Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee

Last updated
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)
Logo SNCC.svg
Formation1960;59 years ago (1960)
Founder Ella Baker
Extinction1976;43 years ago (1976)
Purpose Pacifism
Civil Rights Movement
Anti-racism
Participatory democracy
Black power
HeadquartersAtlanta, Georgia
Region
Deep South and Mid-Atlantic states
Main organ
The Student Voice (19601965)
The Movement (19661970)
Subsidiaries Friends of SNCC
Poor People's Corporation
Affiliations

The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC, often pronounced /snɪk/ SNIK) was one of the major American Civil Rights Movement organizations of the 1960s. [1] [2] It emerged from the first wave of student sit-ins and formed at a May 1960 meeting organized by Ella Baker at Shaw University. After its involvement in the Voter Education Project, SNCC grew into a large organization with many supporters in the North who helped raise funds to support its work in the South, allowing full-time organizers to have a small salary. Many unpaid grassroots organizers and activists also worked with SNCC on projects in the Deep South, often becoming targets of racial violence and police brutality. SNCC played a seminal role in the freedom rides, the 1963 March on Washington, Mississippi Freedom Summer, the Selma campaigns, the March Against Fear and other historic events. SNCC may be best known for its community organizing, including voter registration, freedom schools, and localized direct action all over the country, but especially in Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi.

The sit-in movement, or student sit-in movement, was a wave of sit-ins that followed the Greensboro sit-ins on February 1, 1960 in North Carolina. The sit-in movement employed the tactic of nonviolent direct action and was a pivotal event during the Civil Rights Movement.

Ella Baker African-American civil rights and human rights activist

Ella Josephine Baker was an African-American civil rights and human rights activist in the United States. She was a largely behind-the-scenes organizer whose career spanned more than five decades. In New York City and the South, she worked alongside some of the most noted civil rights leaders of the 20th century, including W. E. B. Du Bois, Thurgood Marshall, A. Philip Randolph, and Martin Luther King Jr. She also mentored many emerging activists, such as Diane Nash, Stokely Carmichael, Rosa Parks, and Bob Moses, whom she first mentored as leaders in the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC).

Contents

In the later 1960s, inspired by fiery leaders such as Stokely Carmichael, SNCC focused on black power, and draft resistance to the Vietnam War. As early as 1965, executive secretary James Forman said he "did not know how much longer we can stay nonviolent" and in 1969, SNCC officially changed its name to the Student National Coordinating Committee to reflect the broadening of its strategy. [3]

Stokely Carmichael American activist

Kwame Ture was a prominent American socialist organizer in the civil rights movement in the United States and the global Pan-African movement. Born in Trinidad, he grew up in the United States from the age of 11 and became an activist while attending Howard University. He eventually developed the Black Power movement, first while leading the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), later serving as the "Honorary Prime Minister" of the Black Panther Party (BPP), and lastly as a leader of the All-African People's Revolutionary Party (A-APRP).

Vietnam War 1955–1975 conflict in Vietnam

The Vietnam War, also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America or simply the American War, was a conflict in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975. It was the second of the Indochina Wars and was officially fought between North Vietnam and South Vietnam. North Vietnam was supported by the Soviet Union, China, and other communist allies; South Vietnam was supported by the United States, South Korea, the Philippines, Australia, Thailand and other anti-communist allies. The war, considered a Cold War-era proxy war by some, lasted 19 years, with direct U.S. involvement ending in 1973, and included the Laotian Civil War and the Cambodian Civil War, which ended with all three countries becoming communist in 1975.

James Forman American civil rights leader

James Forman was a prominent African-American leader in the civil rights movement. He was active in the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), the Black Panther Party, and the League of Revolutionary Black Workers. As the executive secretary of SNCC from 1961 to 1966, Forman played a significant role in the freedom rides, the Albany movement, the Birmingham campaign, and the Selma to Montgomery marches.

It passed out of existence in the 1970s following heavy infiltration and suppression by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), spearheaded as part of COINTELPRO operations during the 1960s and 70s led by J. Edgar Hoover. [4]

Federal Bureau of Investigation Governmental agency belonging to the United States Department of Justice

The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is the domestic intelligence and security service of the United States and its principal federal law enforcement agency. Operating under the jurisdiction of the United States Department of Justice, the FBI is also a member of the U.S. Intelligence Community and reports to both the Attorney General and the Director of National Intelligence. A leading U.S. counter-terrorism, counterintelligence, and criminal investigative organization, the FBI has jurisdiction over violations of more than 200 categories of federal crimes.

COINTELPRO Series of covert, and often illegal, projects conducted by the U.S. FBI

Cointelpro (1956–1971) was a series of covert and, at times, illegal projects conducted by the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) aimed at surveilling, infiltrating, discrediting, and disrupting domestic political organizations. FBI records show that COINTELPRO resources targeted groups and individuals that the FBI deemed subversive, including feminist organizations, the Communist Party USA, anti–Vietnam War organizers, activists of the civil rights movement or Black Power movement, environmentalist and animal rights organizations, the American Indian Movement (AIM), independence movements, and a variety of organizations that were part of the broader New Left. The program also targeted the Ku Klux Klan in 1964.

J. Edgar Hoover American law enforcement officer and first director of the FBI

John Edgar Hoover was the first Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) of the United States and an American law enforcement administrator. He was appointed as the director of the Bureau of Investigation – the FBI's predecessor – in 1924 and was instrumental in founding the FBI in 1935, where he remained director for another 37 years until his death in 1972 at the age of 77. Hoover has been credited with building the FBI into a larger crime-fighting agency than it was at its inception and with instituting a number of modernizations to police technology, such as a centralized fingerprint file and forensic laboratories.

Founding and early years

Chairmen of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
Marion Barry 1960–61
Charles F. McDew 1961–63
John Lewis 1963–66
Stokely Carmichael 1966–67
H. Rap Brown 1967–68
Phil Hutchings1968–69

Founded in 1960 and inspired by the Greensboro sit-ins and Nashville sit-ins, independent student-led groups began direct-action protests against segregation in dozens of southern communities. SNCC focused on mobilizing local communities, a policy in which African American communities would push for change, impelling the federal government to act once the injustice had become apparent. [5] The most common action of these groups was organizing sit-ins at racially segregated lunch counters to protest the pervasiveness of Jim Crow and other forms of racism. While in the Civil Rights Cases (109 U.S. 3 [1883]), the Court ruled that the equal protection clause "did not cover private individuals, organizations, or establishments," the trials of arrested sit-in protesters created an opening for the Court to reevaluate its earlier ruling and expand the clause to cover acts of private discrimination. [6] The sit-in movement was a turning point in using the courts and jail to exert moral and economic pressure on southern communities. [7] In addition to sitting in at lunch counters, the groups also organized and carried out protests at segregated White public libraries, public parks, public swimming pools, and movie theaters. At that time, all those facilities financed by taxes were closed to blacks. The white response was often to close the facility, rather than integrate it.

