Streatham

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Streatham
Streatham High Road, SW16 - geograph.org.uk - 285403.jpg
Streatham High Road, looking north from the junction of Streatham High Road and Mitcham Lane
Greater London UK location map 2.svg
Red pog.svg
Streatham
Location within Greater London
Population58,055 (2011 Census) [1]
OS grid reference TQ305715
Ceremonial county Greater London
Region
Country England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town LONDON
Postcode district SW2, SW16
Dialling code 020
Police Metropolitan
Fire London
Ambulance London
UK Parliament
List of places
UK
England
London
51°25′40″N0°07′25″W / 51.4279°N 0.1235°W / 51.4279; -0.1235 Coordinates: 51°25′40″N0°07′25″W / 51.4279°N 0.1235°W / 51.4279; -0.1235

Streatham ( /ˈstrɛt.əm/ STRET-əm) is a district mostly in the London Borough of Lambeth in Greater London, but with some areas to the west stretching out into the neighbouring London Borough of Wandsworth, and some areas to the south stretching out into the neighbouring London Borough of Croydon. It is centred 5 miles (8.0 km) south of Charing Cross. The area is identified in the London Plan as one of 35 major centres in Greater London. [2]

Contents

History

A map showing the Streatham ward of Wandsworth Metropolitan Borough as it appeared in 1916. Wandsworth Met. B Ward Map 1916.svg
A map showing the Streatham ward of Wandsworth Metropolitan Borough as it appeared in 1916.

Streatham means "the hamlet on the street". The street in question, the London to Brighton Way, was the Roman road from the capital Londinium to the south coast near Portslade, today within Brighton and Hove. It is likely that the destination was a Roman port now lost to coastal erosion, which has been tentatively identified with 'Novus Portus' mentioned in Ptolemy's Geographia. [3] The road is confusingly referred to as Stane Street (Stone Street) in some sources and diverges from the main London-Chichester road at Kennington.

After the departure of the Romans, the main road through Streatham remained an important trackway. From the 17th century it was adopted as the main coach road to Croydon and East Grinstead, and then on to Newhaven and Lewes. In 1780 it then became the route of the turnpike road from London to Brighton, and subsequently became the basis for the modern A23. This road (and its traffic) have shaped Streatham's development.

Streatham's first parish church, St Leonard's, was founded in Saxon times but an early Tudor tower is the only remaining structure pre-dating 1831 when the body of the church was rebuilt. The mediaeval parish covered a wider area including Balham and Tooting Bec. [4]

Streatham appears in Domesday Book of 1086 as Estreham. It was held by Bec-Hellouin Abbey (in Normandy) from Richard de Tonbrige. Its domesday assets were: 2 hides, 1 virgate and 6½ ploughlands of cultivated land and 4 acres (1.6 ha) of meadow and herbage (mixed grass and bracken). Annually it was assessed to render £4 5s 0d to its overlords. [5]

Streatham Village and Streatham Wells

Streatham Green with the spire of the Catholic English Martyrs Church beyond. Streatham Green - geograph.org.uk - 2121932.jpg
Streatham Green with the spire of the Catholic English Martyrs Church beyond.

The village remained largely unchanged until the 18th century, when its natural springs, known as Streatham Wells, were first celebrated for their health-giving properties. The reputation of the spa, and improved turnpike roads, attracted wealthy City of London merchants and others to build their country residences in Streatham. [6]

In spite of London's expansion, a limited number of developments took place in the village in the second half of the nineteenth century, most notably on Wellfield Road and Sunnyhill Road. These roads are today considered an important part of what remains of the historic Streatham village.

Wellfield Road, which had previously been known as Leigham Lane, was renamed to reflect its role as the main route from the village centre to one of the well locations. Another mineral well was located on the south side of Streatham Common, in an area that now forms part of The Rookery. [7]

Streatham Park or Streatham Place

In the 1730s, Streatham Park, a Georgian country mansion, was built by the brewer Ralph Thrale on land he bought from the Lord of the Manor - the fourth Duke of Bedford. Streatham Park later passed to Ralph's son Henry Thrale, who with his wife Hester Thrale entertained many of the leading literary and artistic characters of the day, most notably the lexicographer Samuel Johnson. The dining room contained 12 portraits of Henry's guests painted by his friend Joshua Reynolds. These pictures were wittily labelled by Fanny Burney as the Streatham Worthies. [8]

Streatham Park was later leased to Prime Minister Lord Shelburne, and was the venue for early negotiations with France that led to the Peace Treaty of 1783. Streatham Park was demolished in 1863.

