Subarctic climate

Last updated
Subarctic climate worldwide
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Dsc
Dsd
Dwc
Dwd
Dfc
Dfd Koppen World Map Dsc, Dwc, Dfc, Dsd, Dwd and Dfd (Subarctic).svg
Subarctic climate worldwide
  Dsc
  Dsd
  Dwc
  Dwd
  Dfc
  Dfd

The subarctic climate (also called subpolar climate, or boreal climate) is a continental climate with long, cold (often very cold) winters, and short, warm to cool summers. It is found on large landmasses, often away from the moderating effects of an ocean, generally at latitudes from 50°N to 70°N, poleward of the humid continental climates. Subarctic or boreal climates are the source regions for the cold air that affects temperate latitudes to the south in winter. These climates represent Köppen climate classification Dfc, Dwc, Dsc, Dfd, Dwd and Dsd.

Contents

Description

This type of climate offers some of the most extreme seasonal temperature variations found on the planet: in winter, temperatures can drop to below −50 °C (−58 °F) and in summer, the temperature may exceed 26 °C (79 °F). However, the summers are short; no more than three months of the year (but at least one month) must have a 24-hour average temperature of at least 10 °C (50 °F) to fall into this category of climate, and the coldest month should average below 0 °C (32 °F) (or −3 °C (27 °F)). Record low temperatures can approach −70 °C (−94 °F). [1]

With 5–7 consecutive months when the average temperature is below freezing, all moisture in the soil and subsoil freezes solidly to depths of many feet. Summer warmth is insufficient to thaw more than a few surface feet, so permafrost prevails under most areas not near the southern boundary of this climate zone. Seasonal thaw penetrates from 2 to 14 ft (0.6 to 4.3 m), depending on latitude, aspect, and type of ground. [2] Some northern areas with subarctic climates located near oceans (southern Alaska, the northern fringe of Europe, Sakhalin Oblast and Kamchatka Oblast), have milder winters and no permafrost, and are more suited for farming unless precipitation is excessive. The frost-free season is very short, varying from about 45 to 100 days at most, and a freeze can occur anytime outside the summer months in many areas.

Description

The first D indicates continentality, with the coldest month below 0 °C (32 °F) (or −3 °C (27 °F)).

The second letter denotes precipitation patterns:

The third letter denotes temperature:

Precipitation

Most subarctic climates have little precipitation, typically no more than 380 mm (15 in) over an entire year due to the low temperatures and evapotranspiration. Away from the coasts, precipitation occurs mostly in the summer months, while in coastal areas with subarctic climates the heaviest precipitation is usually during the autumn months when the relative warmth of sea vis-à-vis land is greatest. Low precipitation, by the standards of more temperate regions with longer summers and warmer winters, is typically sufficient in view of the very low evapotranspiration to allow a water-logged terrain in many areas of subarctic climate and to permit snow cover during winter.

A notable exception to this pattern is that subarctic climates occurring at high elevations in otherwise temperate regions have extremely high precipitation due to orographic lift. Mount Washington, with temperatures typical of a subarctic climate, receives an average rain-equivalent of 101.91 inches (2,588.5 mm) of precipitation per year. [3] Coastal areas of Khabarovsk Krai also have much higher precipitation in summer due to orographic influences (up to 175 millimetres (6.9 in) in July in some areas), whilst the mountainous Kamchatka peninsula and Sakhalin island are even wetter, since orographic moisture isn't confined to the warmer months and creates large glaciers in Kamchatka. Labrador, in eastern Canada, is similarly wet throughout the year due to the semi-permanent Icelandic Low and can receive up to 1,300 millimetres (51 in) of rainfall equivalent per year, creating a snow cover of up to 1.5 metres (59 in) that does not melt until June.

Vegetation and land use

Vegetation in regions with subarctic climates is generally of low diversity, as only hardy tree species can survive the long winters and make use of the short summers. Trees are mostly limited to conifers, as few broadleaved trees are able to survive the very low temperatures in winter. This type of forest is also known as taiga, a term which is sometimes applied to the climate found therein as well. Even though the diversity may be low, the area and numbers are high, and the taiga (boreal) forest is the largest forest biome on the planet, with most of the forests located in Russia and Canada. The process by which plants become acclimated to cold temperatures is called hardening.