Greensboro sit-ins 1960 non-violent protests in the United States

The Greensboro sit-ins were a series of nonviolent protests in Greensboro, North Carolina, in 1960, which led to the Woolworth department store chain removing its policy of racial segregation in the Southern United States. While not the first sit-in of the Civil Rights Movement, the Greensboro sit-ins were an instrumental action, and also the most well-known sit-ins of the Civil Rights Movement. They are considered a catalyst to the subsequent sit-in movement. These sit-ins led to increased national sentiment at a crucial period in US history. The primary event took place at the Greensboro, North Carolina, Woolworth store, now the International Civil Rights Center and Museum.

Nashville sit-ins nonviolent direct action campaign to end racial segregation at lunch counters in downtown Nashville, Tennessee

The Nashville sit-ins, which lasted from February 13 to May 10, 1960, were part of a nonviolent direct action campaign to end racial segregation at lunch counters in downtown Nashville, Tennessee. The sit-in campaign, coordinated by the Nashville Student Movement and Nashville Christian Leadership Council, was notable for its early success and emphasis on disciplined nonviolence. It was part of a broader sit-in movement that spread across the southern United States in the wake of the Greensboro sit-ins in North Carolina.

Community organizing process where people who live in proximity to each other come together into an organization that acts in their shared self-interest

Community organizing is a process where people who live in proximity to each other come together into an organization that acts in their shared self-interest.

The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), as an organization, began with an $800.00 grant from the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) for a conference attended by 126 student delegates from 58 sit-in centers in 12 states, along with delegates from 19 northern colleges, the SCLC, Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), Fellowship of Reconciliation (FOR), National Student Association (NSA), and Students for a Democratic Society (SDS). Out of this conference the SNCC was formed. [8] [9]

United States dollar Currency of the United States of America

The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States and its territories per the Coinage Act of 1792. The act created a decimal currency by creating the following coins: tenth dollar, one-twentieth dollar, one-hundredth dollar. In addition the act created the dollar, half dollar, and quarter dollar coins. All of these coins are still minted in 2019.

Southern Christian Leadership Conference African-American civil rights organization

The Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) is an African-American civil rights organization. SCLC, which is closely associated with its first president, Martin Luther King Jr., had a large role in the American civil rights movement.

Congress of Racial Equality United States civil rights organization

The Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) is an African-American civil rights organization in the United States that played a pivotal role for African Americans in the Civil Rights Movement. Founded in 1942, its stated mission is "to bring about equality for all people regardless of race, creed, sex, age, disability, sexual orientation, religion or ethnic background."

Ella Baker, who organized the Shaw conference, was the SCLC director at the time she helped form SNCC. But SNCC was not a branch of SCLC. Instead of being closely tied to SCLC or the NAACP as a "youth division", SNCC sought to stand on its own. Ms. Baker later lost her job with SCLC, which she had helped found.

NAACP Civil rights organization in the United States

The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) is a civil rights organization in the United States, formed in 1909 as a bi-racial endeavor to advance justice for African Americans by a group including W. E. B. Du Bois, Mary White Ovington and Moorfield Storey.

Among important SNCC leaders attending the conference were Stokely Carmichael from Howard University; Charles F. McDew, who led student protests at South Carolina State University; J. Charles Jones, who organized 200 students to participate in sit-ins at department stores throughout Charlotte, North Carolina; Julian Bond from Atlanta, Diane Nash from Fisk University; James Lawson; and John Lewis, Bernard Lafayette, James Bevel, and Marion Barry from the Nashville Student Movement.

SNCC's first chairman was Marion Barry, who later became the mayor of Washington DC. Barry served as chairman for one year. The second chairman was Charles F. McDew, who served as the chairman from 1961 to 1963, when he was succeeded by John Lewis. [10] Stokely Carmichael and H. "Rap" Brown were chairmen in the late 1960s. SNCC's executive secretary, James Forman, played a major role in running the organization.

Freedom Riders

In the years that followed, SNCC members were referred to as "shock troops of the revolution." [11] SNCC took on greater risks in 1961, after a mob of Ku Klux Klan members and other whites attacked integrated groups of bus passengers who defied local segregation laws as part of the Freedom Rides organized by the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE). Rather than allowing mob violence to stop them, New Orleans CORE and Nashville SNCC Freedom Riders, including Dave Dennis, Oretha Castle Haley, Jean C. Thompson, Rudy Lombard, Diane Nash, James Bevel, Marion Barry, Angeline Butler, and John Lewis, put themselves at great personal risk by traveling in racially integrated groups into Mississippi as they continued the Ride. Other bus riders followed, traveling through the deep South to test Southern compliance with Federal Law. At least 436 people took part in these Freedom Rides during the spring and summer of 1961. [12]

Voter registration

Bob Moses played a central role in transforming SNCC from a coordinating committee of student protest groups to an organization of activists dedicated to building community-based political organizations of the rural poor. The voter registration project he initiated in McComb, Mississippi in 1961 became the seed for much of SNCC's activities from 1962 to 1966.

After the Freedom Rides, SNCC worked primarily on voter registration, and with local protests over segregated public facilities. Registering Black voters was extremely difficult and dangerous. People of Color who attempted to register often lost their jobs and their homes, and sometimes their lives. SNCC workers lived with local families: often the homes providing such hospitality were firebombed.

The actions of SNCC, CORE, and SCLC forced the Kennedy Administration to briefly provide federal protection to temporarily abate mob violence. Local FBI offices were usually staffed by Southern whites (there were no Black FBI agents at that time) who refused to intervene to protect civil rights workers or local Blacks who were attempting to register to vote.

Participatory democracy (group centered leadership)

SNCC was unusual among civil rights groups in the way in which decisions were made. Instead of "top down" control, as was the case with most organizations at that time, decisions in SNCC were made by consensus, called participatory democracy. Ms. Ella Baker was extremely influential in establishing that model, as was Rev. James Lawson. Group meetings would be convened in which every participant could speak for as long as they wanted and the meeting would continue until everyone who was left was in agreement with the decision. Because activities were often very dangerous and could lead to prison or death, SNCC wanted all participants to support each activity.

By 1965, SNCC fielded the largest staff of any civil rights organization in the South. It had organized nonviolent direct action against segregated facilities, as well as voter-registration projects, in Alabama, Arkansas, Maryland, Missouri, Louisiana, Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, Illinois, North and South Carolina, Georgia, and Mississippi; built two independent political parties and organized labor unions and agricultural cooperatives; and given the movement for women's liberation new energy. It inspired and trained the activists who began the "New Left." It helped expand the limits of political debate within Black America, and broadened the focus of the civil rights movement. Unlike mainstream civil rights groups, which merely sought integration of Blacks into the existing order, SNCC sought structural changes in American society itself.