Park Hill

One large house that survives is Park Hill, on the north side of Streatham Common, rebuilt in the early 19th century for the Leaf family. It was latterly the home of Sir Henry Tate, sugar refiner, benefactor of local libraries across south London, including Streatham Library, and founder of the Tate Gallery at Millbank.

Urbanisation

Development accelerated after the opening of Streatham Hill railway station on the West End of London and Crystal Palace Railway in 1856. The other two railway stations followed within fifteen years. Some estates, such as Telford Park to the west of Streatham Hill, were spaciously planned with facilities like tennis clubs. [9] Despite the local connections to the Dukes of Bedford, there is no link to the contemporary Bedford Park in west London. Another generously sized development was Roupell Park, the area near Christchurch Road promoted by the Roupell family. Other streets adopted more conventional suburban layouts. Three more parish churches were built to serve the growing area, including Immanuel and St Andrew's (1854), St Peter's (1870) and St Margaret the Queen's (1889). There is now a mixture of buildings from all architectural eras of the past 200 years.

The inter-war period

After the First World War Streatham developed as a location for entertainment, with Streatham Hill Theatre (now a bingo hall), three cinemas, the Locarno ballroom (latterly Caesar's nightclub, which closed in 2010) and Streatham Ice Rink all adding to its reputation as "the West End of South London". With the advent of electric tram services it also grew as a shopping centre serving a wide area to the south. In the 1930s large numbers of blocks of flats were constructed along the High Road. These speculative developments were not initially successful. They were only filled when émigré communities began to arrive in London after leaving countries under the domination of Hitler's Germany. In 1932 the parish church of the Holy Redeemer was built in Streatham Vale to commemorate the work of William Wilberforce. [10]

Retail decline and recovery

Pratt's department store in summer 1978. The store closed down in 1990 and the building was demolished in 1996. Pratts department store, Streatham in 1978.jpg
Pratt's department store in summer 1978. The store closed down in 1990 and the building was demolished in 1996.

In the 1950s Streatham had the longest and busiest shopping street in south London. Streatham became the site of the UK's first supermarket, when Express Dairies Premier Supermarkets opened its first 2,500 square feet (230 m2) store in 1951; [12] Waitrose subsequently opened its first supermarket in Streatham in 1955, but it closed down in 1963. [13]

However, a combination of factors led to a gradual decline through the 1970s and a more rapid decline in the 1980s. These included long term population movements out to Croydon, Kingston and Sutton; the growth of heavy traffic on the A23 (main road from central London to Gatwick Airport and Brighton); and a lack of redevelopment sites in the town centre. This culminated in 1990 when the closure of Pratts, which had grown from a Victorian draper's shop to a department store operated since the 1940s by the John Lewis Partnership, coincided with the opening of a large Sainsbury's supermarket half a mile south of the town centre, replacing an existing, smaller Sainbury's store opposite Streatham Hill railway station.

Several recent additions, such as Argos, Lidl and Peacocks, are located in new retail spaces on the site of Pratt's but, in common with other high streets, retail recovery has been slow, and a substantial proportion of vacant space has been taken by a growing number of restaurants, bars and coffee shops.[ citation needed ]

In August 2011, Streatham was selected as one of the areas to benefit from Round 1 of the Mayor of London's Outer London Fund, gaining £300,000. Later, Streatham was awarded a further £1.6 million, matched by another £1 million by Lambeth. [14] The money from this fund was spent on improving streets and public spaces in Streatham. This includes the smartening up of shop fronts through painting and cleaning, replacing shutters and signage as well as helping to reveal facilities behind the high street such as The Stables Community Centre. [15] Streatham Library has also undergone a £1.2 million refurbishment. The Tudor Hall behind the library was brought back into public use as The Mark Bennett Centre providing a meeting and performance space. Streatham Skyline introduced new lighting to highlight some of Streatham's more attractive buildings and monuments with the aim of improving safety and the overall attractiveness of the area. [15]

Contemporary Streatham

Streatham Common. Avenue of autumn trees looking down Streatham Common towards Streatham High Road Autumn on Streatham Common - geograph.org.uk - 736026.jpg
Streatham Common. Avenue of autumn trees looking down Streatham Common towards Streatham High Road

In September 2002, Streatham High Road was voted the "Worst Street in Britain" [16] in a poll organised by the BBC Today programme and CABE. This largely reflected the dominance of through traffic along High Road.

Plans for investment and regeneration had begun before the poll, with local amenity group the Streatham Society leading a successful partnership bid for funding from central government for environmental improvements. Work started in winter 2003–04 with the refurbishment of Streatham Green and repaving and relighting of the High Road between St Leonard's Church and the Odeon Cinema. In 2005 Streatham Green won the Metropolitan Public Gardens Association 'London Spade' award for best public open space scheme in the capital.