Agricultural potential is generally poor, due to the natural infertility of soils [4] and the prevalence of swamps and lakes left by departing ice sheets, and short growing seasons prohibit all but the hardiest of crops. Despite the short season, the long summer days at such latitudes do permit some agriculture. In some areas, ice has scoured rock surfaces bare, entirely stripping off the overburden. Elsewhere, rock basins have been formed and stream courses dammed, creating countless lakes. [2]

Neighboring regions

Should one go northward or even toward a polar sea, one finds that the warmest month has an average temperature of less than 10 °C (50 °F), and the subarctic climate grades into a tundra climate not at all suitable for trees. Southward, this climate grades into the humid continental climates with longer summers (and usually less-severe winters) allowing broadleaf trees; in a few locations close to a temperate sea (as in northern Norway and southern Alaska), this climate can grade into a short-summer version of an oceanic climate, the subpolar oceanic climate, as the sea is approached where winter temperatures average near or above freezing despite maintaining the short, cool summers. In China and Mongolia, as one moves southwestwards or towards lower elevations, temperatures increase but precipitation is so low that the subarctic climate grades into a cold semi-arid climate.

Distribution

Dfc and Dfd distribution

The Dfc climate, by far the most common subarctic type, is found in the following areas: [5] [6]

View of pines in the Kuysumy mountains in Siberia Kuysumy mountains and Torgashinsky range. View from viewing platform on Kashtakovskaya path (Stolby reserve, Krasnoyarsk city) 4Y1A8757 (28363120875).jpg
View of pines in the Kuysumy mountains in Siberia

Further north and east in Siberia, continentality increases so much that winters can be exceptionally severe, averaging below −38 °C (−36 °F), even though the hottest month still averages more than 10 °C (50 °F). This creates Dfd climates, which are mostly found in the Sakha Republic:

Subarctic climate in Alaska, near Yukon Subarctic Tundra.JPG
Subarctic climate in Alaska, near Yukon

In the Southern Hemisphere, this climate exists only in small, isolated pockets in the Snowy Mountains of Australia, the Southern Alps of New Zealand, the Andes Mountains of Argentina, and the Lesotho Highlands.

Dsc and Dsd distribution

Climates classified as Dsc or Dsd, with a dry summer, are rare, occurring in very small areas at high elevation around the Mediterranean Basin, Iran, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Alaska and other parts of the northwestern United States (Eastern Washington, Eastern Oregon, Southern Idaho, California's Eastern Sierra), the Russian Far East, Seneca, Oregon, and Atlin, British Columbia. Turkey and Afghanistan are exceptions; Dsc climates are common in Northeast Anatolia, in the Taurus and Köroğlu Mountains, and the Central Afghan highlands.

In the Southern Hemisphere, some of the highest mountains of the Andes in Chile and Argentina have Dsc climates.

Dwc and Dwd distribution

Climates classified as Dwc or Dwd, with a dry winter, are found in parts of East Asia, like China, where the Siberian High makes the winters colder than places like Scandinavia or Alaska interior but extremely dry (typically with around 5 millimeters (0.20 in) of rainfall equivalent per month), meaning that winter snow cover is very limited. The Dwc climate can be found in:

In the Southern Hemisphere, small pockets of the Lesotho Highlands and the Drakensberg Mountains have a Dwc classification.

Charts of selected sites

Anchorage, Alaska, United States
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
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O
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D
 
 
19
 
 
−5
−12
 
 
19
 
 
−3
−10
 
 
15
 
 
1
−7
 
 
12
 
 
7
−2
 
 
19
 
 
14
4
 
 
24
 
 
18
9
 
 
46
 
 
19
11
 
 
82
 
 
18
10
 
 
76
 
 
13
5
 
 
52
 
 
5
−2
 
 
30
 
 
−2
−9
 
 
28
 
 
−4
−10
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: NOAA
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
0.7
 
 
23
11
 
 
0.7
 
 
27
14
 
 
0.6
 
 
35
19
 
 
0.5
 
 
45
29
 
 
0.7
 
 
57
39
 
 
0.9
 
 
64
47
 
 
1.8
 
 
66
52
 
 
3.2
 
 
64
50
 
 
3
 
 
55
42
 
 
2
 
 
41
29
 
 
1.2
 
 
28
17
 
 
1.1
 
 
24
13
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Whitehorse, Yukon, Canada
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
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18
 