Julian Bond [13]

March on Washington

SNCC played a significant role in the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom. While many speakers applauded the Kennedy Administration for the efforts it had made toward obtaining new, more effective civil rights legislation protecting the right to vote and outlawing segregation, John Lewis took the administration to task for how little it had done to protect Southern blacks and civil rights workers under attack in the Deep South. Although he was forced to tone down his speech under pressure from the representatives of other civil rights organizations on the march organization committee, his words still stung. The version of the speech leaked to the press went as follows:

We march today for jobs and freedom, but we have nothing to be proud of, for hundreds and thousands of our brothers are not here—for they have no money for their transportation, for they are receiving starvation wages...or no wages at all. In good conscience, we cannot support the administration's civil rights bill.

This bill will not protect young children and old women from police dogs and fire hoses when engaging in peaceful demonstrations. This bill will not protect the citizens of Danville, Virginia who must live in constant fear in a police state. This bill will not protect the hundreds of people who have been arrested on trumped-up charges like those in Americus, Georgia, where four young men are in jail, facing a death penalty, for engaging in peaceful protest.

I want to know, which side is the federal government on? The revolution is a serious one. Mr. Kennedy is trying to take the revolution out of the streets and put it in the courts. Listen Mr. Kennedy, the black masses are on the march for jobs and for freedom, and we must say to the politicians that there won't be a "cooling-off period." [14]

However, under pressure from the representatives of other groups many changes were made to the speech as it was delivered that day. [15] According to James Forman, the most important of these was the change of "we cannot support" the Kennedy Civil Rights Bill to "we support with reservations". Forman wrote of the following explanation of this:

Somewhere along the line, the church and labor people had been told that this was a march to support the administration's Civil Rights Bill, which was passed in 1964, after Kennedy's death. Who did this and how it happened, I do not know. But people all over the country thought they were marching for jobs and freedom when in actuality the sellout leadership of the March on Washington was playing patsy with the Kennedy administration as part of the whole liberal-labor politics of Rustin, Wilkins, Randolph, Reuther, King, the Catholic and Protestant hierarchy. If people had known they had come to Washington to aid the Kennedy administration, they would not have come in the numbers they did. [16]

Forman's and SNCC's anger came in part from the failure of the federal government, FBI, and Justice Department to protect SNCC civil rights workers in the South at this time. Indeed, the federal government at that time was instrumental in indicting SNCC workers and other civil rights activists. [17]

Voting rights

In 1961 SNCC began expanding its activities from direct-action protests against segregation into other forms of organizing, most notably voter registration. Under the leadership of Bob Moses, SNCC's first voter-registration project was in McComb, Mississippi, an effort suppressed with arrests and savage white violence, resulting in the murder of local activist Herbert Lee. [18]

With funding from the Voter Education Project, SNCC expanded its voter registration efforts into the Mississippi Delta around Greenwood, Southwest Georgia around Albany, and the Alabama Black Belt around Selma. [19] All of these projects endured police harassment and arrests; KKK violence including shootings, bombings, and assassinations; and economic terrorism against those blacks who dared to try to register. [20]

In 1962 Bob Moses worked to forge a coalition of national and regional organizations, including the NAACP and the National Council of Churches, that would fund and promote SNCC's voter registration work in Mississippi. This coalition was known as the Council of Federated Organizations. [21] In the fall of 1963, SNCC conducted the Freedom Ballot, a parallel election in which black Mississippians came out to show their willingness to vote — a right they had been denied for decades, despite the provisions of the Fifteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, due to a combination of state laws and constitutional provisions, economic reprisals and violence by white authorities and private citizens. [22]

SNCC followed up on the Freedom Ballot with the Mississippi Summer Project, also known as Freedom Summer, which focused on voter registration and Freedom Schools. The Summer Project brought hundreds of white Northern students to the South, where they volunteered as teachers and organizers. Their presence brought national press attention to SNCC's work in the south. SNCC organized black Mississippians to register to vote, almost always without success. White authorities either rejected their applications on any pretexts available or, failing that, simply refused to accept their applications.Tensions grew gradually and SNCC refused to recruit white people because they thought that they brought attention of the media only on white people. [23]

Mississippi Summer received national attention when three civil rights workers involved in the project - James Chaney, Andrew Goodman and Michael Schwerner - were murdered after having been released from police custody. Their bodies were eventually found after a reluctant J. Edgar Hoover directed the FBI to search for them. Johnson only sent the FBI after series of pressure and demonstrations. He favored at first to be the leader outside of his country with the Vietnam War whereas there were many conflicts inside of it. In the process, the FBI also found corpses of several other missing black Mississippians, whose disappearances had not attracted public attention outside the Delta. [24] [25]

SNCC also established Freedom Schools to teach children to read and to educate them to stand up for their rights. As in the struggle to desegregate public accommodations led by Martin Luther King Jr. and James Bevel in Birmingham, Alabama the year before, the bolder attitudes of the children helped shake their parents out of the fear that had paralyzed many of them. [26]

The goal of the Mississippi Summer Project was to organize the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP), an integrated party, to win seats at the 1964 Democratic National Convention for a slate of delegates elected by disfranchised black Mississippians and white sympathizers. The MFDP was, however, tremendously inconvenient for the Johnson Administration. It had wanted to minimize the inroads that Barry Goldwater's campaign was making into what had previously been the Democratic stronghold of the "Solid South" and the support that George Wallace received during the Democratic primaries in the North. [27]

When the MFDP started to organize a fight over credentials, Johnson originally would not budge. When Fannie Lou Hamer, the leader of the MFDP, was in the midst of testifying about the police beatings of her and others for attempting to exercise their right to vote, Johnson preempted television coverage of the credentials fight. Even so, her testimony created enough uproar that Johnson offered the MFDP a "compromise": they would receive two non-voting seats, while the delegation sent by the official Democratic Party would take its seats.

Johnson used all of his resources, mobilizing Walter Reuther, one of his key supporters within the liberal wing of the Democratic Party, and his Vice-Presidential nominee Hubert Humphrey, to pressure King and other mainstream civil rights leaders to bring the MFDP around, while directing Hoover to put the delegation under surveillance. The MFDP rejected both the compromise and the pressure to accept it, and walked out. [28]

That experience destroyed what little faith SNCC activists had in the federal government, even though Johnson had obtained a broad Civil Rights Act barring discrimination in public accommodations, employment and private education in 1964 and would go on to obtain an equally broad Voting Rights Act in 1965. It also estranged SNCC leaders from many of the mainstream leaders of the civil rights movement.

