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Stralsund, Blick von der Marienkirche (2013-07-07-), by Klugschnacker in Wikipedia (7).JPG
St. Jakobi (Stralsund).jpg
Blick von Altefahr nach Stralsund am Abend-Meclenburg Vorpommern Februar 2007 - panoramio.jpg
Stralsund, Blick von der Marienkirche (2013-07-07-), by Klugschnacker in Wikipedia (24).JPG
Stralsund, Altstadt (2011-05-21) 9.JPG
Stralsund Panorama.jpg
Clockwise from top: view over the city with St Nicholas Church, skyline of the city seen from Altefähr at night, St Mary's Church, view over the city and its three city ponds, Strelasund Crossing, St James' Church and Ozeaneum
Wappen Stralsund.svg
Coat of arms
Location of Stralsund within Vorpommern-Rügen district
Stralsund in VR.svg
Germany adm location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Coordinates: 54°18′33″N13°04′55″E / 54.30917°N 13.08194°E / 54.30917; 13.08194 Coordinates: 54°18′33″N13°04′55″E / 54.30917°N 13.08194°E / 54.30917; 13.08194
Country Germany
State Mecklenburg-Vorpommern
District Vorpommern-Rügen
   Lord mayor Alexander Badrow (CDU)
  Total54.07 km2 (20.88 sq mi)
13 m (43 ft)
 (2019-12-31) [1]
  Density1,100/km2 (2,800/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+01:00 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+02:00 (CEST)
Postal codes
18435, 18437, 18439
Dialling codes 03831
Vehicle registration HST

Stralsund (German pronunciation: [ˈʃtʁaːlzʊnt] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ); Swedish: Strålsund), [2] officially the Hanseatic City of Stralsund (German: Hansestadt Stralsund), is a city in the Pomeranian part of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany. It is located at the southern coast of the Strelasund, a sound of the Baltic Sea separating the island of Rügen from the mainland. [3]


The Strelasund Crossing with its two bridges and several ferry services connects Stralsund with Rügen. [3] The Western Pomeranian city has been the capital of the Vorpommern-Rügen district since the 2011 district reforms. It is the fourth-largest city of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern and, together with Greifswald, Stralsund forms an Oberzentrum, one of four high-level urban centres of the region.

Stralsund was granted city rights in 1234 and was one of the most prosperous members of the medieval Hanseatic League. In 1628, during the Thirty Years' War, the city came under Swedish rule and remained so until the upheavals of the Napoleonic Wars. From 1815 to 1945, Stralsund was part of Prussia. Since 2002, Stralsund's old town with its rich heritage is honored as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, along with Wismar in Mecklenburg.

The main industries of Stralsund are shipbuilding, fishing, mechanical engineering, and, to an increasing degree, tourism, life sciences, services and high tech industries, especially information technology and biotechnology.


Aerial view of Stralsund and its world heritage old town island Stralsund, Altstadt (2011-05-21) 4.JPG
Aerial view of Stralsund and its world heritage old town island
Precipitation diagram STRALSUND nieder.svg
Precipitation diagram


The city of Stralsund is located in northeastern Germany in the region of Western Pomerania in the state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. Stralsund is located south west of Rügen (which is also Germany's largest island). It is separated by a body of water named the Strelasund.


Its annual precipitation is 656 mm (25.8 inches) and comparatively low, falling within the lowest third of all precipitation values in Germany. The driest month is February; the most precipitation falls in July. The precipitation varies relatively moderately throughout the year. Only 40% of weather stations in Germany exhibit lower seasonal variation.


Rugen Bridge, Germany's largest bridge, connects Stralsund with Rugen Island Stralsund, Germany, Rugenbrucke, Pylon und alte Klappbrucke (2006-09-12).JPG
Rügen Bridge, Germany's largest bridge, connects Stralsund with Rügen Island

The city lies on the sound of Strelasund, a strait of the Baltic Sea. Its geographic proximity to the island of Rügen, whose only fixed link to the mainland, the Strelasund Crossing, runs between Stralsund and the village of Altefähr, has given Stralsund the sobriquet "Gateway to the Island of Rügen" (Tor zur Insel Rügen). Stralsund is located close to the Western Pomerania Lagoon Area National Park.

Stralsund's city borough includes municipal forest and three municipal ponds (the Knieperteich, Frankenteich and Moorteich. The three ponds and the Strelasund lend the Old Town, the original settlement site and historic centre of the city, a protected island ambience. The highest point of the city is the Galgenberg ("Gallows Hill") on its western approaches.