 
−11
−19
 
 
12
 
 
−8
−18
 
 
10
 
 
−1
−12
 
 
7
 
 
7
−5
 
 
16
 
 
14
1
 
 
32
 
 
19
6
 
 
38
 
 
21
8
 
 
36
 
 
19
7
 
 
33
 
 
12
2
 
 
23
 
 
4
−3
 
 
20
 
 
−6
−13
 
 
16
 
 
−9
−17
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: Environment Canada [7]
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
0.7
 
 
12
−3
 
 
0.5
 
 
18
0
 
 
0.4
 
 
31
11
 
 
0.3
 
 
44
24
 
 
0.6
 
 
56
34
 
 
1.3
 
 
66
42
 
 
1.5
 
 
69
46
 
 
1.4
 
 
65
44
 
 
1.3
 
 
54
36
 
 
0.9
 
 
40
26
 
 
0.8
 
 
21
9
 
 
0.6
 
 
17
2
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, Canada
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
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A
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J
A
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O
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14
 
 
−23
−31
 
 
13
 
 
−19
−28
 
 
13
 
 
−11
−23
 
 
11
 
 
0
−11
 
 
19
 
 
11
1
 
 
27
 
 
18
9
 
 
35
 
 
21
12
 
 
41
 
 
18
10
 
 
33
 
 
10
4
 
 
35
 
 
1
−4
 
 
24
 
 
−10
−18
 
 
16
 
 
−20
−28
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: Environment Canada [8]
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
0.6
 
 
−9
−24
 
 
0.5
 
 
−1
−19
 
 
0.5
 
 
12
−10
 
 
0.4
 
 
33
12
 
 
0.8
 
 
51
33
 
 
1.1
 
 
65
48
 
 
1.4
 
 
70
54
 
 
1.6
 
 
65
51
 
 
1.3
 
 
51
39
 
 
1.4
 
 
34
24
 
 
0.9
 
 
14
0
 
 
0.6
 
 
−3
−18
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Samedan, Graubünden, Switzerland
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
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J
A
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O
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30
 
 
−2
−18
 
 
25
 
 
0
−17
 
 
31
 
 
3
−12
 
 
44
 
 
6
−6
 
 
81
 
 
12
−1
 
 
87
 
 
16
2
 
 
89
 
 
18
3
 
 
99
 
 
18
3
 
 
72
 
 
15
0
 
 
59
 
 
11
−4
 
 
54
 
 
4
−11
 
 
31
 
 
−2
−16
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: MeteoSchweiz [9]
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
1.2
 
 
28
0
 
 
1
 
 
32
1
 
 
1.2
 
 
37
11
 
 
1.7
 
 
44
22
 
 
3.2
 
 
53
30
 
 
3.4
 
 
60
35
 
 
3.5
 
 
65
37
 
 
3.9
 
 
64
37
 
 
2.8
 
 
59
32
 
 
2.3
 
 
51
24
 
 
2.1
 
 
38
13
 
 
1.2
 
 
29
3
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Luleå, Sweden
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
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O
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32
 
 
−7
−13
 
 
26
 
 
−6
−13
 
 
23
 
 
−1
−9
 
 
18
 
 
4
−3
 
 
23
 
 
11
2
 
 
32
 
 
17
9
 
 
42
 
 
20
12
 
 
42
 
 
18
11
 
 
31
 
 
12
6
 
 
34
 
 
6
0
 
 
31
 
 
−2
−6
 
 
27
 
 
−6
−11
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: World Weather Information [10]
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
1.3
 
 
19
9
 
 
1
 
 
21
9
 
 
0.9
 
 
30
16
 
 
0.7
 
 
39
27
 
 
0.9
 
 
52
36
 
 
1.3
 
 
63
48
 
 
1.7
 
 
68
54
 
 
1.7
 
 
64
52
 
 
1.2
 
 
54
43
 
 
1.3
 
 
43
32
 
 
1.2
 
 
28
21
 
 
1.1
 
 
21
12
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Nerdal/Mo i Rana, Norway
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
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J
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O
N
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146
 