Those differences carried over into the voting rights struggle that centered on Selma, Alabama in 1965. SNCC had begun organizing black citizens to register to vote in Selma in 1963, [29] but made little headway against the adamant resistance of Sheriff Jim Clark and the White Citizens' Council. In early 1965, local Selma activists asked the Southern Christian Leadership Conference for help, and the two organizations formed an uneasy alliance. They disagreed over tactical and strategic issues, including the SCLC's decision not to attempt to cross the Edmund Pettus Bridge a second time after county sheriffs and state troopers attacked them on "Bloody Sunday" on March 7, 1965. [30]

The civil rights activists crossed the bridge on the third attempt, with the aid of a federal court order barring authorities from interfering with the march. It was part of a five-day march to Montgomery, Alabama, that helped dramatize the need for a Voting Rights Act. During this period, SNCC activists became more and more disenchanted with nonviolence, integration as a strategic goal, and cooperation with white liberals or the Federal government. [30]

Change in strategy and dissolution

Graduation photo of Ruby Doris Smith-Robinson, who would go on to be executive secretary of SNCC, 1966-1967. Ruby Doris Smith-Robinson.jpg
Graduation photo of Ruby Doris Smith-Robinson, who would go on to be executive secretary of SNCC, 1966-1967.

SNCC's experience with the COFO and Mississippi Freedom Summer solidified their estrangement from white liberals. During several points in the Mississippi project, a team of Democratic Party operatives led by Allard Lowenstein and Barney Frank tried to take over its management. They sought to move decision-making power away from grassroots activists in the South, and purge Communist-linked organizations (such as the National Lawyers Guild) from SNCC's network, in spite of those organizations having made crucial contributions to the movement. Dorothy Zellner (a white radical SNCC staffer) remarked that, "What they [Lowenstein and Frank] want is to let the Negro into the existing society, not to change it." [31]

SNCC was also deeply affected by the killing of Sammy Younge Jr. the first black college student to be killed as a result of his involvement in the civil rights movement. Younge was a Navy veteran who later enrolled in the Tuskegee Institute and participated in the Selma-to-Montgomery campaign, as well as other SNCC projects. His murder by a white supremacist in January 1966, and subsequent acquittal of the killer, furthered the group's disillusionment that the federal government would protect them. SNCC took Younge's death as the occasion to denounce the war in Vietnam, the first statement of its kind by a major civil rights organization. SNCC highlighted Younge's death as an example of the hypocrisy of fighting for freedom abroad while rights were denied in the US and was used as a call for people to refuse the draft and work for freedom at home instead. [32]

Many within SNCC had grown skeptical about the tactics of nonviolence and integration. After the Democratic convention of 1964, the group began to split into two factions – one favoring a continuation of nonviolent, integration-oriented redress of grievances within the existing political system, and the other moving towards Black Power and Marxism. [33]

Lowndes County Freedom Organization

The black panther-black power symbol was originated by SNCC'S Lowndes County Freedom Organization in 1965 Bpp logo.PNG
The black panther-black power symbol was originated by SNCC'S Lowndes County Freedom Organization in 1965

The first SNCC project to promote the slogan "black power" was the Lowndes County Freedom Organization (LCFO) an African-American electoral organization which registered over 2,500 black voters between 1965 and 1969. [34] This was a historic achievement given that Lowndes was the most Klan-dominated area in Alabama and that, as a result, Lowndes had zero registered black voters. [35] Although the Voting Rights Act had been passed, federal monitoring was sporadic and federal protection of black voters inconsistent. White supremacists regularly killed blacks, and sometimes their allies like white SNCC volunteer Jonathan Daniels, with impunity. As such, most LCFO members did their organizing openly armed. They had no confidence in appealing to the support of middle-class liberals (even Martin Luther King and SCLC distanced themselves from the group) or the national Democratic Party. [36] LCFO co-founder John Hulett (later elected Sheriff of Lowndes County) warned that this was the state of Alabama's last chance to peacefully grant African Americans their rights: "We're out to take power legally, but if we're stopped by the government from doing it legally, we're going to take it the way everyone else took it, including the way the Americans took it in the American Revolution." Certain the federal government was not going to protect him and his fellow party members, Hulett told a federal registrar, "if one of our candidates gets touched, we're going to take care of the murderer ourselves." Choosing a black panther as their mascot, LCFO was the first of numerous local organizations to be known as "the black panther party". (LCFO had no direct relationship with the later Black Panther Party for Self-Defense founded by Huey Newton, however.) [37] [38]

While the LCFO candidates did not win their early campaigns, most historians and activists regard the group's mere survival under such hostile conditions to be a victory. [35] In 1970 LCFO reconciled with the local Democratic Party, and various candidates, including John Hulett, went on to be Lowndes County officials. [36]

Stokely Carmichael as chair

After the Watts riots in Los Angeles in 1965, more of SNCC's members sought to break their ties with the mainstream civil rights movement and the liberal organizations that supported it. They argued instead that blacks needed to build power of their own, rather than seeking accommodations from the power structure in place. SNCC migrated from a philosophy of nonviolence to one of greater militancy after the mid-1960s, as an advocate of the burgeoning Black Power movement, a facet of late 20th-century black nationalism. The shift was personified by Stokely Carmichael, who replaced John Lewis as SNCC chairman in 1966–67. [39]

Carmichael raised the banner of Black Power nationally in a speech in Greenwood, Mississippi in June 1966, as part of SNCC's response to the attempted assassination of James Meredith. After a contentious debate over the meaning of "Black Power", issues of black nationalism and black separatism, and the organization's strategic direction, white SNCC members were asked to leave the organization in December 1966. [40] The vote, characterized by some as "expelling" whites and by others as "asking whites to work against racism in white communities," was extremely close; 19 Aye, 18 Nay, and 24 abstentions. [8]

SNCC continued to maintain coalition with several white radical organizations, most notably Students for a Democratic Society (SDS), and inspired them to focus on militant anti-draft resistance. At an SDS-organized conference at UC Berkeley in October 1966, Carmichael challenged the white left to escalate their resistance to the military draft in a manner similar to the black movement. Some participants in ghetto rebellions of the era had already associated their actions with opposition to the Vietnam War, and SNCC had first disrupted an Atlanta draft board in August 1966. According to historians Joshua Bloom and Waldo Martin, SDS's first Stop the Draft Week of October 1967 was "inspired by Black Power [and] emboldened by the ghetto rebellions." SNCC appear to have originated the popular anti-draft slogan: "Hell no! We won't go!" [41] For a time in 1967, SNCC seriously considered an alliance with Saul Alinsky's Industrial Areas Foundation, and generally supported IAF's work in Rochester and Buffalo's black communities. [42]