The city's territory covers an area of 54.07 km2, which makes Stralsund, with its nearly 58,000 inhabitants one of the most densely populated cities in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania (1,480 inhabitants per km2).

The borough of the Hanseatic city of Stralsund is divided into as follows:

(as of Dec. 2015 [4] )
01Altstadt (Old Town)5,942
012AltstadtHafeninsel (Harbour Island)24
022KnieperKnieper Nord6,597
023KnieperKnieper West12,310
031TribseerTribseer Vorstadt5,204
032TribseerTribseer Siedlung3,431
033TribseerTribseer Wiesen1,129
034TribseerSchrammsche Mühle112
042Franken Dänholm 316
043FrankenFranken Mitte365
052Süd Devin 576
06Lüssower Berg225
07Langendorfer Berg318

The city also possesses estates in the local area as well as on the islands of Rügen, Hiddensee and Ummanz.

Neighbouring municipalities

Larger cities in the nearby area are Greifswald and Rostock. In the local area around Stralsund there are also the towns of Barth and Ribnitz-Damgarten.

Many of the smaller villages in the vicinity, like Prohn or Negast, have grown sharply after 1990 as a result of the influx of those living or working in Stralsund.


Historical affiliations
Ksiestwo rugijskie COA.svg Principality of Rügen 1168–1325

Grunwald Slupsk i Szczecin.svg Duchy of Pomerania 1325–1648
Flag of Sweden.svg Sweden 1648–1807
Flag of France (1794-1815).svg French Empire 1807–1809
Flag of the Kingdom of Prussia (1803-1892).svg Prussian rebels 1809
Flag of France (1794-1815).svg French Empire 1809–1810
Flag of Sweden.svg Sweden 1810–1812
Flag of France (1794-1815).svg French Empire 1812–1813
Flag of Sweden.svg Sweden 1813–1814
Flag of Denmark.svg Denmark 1814–1815
Flag of the Kingdom of Prussia (1803-1892).svg Kingdom of Prussia 1815–1871
Flag of the German Empire.svg German Empire 1871–1918
Flag of Germany (3-2 aspect ratio).svg Weimar Republic 1918–1933
Flag of the German Reich (1935-1945).svg Nazi Germany 1933–1945
Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg Soviet occupation zone 1945–1949
Flag of German Democratic Republic.svg East Germany 1949–1990

Flag of Germany.svg Germany 1990–present
Stralsund seen from Altefahr Stralsund Skyline.jpg
Stralsund seen from Altefähr
View over Stralsund from the tower of St Mary's Stralsund, Stare Miasto.jpg
View over Stralsund from the tower of St Mary's
Typical street view of Stralsund: patrician houses with high gables from different eras, including the remarkable Brick Gothic and Renaissance Stralsunder Altstadt.JPG
Typical street view of Stralsund: patrician houses with high gables from different eras, including the remarkable Brick Gothic and Renaissance

In the Middle Ages the Stralsund area formed part of the West Slavic Principality of Rügen. At that time the Dänholm isle and fishing village, both at the site of the latter city, were called Strale or Stralow, Polabian for "arrow" (this meaning underlies the city's coat of arms, which shows an arrow). The full Polabian name can be rendered in Polish as Strzałów. [5]

The village also had a ferry to the island of Rügen. [6] In 1168 the Principality of Rügen became part of Kingdom of Denmark.

In the course of German Ostsiedlung, many German settlers, gentry and merchants were invited to settle in the principality, and they eventually populated the Strale settlement. Merchants from other countries as well as locals were attracted to the area and made up one third of the settlement's population. The Danish navy used the isle as well. When the settlement had grown to town size, prince Wizlaw I of Rügen granted Lübeck law to "our town Stralow" in 1234, although a significant settlement had existed long before the formal founding. [6] In 1240, when the prince gave additional land to the town, he called it Stralesund.

The success of the settlement challenged the powerful Free City of Lübeck, which burnt Stralsund down in 1249. Afterwards the town was rebuilt with a massive town wall having 11 town gates and 30 watchtowers. The Neustadt, a town-like suburb, had merged with Stralsund by 1361. Schadegard, a nearby twin city to Stralsund also founded by Wizlaw I, though not granted German law, served as the principal stronghold and enclosed a fort. It was given up and torn down by 1269 under pressure from the Stralsund Bürger .