 
−3
−8
 
 
117
 
 
−2
−7
 
 
112
 
 
2
−4
 
 
74
 
 
5
−1
 
 
64
 
 
12
4
 
 
70
 
 
16
8
 
 
97
 
 
18
10
 
 
110
 
 
16
9
 
 
155
 
 
11
6
 
 
186
 
 
6
2
 
 
136
 
 
1
−4
 
 
163
 
 
−1
−6
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: met.no/klimastatistikk/eklima
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
5.7
 
 
27
17
 
 
4.6
 
 
29
19
 
 
4.4
 
 
35
24
 
 
2.9
 
 
42
30
 
 
2.5
 
 
53
38
 
 
2.8
 
 
61
46
 
 
3.8
 
 
64
51
 
 
4.3
 
 
62
49
 
 
6.1
 
 
52
42
 
 
7.3
 
 
43
35
 
 
5.4
 
 
34
26
 
 
6.4
 
 
30
20
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Tromsø, Norway
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
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108
 
 
−1
−5
 
 
97
 
 
−1
−6
 
 
96
 
 
1
−4
 
 
70
 
 
4
−2
 
 
56
 
 
9
3
 
 
57
 
 
13
6
 
 
72
 
 
16
9
 
 
89
 
 
15
8
 
 
111
 
 
11
5
 
 
126
 
 
5
1
 
 
90
 
 
2
−2
 
 
109
 
 
0
−4
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: Meteo climat stats 1991-2020
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
4.3
 
 
30
23
 
 
3.8
 
 
30
22
 
 
3.8
 
 
33
24
 
 
2.8
 
 
39
29
 
 
2.2
 
 
48
37
 
 
2.3
 
 
55
43
 
 
2.9
 
 
61
48
 
 
3.5
 
 
59
47
 
 
4.4
 
 
51
42
 
 
4.9
 
 
41
34
 
 
3.6
 
 
35
29
 
 
4.3
 
 
32
25
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Kiruna, Sweden
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
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J
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O
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30
 
 
−11
−22
 
 
25
 
 
−9
−20
 
 
26
 
 
−5
−18
 
 
27
 
 
−1
−9
 
 
34
 
 
8
−2
 
 
49
 
 
15
5
 
 
86
 
 
18
7
 
 
74
 
 
15
5
 
 
49
 
 
10
1
 
 
47
 
 
−2
−11
 
 
42
 
 
−7
−13
 
 
34
 
 
−9
−20
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: SMHI [11]
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
1.2
 
 
12
−7
 
 
1
 
 
16
−4
 
 
1
 
 
23
−1
 
 
1.1
 
 
30
15
 
 
1.3
 
 
47
29
 
 
1.9
 
 
59
41
 
 
3.4
 
 
64
45
 
 
2.9
 
 
59
42
 
 
1.9
 
 
49
33
 
 
1.9
 
 
28
13
 
 
1.7
 
 
20
8
 
 
1.3
 
 
16
−4
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Verkhoyansk, Sakha Republic, Russia
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
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6
 
 
−43
−49
 
 
6
 
 
−37
−46
 
 
5
 
 
−20
−39
 
 
6
 
 
−3
−22
 
 
12
 
 
10
−3
 
 
23
 
 
20
6
 
 
33
 
 
23
9
 
 
32
 
 
18
4
 
 
14
 
 
9
−3
 
 
13
 
 
−9
−19
 
 
10
 
 
−32
−40
 
 
8
 
 
−40
−47
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: Pogoda.ru.net
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
0.2
 
 
−45
−56
 
 
0.2
 
 
−34
−51
 
 
0.2
 
 
−4
−37
 
 
0.2
 
 
26
−8
 
 
0.5
 
 
50
27
 
 
0.9
 
 
68
43
 
 
1.3
 
 
74
48
 
 
1.3
 
 
65
40
 
 
0.6
 
 
47
27
 
 
0.5
 
 
16
−3
 
 
0.4
 
 
−26
−40
 
 
0.3
 
 
−40
−52
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Mohe, Heilongjiang, China
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
 
 
5
 
 
−22
−36
 
 
4.4
 
 
−13
−33
 
 
6.9
 
 
−3
−24
 
 
24
 
 
8
−8
 
 
33
 
 
18
0
 
 
68
 
 
24
8
 
 
99
 
 
26
12
 
 
107
 
 
23
9
 
 
50
 
 
16
1
 
 
16
 
 
5
−10
 
 
13
 
 
−11
−25
 
 
7.4
 
 
−21
−34
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: Weather China [12]
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
0.2
 