Expressing SNCC's evolving policy on nonviolence/violence, Carmichael first argued that blacks should be free to use violence in self-defense; later he advocated revolutionary violence to overthrow oppression. Carmichael rejected the civil-rights legislation as mere palliatives. The U.S. Department of Defense stated in 1967: "SNCC can no longer be considered a civil rights group. It has become a racist organization with black supremacy ideals and an expressed hatred for whites." [43] (Martin Luther King's Southern Christian Leadership Conference was classified as a "hate-type" group by the federal government during the same period). [44]

SNCC became a target of the Counterintelligence Program (COINTELPRO) of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in a concerted effort at all levels of government to crush black radicalism – both violent and nonviolent – through both overt and covert means ranging from propaganda to assassination. [45] [46]

Charles E. Cobb, formerly SNCC field secretary in Mississippi, has said that SNCC's grassroots and autonomous community work was undercut and co-opted by Lyndon Johnson's War on Poverty: "After we got the Civil Rights Act in 1964 and the Voting Rights Act in 1965, a lot of groups that we had cultivated were absorbed into the Democratic Party...a lot more money came into the states we were working in. A lot of the people we were working with became a part of Head Start and various kinds of poverty programs. We were too young to really know how to respond effectively. How could we tell poor sharecroppers or maids making a few dollars a day to walk away from poverty program salaries or stipends?" [47]

Post-1967

The second-to-last chairman of SNCC, H. Rap Brown, center, was indicted on charges relating to the Cambridge riot of 1967. Here he is in police custody April 1968, accompanied by his lawyer, William M. Kunstler, left. D011778h.gif
The second-to-last chairman of SNCC, H. Rap Brown, center, was indicted on charges relating to the Cambridge riot of 1967. Here he is in police custody April 1968, accompanied by his lawyer, William M. Kunstler, left.

By early 1967, SNCC was approaching bankruptcy as liberal funders refused to support its overt militancy. Carmichael voluntarily stepped down as chair in May 1967. [48] H. Rap Brown, later known as Jamil Abdullah Al-Amin, replaced him as the head of SNCC. Brown renamed the group the Student National Coordinating Committee and supported violence, which he described as "as American as cherry pie". He resigned as chair of SNCC in 1968, after being indicted for inciting to riot in Cambridge, Maryland, in 1967. In 1968, Carmichael was expelled from the group completely by the new program secretary, Phil Hutchings, when Carmichael refused to resign from the Black Panther Party. Carmichael, along with Rap Brown and James Forman, had tried to foster an alliance between SNCC and the Panthers, but it proved to be a failure. [49]

By then, SNCC was no longer an effective organization. Much analysis at the time blamed Carmichael's departure from the group for the decline, though others would dispute this. In 1968, SNCC lost numerous organizers, such as Kathleen Neal, Bob Brown, [50] and Bobby Rush, [51] to the Black Panther Party. Ella Baker said that "SNCC came North at a time when the North was in a ferment that led to various interpretations on what was needed to be done. With its own frustrations, it could not take the pace-setter role it took in the South..." [52]

The organization largely disappeared in the early 1970s, although chapters in some communities, such as San Antonio, Texas, continued for several more years. Mario Marcel Salas, field secretary of the SNCC chapter in San Antonio, operated until 1976. The San Antonio SNCC chapter was part Black Panther Party and part SNCC. Dr. Charles Jones of Albany State University termed it a "hybrid organization" because it had Panther-style survival programs. Salas also worked closely with La Raza Unida Party, running for political office and organizing demonstrations to expose discrimination against Blacks and Latinos. Salas later helped the New Jewel Movement in the otherthrow of Eric Gairy in 1979, the leader of the island of Grenada. He also became the chairman of the Free Nelson Mandela Movement in San Antonio, Texas.

Charles McDew, SNCC's second chairman, said that the organization was not designed to last beyond its mission of winning civil rights for blacks, and that at the founding meetings most participants expected it to last no more than five years:

First, we felt if we go more than five years without the understanding that the organization would be disbanded, we run the risk of becoming institutionalized or being more concerned with trying to perpetuate the organization and in doing so, giving up the freedom to act and to do...The other thing is that by the end of that time you'd either be dead or crazy…" [53]

By the time of its conclusion, many of the controversial ideas that once had defined SNCC's radicalism had become widely accepted among African Americans. [45]

A final SNCC legacy is the destruction of the psychological shackles which had kept black southerners in physical and mental peonage; SNCC helped break those chains forever. It demonstrated that ordinary women and men, young and old, could perform extraordinary tasks.

Geography


Most of SNCC's early activity took place in Georgia and Mississippi. In the early 1960s, they mainly focused on voter registration projects in the South, and multiple chapters were established throughout the region. The Freedom Rides, in which interracial groups rode buses together and challenged segregated seating arrangements, brought them media attention and helped raise awareness in the North. In 1963, they played an important role in the March on Washington.

The 1964 voter registration project called "Freedom Summer" focused on Mississippi and marked the beginning of SNCC's rejection of Northern white volunteers. Under Stokely Carmichael's leadership, SNCC shifted its focus to the North, where it focused on alleviating poverty in Northern urban areas. As SNCC became more radical in 1966 and 1967, Carmichael established ties with several foreign governments. SNCC was eventually overshadowed by the Black Panther Party, who had a broader national reach. [54]

Feminism

SNCC activist Bernice Johnson Reagon described the Civil Rights Movement as the "'borning struggle' of the decade, in that it stimulated and informed those that followed it," including the modern feminist movement. [55] The influence of the Civil Rights Movement inspired mass protests and awareness campaigns as the main methods to obtain sexual equality.

Many black women held prominent positions in the movement as a result of their participation in SNCC. Some of these women include Ruby Doris Smith Robinson, Donna Richards, Fay Bellamy, Gwen Patton, Cynthia Washington, Jean Wiley, Muriel Tillinghast, Fannie Lou Hamer, Annie Pearl Avery, Diane Nash, Ella Baker, Victoria Gray, Unita Blackwell, Bettie Mae Fikes, Joyce Ladner, Dorie Ladner, Gloria Richardson, Bernice Reagon, Prathia Hall, Gwendolyn Delores Robinson/Zoharah Simmons, Judy Richardson, Martha Prescod Norman Noonan, Ruby Sales, Endesha Ida Mae Holland, Eleanor Holmes Norton and Anne Moody.