The poll was a catalyst for Lambeth London Borough Council and Transport for London's Street Management to co-operate on a joint funding arrangement for further streetscape improvements, which benefited the section of the High Road between St Leonard's and Streatham station, and the stretch north of the Odeon as far as Woodbourne Avenue. The section between Woodbourne Avenue and Streatham Hill station was not completed until 2015. Any further improvements north of Streatham Hill have been halted because of TfL's budgetary shortfall.

Streatham Festival was established in 2002. It has grown to a festival with over 50 events held in an array of locations, from bars to churches and parks to youth centres, attracting over 3,000 people. [17]

After several years of delay and controversy over phasing, construction started in the autumn of 2011 on the Streatham Hub - a major redevelopment next to Streatham railway station. The project was a joint development by Lambeth Council and Tesco. The project involved the demolition of Streatham Ice Arena, Streatham Leisure Centre and the former Streatham Bus Garage, and their replacement with a new leisure centre and a Tesco store with 250 flats above it. Streatham Leisure Centre closed in November 2009 due to health and safety concerns when part of the pool hall ceiling collapsed. [18] Streatham Ice Arena closed on 18 December 2011, having celebrated eighty years of operation in February 2011. For two years a temporary ice rink was provided at Popes Road, Brixton.

In November 2013, the new Streatham Ice and Leisure Centre opened to the public. [19] The leisure centre houses a 60 m x 30 m indoor ice rink with 1,000 rink-side seats on the upper floors, [20] a six-lane 25 m swimming pool, 13 m teaching pool, four-court sports hall and a gym with 100 stations.

The jazz venue Hideaway continues Streatham's long entertainment tradition. It features live performances of jazz, funk, swing and soul music as well as stand-up comedy nights. It won the Jazz Venue/Promoter of the Year category in the 2011 Parliamentary Jazz Awards. [21]

2020 Stabbing Attack

On 2 February 2020 at around 14:00 GMT, Sudesh Mamoor Faraz Amman attacked and injured two people using a machete on Streatham High Street in what police have declared a terrorist incident. [22] Alongside the machete, Amman was also wearing a vest with components made to look like improvised explosive devices. [23] He was pursued by armed police and was fatally shot outside a Boots pharmacy. [24]

Constituency

See Streatham constituency.

Education

Sport

Places of worship

Notable residents

Among the people who were born, lived or worked in Streatham, or are otherwise associated with the area are:

Nearest places

Nearest railway stations

Related Research Articles

Balham Human settlement in England

Balham is a neighbourhood in|South London]], England, in the London Borough of Wandsworth. The area has been settled since Saxon times and appears in the Domesday Book as Belgeham.

Brixton District in the London Borough of Lambeth in South London

Brixton is a district of South London, England, within the London Borough of Lambeth. The area is identified in the London Plan as one of 35 major centres in Greater London.

Brockley Human settlement in England

Brockley is a district and an electoral ward of south London, England, in the London Borough of Lewisham 5 miles (8 km) south-east of Charing Cross.

Kennington Area of London, mostly within the London Borough of Lambeth

Kennington is a district in south London, England. It is mainly within the London Borough of Lambeth, running along the boundary with the London Borough of Southwark, a boundary which can be discerned from the early medieval period between the Lambeth and St George's parishes of those boroughs respectively. It is located 1.4 miles (2.3 km) south of Charing Cross in Inner London and is identified as a local centre in the London Plan. It was a royal manor in the parish of St Mary, Lambeth in the county of Surrey and was the administrative centre of the parish from 1853. Proximity to central London was key to the development of the area as a residential suburb and it was incorporated into the metropolitan area of London in 1855.

Mitcham, London Human settlement in England

Mitcham is an area within the London Borough of Merton. It is centred 7.2 miles (11.6 km) south-west of Charing Cross. Originally a village in the county of Surrey, today it is mainly a residential suburb. Localities within Mitcham include Mitcham Town Centre and Mitcham Common. Amenities include Mitcham Library and Mitcham Cricket Green. Nearby major districts are Wimbledon, Streatham, Croydon, Merton, Merton Park, Tooting, Morden and Sutton. Mitcham, most broadly defined, had a population of 63,393 in 2011, formed from six wards including Pollards Hill.

Stockwell Human settlement in England

Stockwell is a district in South West London, England, located in the London Borough of Lambeth. It is situated 2.4 miles (3.9 km) south of Charing Cross. Battersea, Brixton, Clapham, South Lambeth, Oval and Kennington all border Stockwell.