 
−7
−33
 
 
0.2
 
 
9
−28
 
 
0.3
 
 
26
−12
 
 
0.9
 
 
46
19
 
 
1.3
 
 
64
33
 
 
2.7
 
 
76
46
 
 
3.9
 
 
78
53
 
 
4.2
 
 
74
49
 
 
2
 
 
62
35
 
 
0.6
 
 
41
14
 
 
0.5
 
 
13
−14
 
 
0.3
 
 
−6
−29
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Lukla, Nepal
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
 
 
11
 
 
1
−18
 
 
18
 
 
2
−16
 
 
22
 
 
5
−12
 
 
28
 
 
8
−7
 
 
34
 
 
12
−3
 
 
96
 
 
15
2
 
 
154
 
 
14
4
 
 
145
 
 
13
4
 
 
81
 
 
13
1
 
 
37
 
 
9
−7
 
 
6.2
 
 
6
−13
 
 
13
 
 
3
−16
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: weatherbase.com [13]
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
0.4
 
 
34
−1
 
 
0.7
 
 
35
3
 
 
0.9
 
 
40
10
 
 
1.1
 
 
47
19
 
 
1.4
 
 
53
26
 
 
3.8
 
 
58
35
 
 
6.1
 
 
58
39
 
 
5.7
 
 
56
38
 
 
3.2
 
 
55
33
 
 
1.5
 
 
48
20
 
 
0.2
 
 
42
10
 
 
0.5
 
 
38
3
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Crater Lake, Oregon, United States
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
 
 
267
 
 
1
−8
 
 
205
 
 
2
−8
 
 
196
 
 
3
−7
 
 
123
 
 
6
−5
 
 
84
 
 
10
−2
 
 
57
 
 
15
2
 
 
20
 
 
21
5
 
 
25
 
 
21
5
 
 
52
 
 
17
3
 
 
127
 
 
11
−1
 
 
239
 
 
4
−5
 
 
290
 
 
2
−7
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: SHMI [14]
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
11
 
 
34
18
 
 
8.1
 
 
35
18
 
 
7.7
 
 
37
19
 
 
4.8
 
 
43
23
 
 
3.3
 
 
50
29
 
 
2.2
 
 
58
35
 
 
0.8
 
 
69
41
 
 
1
 
 
69
41
 
 
2
 
 
63
37
 
 
5
 
 
52
31
 
 
9.4
 
 
40
24
 
 
11
 
 
35
20
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Norilsk, Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
 
 
22
 
 
−25
−34
 
 
17
 
 
−24
−33
 
 
20
 
 
−17
−29
 
 
21
 
 
−9
−21
 
 
21
 
 
−1
−10
 
 
45
 
 
9
1
 
 
52
 
 
17
8
 
 
61
 
 
14
5
 
 
64
 
 
6
0
 
 
44
 
 
−6
−13
 
 
35
 
 
−18
−26
 
 
34
 
 
−22
−31
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: SHMI [15]
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
0.9
 
 
−13
−29
 
 
0.7
 
 
−11
−27
 
 
0.8
 
 
1
−20
 
 
0.8
 
 
16
−6
 
 
0.8
 
 
30
14
 
 
1.8
 
 
48
34
 
 
2
 
 
63
46
 
 
2.4
 
 
57
41
 
 
2.5
 
 
43
32
 
 
1.7
 
 
21
9
 
 
1.4
 
 
0
−15
 
 
1.3
 
 
−8
−24
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Östersund, Sweden
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
 
 
19
 
 
−6
−13
 
 
16
 
 
−4
−12
 
 
14
 
 
1
−8
 
 
20
 
 
5
−3
 
 
23
 
 
13
3
 
 
47
 
 
18
8
 
 
61
 
 
19
10
 
 
48
 
 
17
9
 
 
34
 
 
12
5
 
 
25
 
 
6
1
 
 
19
 
 
0
−5
 
 
18
 
 
−3
−10
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: yr.no
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
0.7
 