"Women who were active in the lunch counter sit-in movement of 1960 led the transformation of SNCC from a coordinating office into a cadre of militant activists dedicated to expanding the civil rights movement throughout the South. In February 1961, Diane Nash and Ruby Doris Smith were among four SNCC members who joined the Rock Hill, South Carolina, desegregation protests, which featured the jail-no-bail tactic-demonstrators serving their jail sentences rather than accepting bail." [56] "In May 1961, Nash led a group of student activists to Alabama in order to sustain the Freedom Rides after the initial group of protesters organized by the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) encountered mob violence in Birmingham. During May and June, Nash, Smith, and other student freedom riders traveled on buses from Montgomery to Jackson, Mississippi, where they were swiftly arrested and imprisoned. In August, when veterans of the sit-ins and the Freedom Rides met to discuss SNCC's future, Baker helped to avoid a damaging split by suggesting separate direct-action and voter-registration wings. Nash became the leader of the direct-action wing of SNCC." [56]

Young black girls also played a significant part in the SNCC demonstrations. In July 1963, dozens of young black girls participated in a SNCC protest of a segregated movie theater in Americus Georgia. Over 30 of them were arrested and eventually held against their will in the Leesburg Stockade. They were freed over a month later due to the help of a SNCC volunteer who photographed the girls and published the pictures in a SNCC newsletter. However, despite the multiple humans rights violations that they endured in the stockade, many girls continued to fight for civil rights after they were freed. [57]

Anne Moody published her autobiography, Coming of Age in Mississippi , in 1970, detailing her decision to participate in SNCC and later CORE, and her experience as a woman in the movement. She described the widespread trend of black women to become involved with SNCC at their educational institutions. As young college students or teachers, these black women were often heavily involved in grassroots campaign by teaching Freedom Schools and promoting voter registration. [58]

Young white women also became very involved with SNCC, particularly after the Freedom Summer of 1964. Many northern white women were inspired by the ideology of racial equality. The book Deep in Our Hearts details the experiences of nine white women in SNCC. Some white women, such as Mary King, Constance W. Curry, and Casey Hayden, and Latino women such as Mary Varela and Elizabeth Sutherland Martinez, were able to obtain status and leadership within SNCC. [59] [60]

Through organizations like SNCC, women of both races were becoming more politically active than at any time in American history since the Women's suffrage movement. A group of women in SNCC, later identified as Mary King and Casey Hayden, openly challenged the way women were treated when they issued the "SNCC Position Paper (Women in the Movement), or adapted an earlier paper submitted at Waveland Meeting by Elaine DeLott Baker." [61] The paper was published anonymously, helping King and Hayden to avoid unwanted attention. [59] The paper listed 11 events in which women were treated as subordinate to men. According to the paper, women in SNCC did not have a chance to become the face of the organization, the top leaders, because they were assigned to clerical and housekeeping duties, whereas men were involved in decision-making. The degree and significance of male-domination and women's subordination was hotly debated within SNCC; many of SNCC's black women disputed the premise that women were denied leadership roles. [62] Ruby Doris Smith was often falsely attributed as author of paper, yet Smith was looking towards black nationalism at this time rather than interracial feminism. [63] The following year, King and Hayden produced another document entitled "Sex and Caste: A Kind of Memo". The document was published in 1966 by Liberation, the magazine of the War Resisters League. "Sex and Caste" has since been credited as one of the generative documents that launched second-wave feminism.

When Stokely Carmichael was elected Chair of SNCC, he reoriented the path of the organization towards Black Power. He famously said in a speech, "it is a call for black people to define their own goals, to lead their own organizations." [64] Thus, white women lost their influence and power in SNCC; Mary King and Casey Hayden left to become active in pursuing equality for women.

While it is often argued that the Black Power period led to a downgrading of women generally in the organization, historian Barbara Ransby notes that there is no real evidence of this. Carmichael appointed several women to posts as project directors during his tenure as chairman; by the latter half of the 1960s, more women were in charge of SNCC projects than during the first half. [65] Former SNCC member Kathleen Cleaver played a key role in the central committee of the Black Panther Party as communications secretary (1968). Her position in this "male dominated" leadership was both effective and influential to Brown, Red and Yellow Power groups of the late 1960s and early 1970s. [66]

In 1968, the Third World Women's Alliance (TWWA) was originated in New York by Frances M. Beal as a caucus of SNCC, addressing the issue of sexism within the movement. By 1970 it had become independent from SNCC, but maintained close ties with it. TWWA came to focus less on specifically black power and more on Puerto Rican and Cuban liberation. It continued to operate until 1978, with chapters in several major cities. [67] [68]

See also

Related Research Articles

The Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP), also referred to as the Freedom Democratic Party, was an American political party created in 1964 as a branch of the populist Freedom Democratic organization in the state of Mississippi during the Civil Rights Movement. It was organized by African Americans and whites from Mississippi to challenge the established power of the Mississippi Democratic Party, which at the time allowed participation only by whites, when African-Americans made up 40% of the state population.

Freedom Summer, or the Mississippi Summer Project, was a volunteer campaign in the United States launched in June 1964 to attempt to register as many African-American voters as possible in Mississippi. Blacks had been cut off from voting since the turn of the century due to barriers to voter registration and other laws. The project also set up dozens of Freedom Schools, Freedom Houses, and community centers in small towns throughout Mississippi to aid the local black population.

Selma to Montgomery marches 1965 march for African-American citizens to exercise their constitutional right to vote

The Selma to Montgomery marches were three protest marches, held in 1965, along the 54-mile (87 km) highway from Selma, Alabama to the state capital of Montgomery. The marches were organized by nonviolent activists to demonstrate the desire of African American citizens to exercise their constitutional right to vote, in defiance of segregationist repression; they were part of a broader voting rights movement underway in Selma and throughout the American South. By highlighting racial injustice, they contributed to passage that year of the Voting Rights Act, a landmark federal achievement of the civil rights movement.

The March Against Fear was a major 1966 demonstration in the Civil Rights Movement in the South. Activist James Meredith launched the event on June 5, 1966, intending to make a solitary walk from Memphis, Tennessee, to Jackson, Mississippi, a distance of 220 miles, to counter the continuing racism in the Mississippi Delta after passage of federal civil rights legislation in the previous two years and to encourage African Americans in the state to register to vote. He invited only individual black men to join him and did not want it to be a large media event dominated by major civil rights organizations.

Doris Derby American photographer

Doris Adelaide Derby is an American activist, documentary photographer and retired adjunct associate professor of anthropology at Georgia State University. She was active in the Mississippi Civil Rights Movement, and her work discusses the themes of race and African American identity. She was a working member of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (S.N.C.C.), as well as co-founder of the Free Southern Theater, and the founding director of the Office of African-American Student Services and Programs (O.A.A.S.S.P.). Her photography has been exhibited throughout the United States. Two of her photographs were published in Hands on the Freedom Plow: Personal Accounts by Women in SNCC, to which she also contributed an essay about her experiences in the Mississippi Civil Rights Movement. Derby lives in Atlanta, Georgia with her husband, actor Bob Banks. They are active leaders in their community and members of local and national organizations.