In 1293 Stralsund became a member of the Hanseatic League. [3] A total of 300 ships flying the flag of Stralsund cruised the Baltic Sea in the 14th century. In 1325 the Principality of Rügen became part of the Duchy of Pomerania, Stralsund however maintained a considerable independence.

In the 17th century opposing forces in the Thirty Years' War fought over Stralsund. In the Battle of Stralsund (1628), the Imperial (Catholic) forces commanded by Albrecht von Wallenstein besieged the city after the council refused to accept the Capitulation of Franzburg [7] of November 1627. Stralsund resisted with Danish and Swedish support. [7] The Swedish garrison in Stralsund was the first on German soil in history. [7] With the Treaty of Stettin (1630), the city became one of two major Swedish forts in the Duchy of Pomerania, alongside Stettin (now Szczecin, Poland). [8]

After the war, the Peace of Westphalia (1648) and the Treaty of Stettin (1653) made Stralsund part of Swedish Pomerania. Lost to Brandenburg in the Battle of Stralsund (1678), it reverted to Sweden in the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye (1679). In the Great Northern War in 1715 Charles XII led the defence of Stralsund for a year against the united European armies. Stralsund remained under Swedish control until the Battle of Stralsund (1807), when Napoleon Bonaparte's army occupied it. Seized by Ferdinand von Schill's freikorps in 1809, it subsequently reverted to French control, with Schill killed in action. With the Congress of Vienna (1815), Stralsund became a part of the Prussian Province of Pomerania and the seat of a government region resembling the former Swedish Pomerania.

Following the First World War Stralsund suffered the same sort of political unrest and unemployment that afflicted much of Germany. In May 1919 Stralsund workers clashed with police, and martial law was declared.[ by whom? ] In the early 1920s the Independent Social Democratic Party (USPD) became the strongest party in Stralsund, but its political fortunes waned rapidly, and in September 1922 it reunited with the Social Democratic Party (SPD).

In the national parliamentary election of May 1924, the conservative German National People's Party (DNVP) polled 8,547 votes in Stralsund, the SPD 3,534, the Communists 1,825 and the German People's Party (DVP) of Foreign Minister Gustav Stresemann 1,417. However, in keeping with national trends, Hitler's National Socialists made rapid gains in the late 1920s, and by the time of the last free national election in July 1932 the Nazis polled twice as many votes in Stralsund as the SPD.

During the Nazi period (1933–1945), Stralsund's military installations expanded, and a naval training base opened on the nearby island of Dänholm. In World War II the city was subjected to repeated Allied bombing. Attacks by the U.S. Army Air Forces in 1944 killed some 800 Stralsunders and destroyed an estimated 8,000 dwellings. The 354th Rifle Division of the Red Army occupied Stralsund on April 28, 1945 – 10 days before the end of the war in Europe. Approximately half its population had fled.

During the period of the German Democratic Republic (GDR), Stralsund saw the construction of numerous Plattenbau prefabricated apartment blocks. Its economic life centered on the now state-owned shipyard, which largely focussed on building ships for the Soviet Union.

After German reunification in 1990, the city's historic old town was thoroughly restored, and Communist-era apartment blocks were renovated and upgraded. In 2002 the old towns of Stralsund and Wismar, some 120 km to the west, were listed as UNESCO world heritage sites. Stralsund's shipyard was privatized, and thereafter specialized in constructing container ships.

Culture and sights

UNESCO World Heritage Site
Nikolaikirche Rathaus HST.jpg
Stralsund: Alter Markt Square with the city hall and the St. Nicholas Church
Part ofHistoric Centres of Stralsund and Wismar
Criteria Cultural: ii, iv
Reference 1067
Inscription2002 (26th session)
Area80 ha
Buffer zone340 ha

Main sights

Portal of the St. Nicholas Church Stralsund, Nikolaikirche, Westportal Detail (2011-02-12) 1.JPG
Portal of the St. Nicholas Church

Buildings and monuments

Old Town (Altstadt)

The centre of Stralsund has a wealth of historic buildings. Since 1990, large parts of the historic old town have been renovated with private and public capital, and with the support of foundations. As a result of the contempt for historic buildings in East Germany many houses were threatened by ruin. The Old Town in particular offers a rich variety of historic buildings, with many former merchants' houses, churches, streets and squares. Of more than 800 listed buildings in Stralsund, more than 500 are designated as individual monuments in the Old Town. In twenty years, from the Wende (turning point) in 1990 to November 2010, 588 of the more than 1,000 old buildings were completely refurbished, including 363 individual monuments. [10] Because of its historical and architectural significance, in 2002 Stralsund's old town together with the old town of Wismar were added to entitled the UNESCO World Cultural Heritage list as the "Historic Centres of Stralsund and Wismar".