 
22
9
 
 
0.6
 
 
25
11
 
 
0.6
 
 
33
18
 
 
0.8
 
 
42
27
 
 
0.9
 
 
55
37
 
 
1.9
 
 
64
46
 
 
2.4
 
 
66
50
 
 
1.9
 
 
63
48
 
 
1.3
 
 
53
41
 
 
1
 
 
44
34
 
 
0.7
 
 
32
23
 
 
0.7
 
 
26
15
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Oulu, Finland
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
 
 
33
 
 
−6
−14
 
 
28
 
 
−6
−13
 
 
23
 
 
−1
−9
 
 
34
 
 
6
−3
 
 
32
 
 
13
3
 
 
49
 
 
18
9
 
 
70
 
 
21
12
 
 
65
 
 
18
10
 
 
57
 
 
13
5
 
 
46
 
 
6
1
 
 
41
 
 
0
−6
 
 
36
 
 
−4
−11
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: Tilastokeskus: Tilastoja Suomen ilmastosta 1981-2010
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
1.3
 
 
21
8
 
 
1.1
 
 
22
8
 
 
0.9
 
 
30
16
 
 
1.3
 
 
42
27
 
 
1.3
 
 
55
38
 
 
1.9
 
 
64
48
 
 
2.8
 
 
70
54
 
 
2.6
 
 
65
50
 
 
2.2
 
 
55
42
 
 
1.8
 
 
42
33
 
 
1.6
 
 
31
22
 
 
1.4
 
 
25
13
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Polar climate</span> Climate classification

The polar climate regions are characterized by a lack of warm summers but with varying winters. Every month a polar climate has an average temperature of less than 0 °C (32 °F). Regions with a polar climate cover more than 20% of the Earth's area. Most of these regions are far from the equator and near the poles, and in this case, winter days are extremely short and summer days are extremely long. A polar climate consists of cool summers and very cold winters, which results in treeless tundra, glaciers, or a permanent or semi-permanent layer of ice. It is identified with the letter E in the Köppen climate classification.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Continental climate</span> Köppen climate category

Continental climates often have a significant annual variation in temperature. They tend to occur in central and eastern parts of the three northern-tier continents, typically in the middle latitudes, often within large landmasses, where prevailing winds blow overland bringing some precipitation, and temperatures are not moderated by oceans. Continental climates occur mostly in the Northern Hemisphere due to the large landmasses found there. Most of northern and northeastern China, eastern and southeastern Europe, much of Russia south of the arctic circle, central and southeastern Canada, and the central and northeastern United States have this type of climate. Continentality is a measure of the degree to which a region experiences this type of climate.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Köppen climate classification</span> Climate classification system

The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by German-Russian climatologist Wladimir Köppen (1846–1940) in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen, notably in 1918 and 1936. Later, German climatologist Rudolf Geiger (1894–1981) introduced some changes to the classification system in 1954 and 1961, which is thus sometimes called the Köppen–Geiger climate classification.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Oceanic climate</span> Climate classification

An oceanic climate, also known as a marine climate, is the temperate climate sub-type in Köppen classification represented as Cfb, typical of west coasts in higher middle latitudes of continents, generally featuring cool summers and mild winters, with a relatively narrow annual temperature range and few extremes of temperature. Oceanic climates can be found in both hemispheres generally between 40 and 60 degrees latitude, with subpolar versions extending to 70 degrees latitude in some coastal areas. Other varieties of climates usually classified together with these include subtropical highland climates, represented as Cwb or Cfb, and subpolar oceanic or cold subtropical highland climates, represented as Cfc or Cwc. Subtropical highland climates occur in some mountainous parts of the subtropics or tropics, some of which have monsoon influence, while their cold variants and subpolar oceanic climates occur near polar or tundra regions.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Subarctic</span> Region in the Northern Hemisphere immediately south of the true Arctic

The subarctic zone is a region in the Northern Hemisphere immediately south of the true Arctic, north of humid continental regions and covering much of Alaska, Canada, Iceland, the north of Fennoscandia, Northwestern Russia, Siberia, and the Cairngorms. Generally, subarctic regions fall between 50°N and 70°N latitude, depending on local climates. Precipitation is usually low, and vegetation is characteristic of the taiga.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Humid continental climate</span> Category in the Köppen climate classification system