Victoria Jackson Gray Adams was an American civil rights activist from Hattiesburg, Mississippi. She was one of the founding members of the influential Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party.

The Council of Federated Organizations (COFO) was a coalition of the major Civil Rights Movement organizations operating in Mississippi. COFO was formed in 1961 to coordinate and unite voter registration and other civil rights activities in the state and oversee the distribution of funds from the Voter Education Project. It was instrumental in forming the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party. COFO member organizations included the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC).

Ruby Doris Smith-Robinson American activist

Ruby Doris Smith-Robinson worked with the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) from its earliest days in 1960 until her death in October 1967. She served the organization as an activist in the field and as an administrator in the Atlanta central office. She eventually succeeded James Forman as SNCC's executive secretary and was the only woman ever to serve in this capacity. She was well respected by her SNCC colleagues and others within the movement for her work ethic and dedication to those around her. SNCC Freedom Singer Matthew Jones recalled, "You could feel her power in SNCC on a daily basis". Jack Minnis, director of SNCC's opposition research unit, insisted that people could not fool her. Minnis was convinced that she had a "100 percent effective shit detector". Over the course of her life, she served 100 days in prison for the movement.

Sanford Rose Leigh, also known as Sandy Leigh was an activist during the Civil Rights Movement and the director of the largest project in Mississippi Freedom Summer, the Hattiesburg Project.

Jack Minnis (1926-2005) was an American activist, and the founder and director of opposition research for the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee in the Civil Rights Movement era. Minnis researched federal expenditures and state and local subversion of racial equality. Minnis was white, but remained affiliated with SNCC even after it adopted a "blacks only" personnel policy, its only white employee for a long time. He helped to train such workers as Stokely Carmichael, Marion Barry, and John Lewis.

Black Power is a political slogan and a name for various associated ideologies aimed at achieving self-determination for people of African descent. It is used primarily, but not exclusively, by African Americans in the United States. The Black Power movement was prominent in the late 1960s and early 1970s, emphasizing racial pride and the creation of black political and cultural institutions to nurture and promote black collective interests and advance black values.

Charles Sherrod American activist

Charles Sherrod was born in Surry, Virginia and was raised by his Baptist grandmother. When he was a young boy he sang in a choir and attended Sunday school at a Baptist Church. When he was older he became a preacher at Mount Olivet Baptist Church where he often preached to children. Sherrod is not only a preacher, but an activist. Charles Sherrod first took part in the Civil Rights Movement after the Supreme Court desegregated schools in the Brown v. Board of Education case. In 1954, Sherrod first participated in sit-ins at white churches with the goal to desegregate them. He was a key member and organizer of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) during the Civil Rights Movement. He became the first SNCC field secretary and SNCC director of southwest Georgia. His leadership there led to the Albany Movement. He also participated in the Selma Voting Rights Movement and in many other arenas of the 1960s movement era. However, Sherrod's activism continued throughout his life through the Southwest Georgia Project for Community Education (SWGAP), New Communities, and as an Albany City Council Member. He is married to former U.S. Department of Agriculture official Shirley Sherrod, who assisted with the Albany Movement and with SWGAP. Together they had two children.

Hollis Watkins is an activist who was part of the Civil Rights Movement activities in the state of Mississippi during the 1960s. He became a member and organizer with the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) in 1961, was a county organizer for 1964's "Freedom Summer", and assisted the efforts of the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party to unseat the regular Mississippi delegation from their chairs at the 1964 Democratic Party national convention in Atlantic City. He founded Southern Echo, a group that gives support to other grass-roots organizations in Mississippi. He also is a founder of the Mississippi Veterans of the Civil Rights Movement.

Charles "Chuck" McDew was an American lifelong activist for racial equality and a former activist of the Civil Rights Movement. After attending South Carolina State University, he became the chairman of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) from 1960 to 1963. His involvement in the movement earned McDew the title, “black by birth, a Jew by choice and a revolutionary by necessity” stated by fellow SNCC activist Bob Moses.

Robert C. "Bob" Mants, Jr. was an American civil rights activist, serving as a field secretary for the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). Mants moved to Lowndes County, working for civil rights for the remainder of his life. Lowndes County contained the majority of the distance covered by the Selma to Montgomery march, and was then notorious for its racist violence.

The Lowndes County Freedom Organization (LCFO), also known as the Lowndes County Freedom Party (LCFP) or Black Panther party, was an American political party founded during 1965 in Lowndes County, Alabama. The independent third party was formed by local African-American citizens and staff members of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) under the leadership of Stokley Carmichael.

The 1963 Freedom Ballot was a mock-election organized in the United States to combat the disenfranchisement of blacks in Mississippi.

