysil, Split, Tenerife–South, Zakynthos, Zanzibar
|Turkish Airlines|| Istanbul |
|Ukraine International Airlines||Kyiv–Boryspil|
|United Airlines||Seasonal: Newark (resumes 25 May 2023)|
|FedEx Express||Paris–Charles de Gaulle|
|Korean Air Cargo||Seoul–Incheon|
|West Air Sweden||Gothenburg, Sundsvall–Timrå|
Arlanda has a policy to never close due to snowfall.Arlanda is exposed to lake-effect snowfalls, where ice cold air from the northeast in combination with open water in the Baltic Sea causes heavy snowfall. During heavy snowfall at least one runway stays open but in bad weather condition there may be delays even if flight operations continue at all times. Not just runways need to be cleared, aprons and aircraft parking areas need snow clearing as well. It is an advantage that there are three runways allowing two open runways when one is cleared at lighter snowfall. The airport has a total of 250 000 m2 to clear from snow and ice, at the same time as the aircraft continue taking off and landing. During the colder half of the year Stockholm Arlanda has about 65 seasonally hired snow removal staff. Together with permanent staff, they form a team of 100 people who provide snow removal services. Special routes are planned for sweeping teams, which clear each route at intervals of 35 to 45 minutes. The sweeping teams are directed via radio from the air traffic control tower. When snow removal is completed on each runway the surface is tested by a friction vehicle, which measures friction value. The airport announces the friction value, and then it is each pilot who decides whether the value is sufficient for a landing. The friction value determines how often a runway must be ploughed and treated with antiskid agent.
SAS Technical Services, TUI fly Nordic and Priority Aero Maintenance.have large aircraft hangars and maintenance facilities at the airport. SAS Technical Services is headquartered at Arlanda and has hangar facilities suitable for widebody aircraft up to the size of Boeing 747-400s. The first part of the hangar complex was built to handle SAS' fleet of DC-8s. There are a number of positions on each side of the building initially built to handle the type. The hangar space are now used mostly for Boeing 737s and A320s. The Boeing 747 hangar was inaugurated at the time when Scandinavian Airlines received their first Boeing 747s in the beginning of the 70s. It is large enough to handle a Boeing 747 and two 737 sized airplanes at the same time. The offices of SAS Technical Services are situated in connection with the hangars. In the early days of the airport these hangars provided heavy maintenance for members of the KSSU group, which included KLM, SAS, Swissair and UTA. A number of other airlines, such as Thai Airways International, also maintained their aircraft in those hangars. Now the main user is Scandinavian Airlines. TUI fly Nordic has a hangar able to handle their largest aircraft, the Boeing 787-9. Priority Aero Maintenance has its facilities in the eastern part of the airport. They provide heavy aircraft maintenance for a number of aircraft including MD-80, a common type to be overhauled by the company.
There is also a hangar in the southern part of the airport, built by the former Swedish domestic airline Linjeflyg. It is used mainly by regional aircraft.
Helicopter hangars and maintenance facilities are found at the very eastern part of the airport operated by Patria Helicopters.
Arlanda, as the main airport serving the Swedish capital, is also used by VIP-flightsusing business jets. Government officials and celebrities are frequent visitors. In April 2011, the then-Chairman of the Russian Government Vladimir Putin visited Stockholm with a couple of large jet airplanes. The Emperor of Japan has also visited Arlanda with his Boeing 747s. In September 2013, U.S. President Barack Obama, made an official visit to Sweden with Air Force One . EU-meetings and exhibitions in the Stockholm area also bring special flights to the airport. Various private companies use their business jets to attend meetings in the Stockholm area. Some VIP-flights also go to downtown Bromma Airport, but since Bromma has limited operational hours many go to Arlanda instead. European Flight Service has a Grumman Gulfstream G550 based at Arlanda for VIP flights.
Arlanda has several VIP lounges.They allow travelers to meet their planes on the tarmac. The VIP area can also hold weddings, with or without a flight. The airport also holds weddings in the control tower.