Alter Markt Square Alter Markt Stralsund.jpg
Alter Markt Square
The city hall Rathaus Stralsund nachtlich erleuchtet.jpg
The city hall
Alter Markt Square

On the Alter Markt Square there is the main landmark of Stralsund: the Brick Gothic city hall from Hanseatic times. This building from 1278 features a remarkable "show façade" that serves the sole purpose of displaying wealth of the city. Citizens can walk through the city hall and its gallery. It also features one of Europe's largest Gothic cellar vaults. The ensemble of buildings on the Alter Markt Square includes the St. Nicholas Church, the Artushof, the Wulflamhaus, the Commandantenhus, the Gewerkschaftshaus and a new apartment complex.

Old Town houses

The historic houses with their distinctive gables, often renovated at a high financial cost, dominate the scene in the streets of the Old Town. The former Swedish Government Palace is now home to the city construction department. The Museum of Cultural History Museum in Mönchstrasse, in one of the most important surviving original houses of the Hanseatic era, was refurbished with funds from the German Foundation for Monument Conservation It offers a guide to understanding the city's history over seven centuries.


Three large medieval Brick Gothic buildings – St. Mary's Church, St. Nicholas Church and St. James Church, point to the medieval significance of Stralsund. Today St. James' is used purely as a cultural venue, its parish being served now by the Church of the Holy Spirit, which also dates from the 14th century. Two other churches on the Alter Markt Square and the Neuer Markt are still used for church services. The tower of St. Mary's on the Neuer Markt offers a panoramic view over Stralsund and the island of Rügen.


St. John's Abbey, a Franciscan monastery from 1254, now houses the Stralsund City Archives. Regular cultural events also take place here, such as open-air theatre productions.

The Gothic abbey of St. Anne and St. Bridget in Schillstrasse was established around 1560 from the merger of the abbey of St. Anne (1480) and the double abbey of Mariakron (1421).

The Abbey of St. Jürgen on Mönchstrasse was mentioned in 1278 for the first time. It served in the 14th century as an old people's home. In 1743 a new building, the Kleines St. Jürgen Kloster, was built at Kniepertor and the site was extended in 1754 to create old people's flats and in 1841 for widow's apartments.

First mentioned in 1256, the Heilgeistkloster is now the Hospital of the Holy Spirit.

Old Port with Ozeaneum, warehouses and historical ships including the Gorch Fock Stralsund, am Hafen (2013-07-11), by Klugschnacker in Wikipedia (39).JPG
Old Port with Ozeaneum, warehouses and historical ships including the Gorch Fock

Ferries to Hiddensee and Altefähr, as well as harbor tour boats, dock at the port. In the summer months the port is a berthing places for river cruisers. There are several yacht harbors and marinas near the Old Town. Hundreds of yachts and boats tie up along the north mole in summer. Architecturally the pilot station and the harbor warehouse (Hafenspeicher), as well as the silhouette of the Old Town, form a unique tableau of different historical eras. The barque and former sailor's training ship, Gorch Fock is another tourist attraction at the harbor.


University of Applied Sciences Stralsund, Department of Economics FH-Stralsund Wirtschaft 21.jpg
University of Applied Sciences Stralsund, Department of Economics

The Fachhochschule Stralsund is a University of Applied Sciences [11] with a modern campus, north of the old town at the Strelasund. It has around 2,500 students and is among the best ranked public universities in Germany in various fields, especially in economics. [12] Other university departments are Mechanical Engineering, Electrical Engineering and Information Technology. The FH Stralsund also offers international study programs, such as Leisure and Tourism Management [13] and Baltic Management Studies (international business management). [14]


Stralsund is linked to the A20 motorway (towards Berlin and Hamburg), via the B96n dual-carriageway. Other major roads include the B105 (beginning in the city centre and continuing to Rostock) and the B96 (major road to Rügen) and the B194 to the town of Grimmen.