References

  1. "Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee in Alabama (SNCC)" Encyclopedia of Alabama.
  2. "Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee" ABC-CLIO History and Headlines
  3. "Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) Actions 1960-1970". Mapping American Social Movements.
  4. "FBI - COINTELPRO Black Extremist Part 01 of 23". Federal Bureau of Investigation.
  5. Wills, John (2011). European journal of American Culture. ISSN   1466-0407.
  6. Hine, Darlene. Black Women in America. New York: Carlson Publishing, 1993.
  7. Moody, Anne (1970). Coming of Age in Mississippi. New York: Dell Publishing Company.
  8. 1 2 Clayborne Carson, In Struggle, SNCC and the Black Awakening of the 1960s, Harvard University Press, 1981.
  9. Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee Founded ~ Civil Rights Movement Veterans.
  10. Lewis, John (1998). Walking With the Wind. Simon & Schuster.
  11. Bruce J. Dierenfield, The Civil Rights Movement, Harlow, England: Pearson Education Limited, 2004.
  12. Freedom Rides ~ Civil Rights Movement Veterans.
  13. 1 2 Bond, Julian (October 2000). "SNCC: What We Did". Monthly Review. p. "legacy".
  14. March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom ~ Civil Rights Movement Veterans. (N.B.: This text must be from a different source; at least three versions of the speech were written, and this is the earliest of those three, before "we cannot support" was changed to "we cannot wholeheartedly support" and then later "we support with reservations". See James Forman, The Making of Black Revolutionaries (1971; 1997), pp. 334–37.)
  15. The version of the speech that was delivered by Lewis to the march can be found in Forman's autobiographical history of SNCC, The Making of Black Revolutionaries (1971), pp. 336–37.
  16. Forman, The Making of Black Revolutionaries (1971; 1997), p. 335.
  17. Forman (1971; 1997), p. 341.
  18. Voter Registration & Direct Action in McComb MS ~ Civil Rights Movement Veterans.
  19. "Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) Actions 1960-1970". Mapping American Social Movements.
  20. History & Timeline ~ Civil Rights Movement Veterans.
  21. ""Council of Federated Organizations" King Encyclopedia, Martin Luther King Jr. Research and Education Institute". Archived from the original on 2013-12-25. Retrieved 2014-09-02.
  22. Freedom Ballot in MS ~ Civil Rights Movement Veterans.
  23. Mississippi Summer Project ~ Civil Rights Movement Veterans.
  24. "Mississippi Burning". Federal Bureau of Investigation. Retrieved 2019-05-01.
  25. University, © Stanford; Stanford; California 94305 (2017-06-29). "Freedom Summer". The Martin Luther King Jr., Research and Education Institute. Retrieved 2019-05-01.
  26. Freedom Schools ~ Civil Rights Movement Veterans.
  27. University, © Stanford; Stanford; California 94305 (2017-06-02). "Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP)". The Martin Luther King Jr., Research and Education Institute. Retrieved 2019-05-01.
  28. MFDP Challenge to the Democratic Convention ~ Civil Rights Movement Veterans.
  29. Selma Cracking the Wall of Fear [ permanent dead link ] ~ Civil Rights Movement Veterans.
  30. 1 2 University, © Stanford; Stanford; California 94305 (2017-06-08). "Selma to Montgomery March". The Martin Luther King Jr., Research and Education Institute. Retrieved 2019-05-01.
  31. Julian Bond, "Address to Freedom Summer 50th Commemoration", Jackson, MS. June 28, 2014.
  32. "Samuel Younge Jr." Encyclopedia of Alabama.
  33. University, © Stanford; Stanford; California 94305 (2017-05-02). "Forman, James". The Martin Luther King Jr., Research and Education Institute. Retrieved 2019-05-01.
  34. Michael T. Kaufman, "Stokely Carmichael, Rights Leader Who Coined 'Black Power,' Dies at 57", The New York Times, November 16, 1998.
  35. 1 2 "Book Discussion on Bloody Lowndes", C-SPAN Book TV, March 27, 2009.
  36. 1 2 "Lowndes County Freedom Organization", Encyclopedia of Alabama.
  37. Curtis Anderson, Up Against the Wall: Violence in the Making and Unmaking of the Black Panther Party (University of Arkansas Press, 2006), 14.
  38. The Black Panther Party (pamphlet), Merrit Publishers, June 1966.
  39. Encyclopædia Britannica. "Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. Retrieved 6 May 2015.
  40. "Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) Actions 1960-1970". Mapping American Social Movements.
  41. Joshua Bloom and Waldo E. Martin, Black Against Empire: The History and Politics of the Black Panther Party (University of California Press, 2013), pp. 29, 41-42, 102-103, 128-130.
  42. "Excerpt From SNCC Central Committee Meeting Regarding Forging a Relation With Saul Alinsky January, 1967"', January 20, 1967.
  43. "Stokely Carmichael and SNCC - Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)". www.aavw.org. Retrieved 2019-05-25.
  44. "Guide to the Microfilm Edition of FBI Files on Black Extremist Organizations, Part 1" Archived 2013-06-03 at the Wayback Machine . Lexis Nexis.
  45. 1 2 "Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee", King Encyclopedia, Martin Luther King Jr Research and Education Institute, Stanford University.
  46. "Federal Bureau of Investigation", King Encyclopedia, Martin Luther King Jr Research and Education Institute, Stanford University.
  47. Rakim Brooks and Charles E. Cobb Jr."Black Politics and the Establishment", Dissent: A Quarterly of Politics and Culture, February 15, 2012.
  48. Clayborne Carson, In Struggle (1981), p. 251.
  49. "SNCC Crippled by Defection of Carmichael", Washington Post news service (St. Petersburgh Times), September 26, 1968.
  50. "Veterans of the Civil Rights Movement — Bob Brown". www.crmvet.org. Retrieved 2019-05-25.
  51. Terry Rockefeller, "Interview with Bobby Rush". Eyes on the Prize II interviews, Washington University Digital Gateway Texts.
  52. C. Gerald Fraser, "SNCC Has Lost Much of Its Power to Black Panthers", New York Times news service (Eugene Register-Guard), October 9, 1968.
  53. Kwame Ture and Michael Thelwell, Ready for Revolution: The Life and Struggles of Stokely Carmichael, Scribner, 2003, p. 297-298.
  54. "SNCC Project". depts.washington.edu. Retrieved 2019-05-01.
  55. Payne, Charles (1995). I've Got the Light of Freedom: The Organizing Tradition and the Mississippi Freedom Struggle. University of California Press. 100.
  56. 1 2 Clayborne Carson and Heidi Hess, "Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee". From Darlene Clark Hine (ed.), Black Women in America: An Historical Encyclopedia, New York: Carlson Publishing, 1993.
  57. Shaffer, Graham (Spring 2008). "The Leesburg Stockade Girls: Why Modern Legislatures Should Extend the Statute of Limitations for Specific Jim-Crow-Era Reparations Lawsuits in the Wake of Alexander vs. Oklahoma". Stetson Law Review.
  58. Anne Moody, Coming of Age in Mississippi, New York: Dell Publishing Company, 1970.
  59. 1 2 Sara Evans, Personal Politics: The Roots of Women's Liberation in the Civil Rights Movement and the New Left, 1978.
  60. Curry, Constance; et al. (2002). Deep in Our Hearts: Nine White Women in the Freedom Movement. University of Georgia Press.
  61. SNCC position paper: Women in the Movement, Anonymous.
  62. Women & Men in the Freedom Movement ~ Civil Rights Movement Veterans.
  63. Baker, Elaine DeLott; Sklar, Kathryn Kish. "How and Why Did Women in SNCC (the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee) Author a Pathbreaking Feminist Manifesto, 1964-1965?". Women and Social Movements. Alexander Street Press/Proquest. Retrieved 16 October 2017.
  64. Stokely Carmichael, Black Power, 1967.
  65. Barbara Ransby, Ella Baker and the Black Freedom Movement: A Radical Democratic Vision (University of North Carolina Press, 2003), pp. 310-11.
  66. "How Kathleen Cleaver Went From A Diplomat's Daughter To A Communist Black Panther". All That's Interesting. 2018-08-23. Retrieved 2019-05-01.
  67. "The Third World Women's Alliance, Cuba, and the Exchange of Ideas – AAIHS". www.aaihs.org. Retrieved 2018-03-17.
  68. "Third World Women's Alliance Records, 1971-1980". Five College Archives.

Further reading

Archives

Books

Video

Interviews

Publications and documents