The fastest way to the airport from Stockholm Central Station is the Arlanda Express high-speed train service, making the trip in 20 minutes.
It is possible to use the Stockholm commuter rail (Pendeltåg) between Uppsala C and central and southern Stockholm. The route takes 38 minutes between Arlanda C station and Stockholm C.The fare is higher from Arlanda compared to other journeys on the commuter rail network because the railway to Arlanda is privately owned, with passengers over 18 having to pay a passage fee of 130SEK to enter or exit the airport.
Flygbussarna, Flixbus, SL, UL, and Vy bus4you operate services to and from Arlanda. Flygbussarna operates frequent departures to Stockholm, while Flixbus and bus4you operate coach services to different destinations in Sweden. SL is the public transport operator of Stockholm Län, whilst UL is the public transport operator in Uppsala Län. SL operates a few bus lines to and from Arlanda, the most popular line being route 583 to Märsta railway station (from where SL commuter trains to Stockholm depart, for much cheaper than from Arlanda because of the exit fee charge there), which leaves every 10 minutes for the most of the day. ULs most popular line to Arlanda is route 801 to Uppsala, which leaves every 30 minutes between 04:00 and 01:00. There are a few additional departures during peak times. An additional shuttle bus operates between Arlanda and the nearby Jumbo Stay hostel, located just outside the airport grounds.
The motorway E4 goes past the airport and connects Arlanda with central Stockholm as well as Uppsala and other cities further north. Terminal parking, short-term and long-term parking is available at the airport. The low price long-term parking requires a free shuttle bus ride. The bus departs every 8–15 minutes. There are rental car facilities at the airport.
All taxi companies are required to offer fixed prices from the airport (one can still request use of the taxi meter). Most major companies also offer fixed prices to the airport.
There is a Stockholm commuter rail service (Pendeltåg) between Uppsala and Stockholm, but on Uppsala county tickets north of Arlanda, which takes 18 minutes from Arlanda Central to its Uppsala C terminus.
Buses operated by Upplands Lokaltrafik travel between Stockholm Arlanda Airport and Uppsala (bus no. 801) as well as Enköping to the southwest (bus no. 579/803) and Almunge (bus no. 806) to the northeast.
Long-distance trains called Intercity, Regionaltåg (Regional train) or X2000 operated by SJ go to locations north of Stockholm Arlanda Airport and south of Stockholm. Passengers are not permitted to use long-distance trains to go to Stockholm Central Station; no such tickets are sold.
This section needs additional citations for verification .(December 2015)
There is an ongoing work to limit Arlanda's negative impact on the environment. In an effort to save electricity, buildings at Arlanda use district heating with biofuels and district cooling with water from a nearby lake. The take off charges for aircraft are partly based on the environmental performance of the aircraft and Arlanda is experimenting with Continuous Descent Approaches and landings, often referred to as "green landings".Jet fuel is since around 2006 delivered by boat to Gävle and via train to Brista close to Märsta and from there through pipeline. Previously fuel was delivered by ship to Värtahamnen in Stockholm and then by trucks through Stockholm city to Arlanda. The airport also takes measures to promote the use of bio fuel in taxis operating to and from the airport.
One of the most interesting eco-friendly systems Stockholm Arlanda Airport uses is their unique heating and cooling system for their hangar, terminals, and other buildings on the airfield. There innovative system uses a series of wells, linked to a large underground aquifer. The water from the underground source is plumbed up and into the facilities air system, which controls the temperature of the air coming from the vents. In the summertime, the underground water remains cooler than the surface. That allows the terminals to be cooled off without using extra energy that an air conditioner would require. Then, in the winter months, the underground water remains warmer than the surface. The water is then plumbed to a control/heating unit, which uses biofuel to heat the water to a temperature appropriate for warming up the buildings.
The heated water is also used to heat pads of cement on the ramp and near the large hangar doors, efficiently keeping the doors and ramps clear of ice. After the water is run through the system, it is then all replaced back into the aquifer to be used again. The unique aquifer system is one of Arlanda's most defining environmentally friendly designs.
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April 2020=46,026 April 2019=2,037,770