A humid continental climate is a climatic region defined by Russo-German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1900, typified by four distinct seasons and large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot summers, and cold and snowy winters. Precipitation is usually distributed throughout the year, but often these regions do have dry seasons. The definition of this climate in terms of temperature is as follows: the mean temperature of the coldest month must be below 0 °C (32.0 °F) or −3 °C (26.6 °F) depending on the isotherm, and there must be at least four months whose mean temperatures are at or above 10 °C (50 °F). In addition, the location in question must not be semi-arid or arid. The cooler Dfb, Dwb, and Dsb subtypes are also known as hemiboreal climates. Although amount of snowfall is not a factor used in defining the humid continental climate, snow during the winter in this type of climate is almost a guarantee, either intermittently throughout the winter months near the poleward or coastal margins, or persistently throughout the winter months elsewhere in the climate zone.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Climate of Peru</span> Overview of the climate of Peru

Climate of Peru describes the diverse climates of this large South American country with an area of 1,285,216 km2 (496,225 sq mi). Peru is located entirely in the tropics but features desert and mountain climates as well as tropical rainforests. Elevations above sea level in the country range from −37 to 6,778 m and precipitation ranges from less than 20 mm (0.79 in) annually to more than 8,000 mm (310 in). There are three main climatic regions: the Pacific Ocean coast is one of the driest deserts in the world but with some unique features; the high Andes mountains have a variety of microclimates depending on elevation and exposure and with temperatures and precipitation from temperate to polar and wet to dry; and the Amazon basin has tropical climates, mostly with abundant precipitation, along with sub-tropical climates in elevations above 1,550 m (5,090 ft).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Climate classification</span> Systems that categorize the worlds climates

Climate classifications are systems that categorize the world's climates. A climate classification may correlate closely with a biome classification, as climate is a major influence on life in a region. One of the most used is the Köppen climate classification scheme first developed in 1884.

Galuut is a sum (district) of Bayankhongor Province in southern Mongolia. In 2006, its population was 4,012.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Climate of Alaska</span> Overview of the climate of the U.S. state of Alaska

The climate of Alaska is determined by average temperatures and precipitation received statewide over many years. The extratropical storm track runs along the Aleutian Island chain, across the Alaska Peninsula, and along the coastal area of the Gulf of Alaska which exposes these parts of the state to a large majority of the storms crossing the North Pacific. The climate in Juneau and the southeast panhandle is a mid-latitude oceanic climate, in the southern sections and a subarctic oceanic climate in the northern parts. The climate in Southcentral Alaska is a subarctic climate due to its short, cool summers. The climate of the interior of Alaska is best described as extreme and is the best example of a true subarctic climate, as the highest and lowest recorded temperatures in Alaska have both occurred in the interior. The climate in the extreme north of Alaska is an Arctic climate with long, cold winters, and cool summers where snow is possible year-round.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Climate of the United States</span> Varies due to changes in latitude, and a range of geographic features

The climate of the United States varies due to changes in latitude, and a range of geographic features, including mountains and deserts. Generally, on the mainland, the climate of the U.S. becomes warmer the further south one travels, and drier the further west, until one reaches the West Coast.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Dzherginsky Nature Reserve</span> Nature reserve in Buryatia, Russia

Dzherginsky Nature Reserve is a Russian 'zapovednik', located about 100 km east of the northern section of Lake Baikal. It covers the source and upper reaches of the Barguzin River, the second largest tributary to Lake Baikal, and is at the junction of three mountain ranges - the Barguzin Range to the west of the reserve, the Ikat Range and the Southern Muya Range. The reserve's mountainous territory is dominated by larch forests. It is situated in the Kurumkansky District of Buryatia. The nearest city, Ulan-Ude, is 560 km to the south. The reserve was formally established in 1992 to protect the biodiversity of the upper Barguzin valley, and to study natural processes of the area. It covers an area of 238,088 hectares (919.26 sq mi).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Northeast Siberian taiga</span> Ecoregion in northeastern Siberia, Russia

The Northeast Siberian taiga ecoregion is an area of "sparse taiga forest" between the Lena River and the Kolyma River in northeastern Siberia, Russia. The ecoregion's internal borders form a patchwork of territory constituting the southern part of the East Siberian Lowland, as well as lowlands around the East Siberian Mountains, including the ridges and peaks of the Verkhoyansk Range and the Chersky Range. On the southern border of the ecoregion is the north coast of the Sea of Okhotsk, giving the region maritime boreal forests as well as the continental forests situated inland. The ecoregion is one of the largest tracts of virgin boreal forest in the world, due to the very sparse population and difficult access. It is mostly in the Sakha Republic.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Okhotsk–Manchurian taiga</span> Ecoregion in the Russian Far East