Thornton Heath Human settlement in England

Thornton Heath is an area of South London, England, within the London Borough of Croydon. It was part of the county of Surrey until 1965. It is 7.2 miles (11.6 km) south of Charing Cross and is to the north of Croydon proper.

Tooting Human settlement in England

Tooting is a district of South London, England, forming part of the London Borough of Wandsworth and partly in the London Borough of Merton. It is located 5 miles south south-west of Charing Cross.

Wimbledon, London Suburb of London, England

Wimbledon is a district and town of southwest London, England, 7.1 miles (11.4 km) southwest of the centre of London at Charing Cross, in the London Borough of Merton, south of Wandsworth, northeast of New Malden, northwest of Mitcham, west of Streatham and north of Sutton. Wimbledon had a population of 68,187 in 2011 which includes the electoral wards of Abbey, Dundonald, Hillside, Trinity, Village, Raynes Park and Wimbledon Park.

London Borough of Lambeth Borough in United Kingdom

Lambeth is a London borough in south London, England, which forms part of Inner London. Its name was recorded in 1062 as Lambehitha and in 1255 as Lambeth. The geographical centre of London is at Frazier Street near Lambeth North tube station, though nearby Charing Cross on the other side of the Thames in the City of Westminster is traditionally considered the centre of London.

West Norwood Human settlement in England

West Norwood is a largely residential area of south London within the London Borough of Lambeth, located 5.4 miles (8.7 km) south south-east of Charing Cross. The centre of West Norwood sits in a bowl surrounded by hillsides on its east, west and south sides. From many parts of the area, distant views can be seen, of places such as the City of London, Canary Wharf and Crystal Palace.

Lambeth Human settlement in England

Lambeth is a district in South London, England, in the London Borough of Lambeth. It is situated 1 mile (1.6 km) south of Charing Cross. The population of the London Borough of Lambeth was 303,086 in 2011. The area experienced some slight growth in the medieval period as part of the manor of Lambeth Palace. By the Victorian era the area had seen significant development as London expanded, with dense industrial, commercial and residential buildings located adjacent to one another. The changes brought by World War II altered much of the fabric of Lambeth. Subsequent development in the late 20th and early 21st centuries has seen an increase in the number of high-rise buildings. The area is home to the International Maritime Organization.

Herne Hill Human settlement in England

Herne Hill is a district in south London, England, approximately four miles from Charing Cross and bordered by Brixton, Denmark Hill, Dulwich Village, Loughborough Junction and Tulse Hill. It overlaps the boundary between the boroughs of Lambeth and Southwark. There is a road of the same name in the area, as well as a railway station.

Keith Hill (politician) British politician

Trevor Keith Hill is an English politician who served in a variety of Government roles as a Whip and a junior minister.

Norbury District of south-west London, UK

Norbury is a district in south-west London. It shares the postcode London SW16 with neighbouring districts Streatham and Croydon. Norbury is 6.7 miles (10.8 km) south of Charing Cross.

Streatham (UK Parliament constituency) Parliamentary constituency in the United Kingdom, 1918 onwards

Streatham is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament since 2019 by Bell Ribeiro-Addy, who was elected as a Labour MP.

Streatham High Road shopping street in the London Borough of Lambeth

Streatham High Road, some 1.8 miles (2.9 km) in length, is part of the main A23 road from London to Brighton, and is in the London Borough of Lambeth. It begins in the north at Streatham Hill railway station, being an end-on junction with Streatham Hill and continues south to Norbury where the A23 becomes London Road. Because Streatham existed in Saxon times, it is likely the road existed as early as 1068, when it is mentioned in literature.

Gipsy Hill Human settlement in England

Gipsy Hill is an area in south London within the London Borough of Lambeth. It borders the London Boroughs of Southwark and Croydon.

Jonathan Bartley British theologian and Co-Leader of the Green Party of England and Wales

Jonathan Charles Bartley is a British politician, and since 2 September 2016, Co-Leader of the Green Party of England and Wales, a position he shared with Caroline Lucas and then, from 4 September 2018, with Siân Berry. He was the Green Party's national Work and Pensions spokesperson and the party's Parliamentary candidate for Streatham in the 2015 general election. He was the Unite to Remain candidate for Dulwich and West Norwood at the 2019 general election.

St Leonards Church, Streatham Church

St Leonard's Church is a Church of England parish church in the London Borough of Lambeth. It is a Grade II listed building and occupies a prominent position on the west side of Streatham High Road, at its junction with Tooting Bec Gardens and Mitcham Lane.

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Further reading

Espiar wasap