Stralsund Hauptbahnhof is on the line to Berlin, Rostock, Pasewalk and Bergen.

When travelling by air, passengers usually do so via Rostock-Laage Airport with connecting flights from Munich. A small airport, Stralsund Barth Airport, also serves the city locally.

City buses are run by SWS (Stadtwerke Stralsund).

Twin towns – sister cities

Stralsund is twinned with: [15]

Notable people

Adolf Heinrich von Arnim-Boitzenburg, pre-1868 AHArnimB.jpg
Adolf Heinrich von Arnim-Boitzenburg, pre-1868
Angela Merkel, 2019 Angela Merkel 2019 cropped.jpg
Angela Merkel, 2019

Public service & commerce


Harmann Burmeister, ca.1885 Burmeister Harmann 1807-1892.png
Harmann Burmeister, ca.1885

The Arts

Heinrich Kruse, 1890 Heinrich Kruse - Radierung von Johann Lindner, 1890.jpg
Heinrich Kruse, 1890


Stralsund Panorama.jpg
Stralsund panorama

See also

Related Research Articles

Mecklenburg-Vorpommern State in Germany

Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, also known by its anglicized name Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania or Mecklenburg-West Pomerania, is a state in the north-east of Germany. Of the country's sixteen states, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern ranks 14th in population, 6th in area, and 16th in population density. Schwerin is the state capital and Rostock is the largest city. Other major cities include Neubrandenburg, Stralsund, Greifswald, Wismar and Güstrow.

Wismar Hanseatic city in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany

Wismar is a port and Hanseatic city in Northern Germany, located on the Baltic Sea in the state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern about 45 km (28 mi) east of Lübeck and 30 km (19 mi) north of Schwerin. Its natural harbour, located in the Bay of Wismar is protected by a promontory. As part of the Hamburg Metropolitan Region, in 2013 Wismar had a population of 42,219 inhabitants. It is the capital of the district of Nordwestmecklenburg.

Greifswald Place in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany

Greifswald, officially the University and Hanseatic City of Greifswald is a city in northeastern Germany.

Rügen Island in the Baltic Sea off the Pomeranian coast of Germany

Rügen is Germany's largest island. It is located off the Pomeranian coast in the Baltic Sea and belongs to the state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.

Nordvorpommern District in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany

Nordvorpommern was a Kreis (district) in the northern part of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany. It was situated at the coast of the Baltic Sea, where it enclosed the city of Stralsund. Further to the northeast, separated from Stralsund and Nordvorpommern by the Strelasund, lies the island of Rügen, administratively part of the eponymous district. Other neighboring districts are Ostvorpommern, Demmin, Güstrow and Bad Doberan.

Ribnitz-Damgarten Place in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany

Ribnitz-Damgarten is a town in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany, situated on Lake Ribnitz. Ribnitz-Damgarten is in the west of the district Vorpommern-Rügen.

Barth, Germany Place in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany

Barth is a town in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany. It is situated at a lagoon (Bodden) of the Baltic Sea facing the Fischland-Darss-Zingst peninsula. Barth belongs to the district of Vorpommern-Rügen. It is close to the Western Pomerania Lagoon Area National Park. In 2011, it held a population of 8,706.

Strelasund Crossing Two bridges in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany

Strelasund Crossing is the two links to the German island of Rügen (Rugia) over the Strelasund to the West Pomeranian mainland near Stralsund: the Rügen Bridge or Rugia Bridge and the Rugia Causeway.

Bergen auf Rügen Place in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany

Bergen auf Rügen is the capital of the former district of Rügen in the middle of the island of Rügen in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany. Since 1 January 2005, Bergen has moreover been the administrative seat of the Amt of Bergen auf Rügen, which with a population of over 23,000 is Mecklenburg-Vorpommern's most populous Amt.

Grimmen Place in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany

Grimmen is a town in Vorpommern-Rügen, a district in the Bundesland Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany. Prior to 2011, when district reforms were made in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, it was the capital of the now bygone Nordvorpommern district, which was abolished and merged to create the district of Vorpommern-Rügen.

Lüdershagen Place in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany

Lüdershagen is a Baltic Sea municipality in the Vorpommern-Rügen district, in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany. Located about 18 km southwest of Barth and part of Amt Barth, Lüdershagen is about 15 km east of Ribnitz-Damgarten. To the north of the town is Gäthkenhäger forest, and to the south is Highway 105 (Rostock-Stralsund). The population of Lüdershagen is about 580.