The Okhotsk-Manchurian taiga ecoregion is an area of coniferous forests in the Russian Far East, covering the Amur River delta, the west coast of the Okhotsk Sea, and the rugged extension of the northern Sikhote-Alin Mountains that run southwest-to-northeast through the Primorsky and Khabarovsk regions. It is the southernmost taiga forest in Eurasia. The ecoregion is distinguished from surrounding ecoregions by the slightly warmer climate due to the maritime influence and the shield of the mountains to the west, and by the mixing of flora and fauna species from Okhotsk-Kamchatka communities to the north and Manchurian species from the south. The forest at lower altitudes is "light taiga", and "dark taiga" at higher altitudes.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sakhalin Island taiga</span> Ecoregion which covers most of Sakhalin Island, Russia

The Sakhalin Island taiga ecoregion covers most of Sakhalin Island, the largest island of Russia, which is separated from the mainland by the Sea of Okhotsk and the Sea of Japan. The region is one of taiga, coniferous and mixed broad leaf forest landscape, with mixed larch forests at the lower elevations and shrubs at higher elevations. The vegetation is influenced by a maritime climate that is relatively warmer than the colder continental taiga in Siberia to the west. A long, thin island, 1,000 km by 200 km, Sakhalin is connected to the mainland by ice bridges in the winter, so it shares certain flora and fauna species. It is in the Palearctic realm, and mostly in the taiga biome with a Humid continental climate, cool summer climate. It covers 403,504 km2 (155,794 sq mi).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Da Hinggan–Dzhagdy Mountains conifer forests</span> Ecoregion in the Khingan Mountains

The Da Hinggan-Dzhagdy Mountains conifer forests ecoregion covers the Greater Khingan Mountains of Northeast China, and across the border north into the Russian Far East where it follows the mountain ridge for another 500 km to the east. The mountain forests exhibit a floral community called "Daurian flora", a combination of the Siberian taiga to the north and the Manchurian floral types to the south. The eastern slopes are steep and drained by many rivers, the western slopes are gentler, and there are grasslands on some slopes. The ecoregion is in the Palearctic realm, with a subarctic climate. It covers 35,199,998 km2 (13,590,795 sq mi).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Selenge–Orkhon forest steppe</span> Ecoregion in Mongolia

The Selenge–Orkhon forest steppe ecoregion stretches across north central Mongolia, and follows the Selenga River northeast into Russia. The ecoregion is itself at high elevations, but surrounded by higher mountain ranges. As a transition zone between taiga and steppe, it features conifer forests on the north slopes of mountains, and pine/aspen stands on southern slopes. It has an area of 227,660 square kilometres (87,900 sq mi).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Transbaikal Bald Mountain tundra</span>

The Transbaikal Bald Mountain tundra ecoregion covers the high-altitude peak zones above the treeline in a series of mountain ranges that stretch from the northern reaches of Lake Baikal to the western coastal ranges of the Okhotsk Sea. Floral communities are those of mountain tundra, with bare rock or permafrost under layers of moss and lichen. Because the ecoregion is aligned along a common latitude, it acts as a route for the transmission of species across Siberia. The ecoregion is in the Palearctic realm and the tundra biome. It has an area of 217,559 square kilometres (84,000 sq mi).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Qilian Mountains conifer forests</span> Ecoregion in the Tibetan Plateau

The Qilian Mountains Conifer Forests ecoregion is an ecoregion that consists of a series of isolated conifer forests on the northern slopes of the Qilian Mountain Range, on the northeast edge of the Tibetan Plateau in Qinghai and Gansu provinces of north-central China.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kodar National Park</span>

Kodar National Park is located in Kodar Mountains of Russia, about 500 km northeast of Lake Baikal. The park encompasses extreme variations in terrain: precipitous alpine slopes, over 570 alpine lakes, low-altitude glaciers, volcanoes, and an isolated small desert surrounded by taiga forest. The park was officially created in 2016. The park is located in the administrative district of Kalarsky District, Zabaykalsky Krai.

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