Prerow Place in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany

Prerow is a municipality in the district of Vorpommern-Rügen in the German state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. This Baltic seaside resort on the Darß peninsula is located about halfway between the historic Hanseatic towns of Rostock and Stralsund. It is one of three main settlements on the Darß, the others being the villages of Born and Wieck. Prerow has fine, sandy beaches and a picturesque landscape. It is hard to say where the forest ends and the village begins. The primeval Darß Forest has over 50 km of footpaths and cycle ways, a bridleway and tracks for horse-drawn carriages. West of the forest is West Beach with rugged terrain formed by wind and waves. South of Prerow is the bodden countryside. Visitors can take trips on a steam paddle boat and experience wildlife first-hand, nesting areas and various birds as the seasons change.

Reinberg Ortsteil of Sundhagen in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany

Reinberg is a village and in the municipality of Sundhagen and lies between Stralsund and Greifswald on the B 105 federal road in northeastern Germany. To the north the former municipality of Reinberg borders on the Strelasund From the village of Stahlbrode that used to belong to it, there is a car ferry to the island of Rügen.

Vorpommern-Rügen is a district in the north of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany. It is bounded by the Baltic Sea and the districts Vorpommern-Greifswald, Mecklenburgische Seenplatte and Rostock. The district seat is the Hanseatic city of Stralsund.

Stralsund (region)

The Region of Stralsund belonged to the Prussian Province of Pomerania and existed from 1818 to 1932.

Vitslav II, variously called Vislav, Vizlav, Wislaw, Wizlaw and Witslaw in English sources was a prince of Rügen.

Western Pomerania

Western Pomerania, in the narrower sense also called Hither Pomerania, is the western extremity of the historic region of the Duchy, later Province of Pomerania, nowadays divided between the State of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern in Germany and West Pomeranian Voivodeship in Poland.

Swedish Wismar

Swedish Wismar was a Dominion under the Swedish Crown from 1648 to 1903 and corresponded roughly to the modern boundaries of the city of Wismar. The former Hanseatic city lies on the Baltic coast of modern-day Germany.

Stralsund Museum of Cultural History

Stralsund Museum of Cultural History is museum in the Hanseatic city Stralsund, Germany. It is headquartered in a former convent of the Dominicans, the St. Catherine's Monastery. Since 2015, the institution "Stralsund Museum".


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  4. Archived 2016-05-20 at the Wayback Machine , accessed on 24 July 2016 (pdf)
  5. S. Kozierowski, 1934. Atlas nazw geograficznych Słowiańszczyzny Zachodniej. Poznań: Nauka i Praca.
  6. 1 2 "Two Cities – One Heritage". History. Historic Centres of Stralsund and Wismar. Archived from the original on 2013-05-15. Retrieved 2013-04-07.
  7. 1 2 3 Langer, Herbert (2003). "Die Anfänge des Garnisionswesens in Pommern". In Asmus, Ivo; Droste, Heiko; Olesen, Jens E. (eds.). Gemeinsame Bekannte: Schweden und Deutschland in der Frühen Neuzeit (in German). Berlin-Hamburg-Münster: LIT Verlag. pp. 402–403. ISBN   3-8258-7150-9.
  8. Langer, Herbert (2003). "Die Anfänge des Garnisionswesens in Pommern". In Asmus, Ivo; Droste, Heiko; Olesen, Jens E. (eds.). Gemeinsame Bekannte: Schweden und Deutschland in der Frühen Neuzeit (in German). Berlin-Hamburg-Münster: LIT Verlag. p. 39. ISBN   3-8258-7150-9.
  9. Museum of Cultural History Stralsund
  10. 64 Häuser in der Altstadt auf der Missstands-Liste, in: Ostsee-Zeitung Stralsund dated 4 November 2010
  11. University of Applied Sciences Stralsund
  12. CHE University Ranking Germany (CHE Hochschulranking 2012/13), Die Zeit
  13. Leisure and Tourism Management at FH Stralsund
  14. Baltic Management Studies at FH Stralsund, international study program
  15. "Städtepartnerschaften und internationale Beziehungen". (in German). Stralsund. Retrieved 2021-04-04.
  16. "Burmeister, Karl Hermann Konrad"  . Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography . 1900.
  17. "Kruse, Heinrich"  . New International Encyclopedia . 1905.

Further reference