Subhadra Kumari Chauhan

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Subhadra Kumari Chauhan
सुभद्रा कुमारी चौहान
Subhadra Kumari Chauhan 1976 stamp of India.jpg
Subhadra Kumari Chauhan
Born(1904-08-16)16 August 1904
Allahabad, United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, British India
Died15 February 1948(1948-02-15) (aged 43) [1]
Seoni, Central Provinces and Berar, India
OccupationPoet
NationalityIndian
Period1904-1948
GenrePoetry
SubjectHindi

Subhadra Kumari Chauhan (16 August 1904 [2] [3] – 15 February 1948) was an Indian poet famous for Hindi poems composed primarily in Veer Ras, one of the nine Ras' of Hindi poetry (translation: Flavour/Subgenre). One of her most popular poems is Jhansi ki rani (about the courageous Queen of Jhansi). [4]

Hindi An official language of India

Hindi, or Modern Standard Hindi is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language. Hindi, written in the Devanagari script, is one of the official languages of India, along with the English language. It is one of the 22 scheduled languages of the Republic of India. However, it is not the national language of India because no language was given such a status in the Indian constitution.

Contents

Early life

Born in Nihalpur village in Allahabad District, Uttar Pradesh. She initially studied in the Crosthwaite Girls' School in ALLAHABAD and passed the middle-school examination in 1919. After her marriage with Thakur Lakshman Singh Chauhan of Khandwa in the same year, she moved to Jubbulpore (now Jabalpur), CP. [5]

Uttar Pradesh State in India

Uttar Pradesh is a state in northern India. With over 200 million inhabitants, it is the most populous state in India as well as the most populous country subdivision in the world. It was created on 1 April 1937 as the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh during British rule, and was renamed Uttar Pradesh in 1950. The state is divided into 18 divisions and 75 districts with the capital being Lucknow. The main ethnic group is the Hindavi people, forming the demographic plurality. On 9 November 2000, a new state, Uttarakhand, was carved out from the state's Himalayan hill region. The two major rivers of the state, the Ganga and Yamuna, join at Allahabad (Prayagraj) and then flow as the Ganga further east. Hindi is the most widely spoken language and is also the official language of the state.

Jabalpur Metropolis in Madhya Pradesh, India

Jabalpur is a tier 2 city in the state of Madhya Pradesh, India. It is one of the major cities of Madhya Pradesh. According to the 2011 census, it is the third-largest urban agglomeration in Madhya Pradesh, and the country's 37th-largest urban agglomeration. It is known for the Dhuandhar Falls and the white marble rocks at Bhedaghat. It is generally accepted that the game of Snooker originated here.

Family

She married Thakur Lakshman Singh Chauhan of Khandwa in 1919 when she was sixteen with whom she had five children.

Khandwa City in Madhya Pradesh, India

Khandwa is a city and a nagar nigam in the Nimar region of Madhya Pradesh, India. It is the administrative headquarters of Khandwa District, formerly known as East Nimar District.

Career

In 1921, Subhadra Kumari Chauhan and her husband joined Mahatma Gandhi's Non-Cooperation Movement. She was the first woman Satyagrahi to court arrest in Nagpur and was jailed twice for her involvement in protests against the British rule in 1923 and 1942. [6]

Mahatma Gandhi Pre-eminent leader of Indian nationalism during British-ruled India

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was an Indian activist who was the leader of the Indian independence movement against British colonial rule. Employing nonviolent civil disobedience, Gandhi led India to independence and inspired movements for civil rights and freedom across the world. The honorific Mahātmā was applied to him first in 1914 in South Africa – is now used worldwide. In India, he was also called Bapu, a term that he preferred and Gandhi ji, and is known as the Father of the Nation.

Nagpur Metropolis in Maharashtra, India

Nagpur is the third largest city and winter capital of the Indian state of Maharashtra. It is the 13th largest Indian city by population. According to an Oxford Economics report, Nagpur is projected to be the fifth fastest growing city in the world from 2019-2035 with an average growth of 8.41% It has been proposed as one of the Smart Cities in Maharashtra and maintains 1st ranking among 100 cities in India.

Writing career

Chauhan has authored a number of popular works in Hindi poetry. Her most famous composition is Jhansi Ki Rani, an emotionally charged poem describing the life of Rani Lakshmi Bai. The poem is one of the most recited and sung poems in Hindi literature. An emotionally charged description of the life of the queen of Jhansi(British India) and her participation in the 1857 revolution, it is often taught in schools in India. [7] A couplet repeated at the end of each stanza reads thus:

Jhansi Metropolis in Uttar Pradesh, India

Jhansi is a historic city in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It lies in the region of Bundelkhand on the banks of the Pahuj River, in the extreme south of Uttar Pradesh. Jhansi is the administrative headquarters of Jhansi district and Jhansi division. Also called the Gateway to Bundelkhand, Jhansi is situated between the rivers Pahuj and Betwa at an average elevation of 285 metres (935 feet). It is about 415 kilometres (258 mi) from New Delhi and 99 kilometres (62 mi) south of Gwalior.

बुंदेले हरबोलों के मुँह हमने सुनी कहानी थी,
खूब लड़ी मर्दानी वह तो झाँसी वाली रानी थी।। [8]

This and her other poems, Veeron Ka Kaisa Ho Basant , Rakhi Ki Chunauti, and Vida , openly talk about the freedom movement. They are said to have inspired great numbers of Indian youth to participate in the Indian Freedom Movement. Here is the opening stanza of Jhansi ki Rani:

Original Hindi text:


सिंहासन हिल उठे राजवंशों ने भृकुटी तानी थी,
बूढ़े भारत में भी आई फिर से नयी जवानी थी,
गुमी हुई आज़ादी की कीमत सबने पहचानी थी,
दूर फिरंगी को करने की सबने मन में ठानी थी।
चमक उठी सन सत्तावन में, वह तलवार पुरानी थी,
बुंदेले हरबोलों के मुँह हमने सुनी कहानी थी,
खूब लड़ी मर्दानी वह तो झाँसी वाली रानी थी।।

Roman transliteration using ITRANS:


sinhasan hil uthe, rajavanshon ne bhrikuti tani thi,
boodhhe bharat mein bhi aayi, phir se nayi jawaani thi,
gumi hui azadI ki keemat sab ne pahachani thi,
door firangi ko karne ki sab ne mann mein thani thi.
chamak uthi san sattawan mein, woh talwaar puraani thi,
bundele harbolon ke munh ham ne sunI kahani thi,
khoob ladi mardani woh to jhansI wali rani thi.

English translation:


The thrones shook and royalties scowled
Old India was re-invigorated with new youth
People realised the value of lost freedom
Everybody was determined to throw the foreigners out
The old sword glistened again in 1857
This story we heard from the mouths of Bundel bards
Like a man she fought, she was the Queen of Jhansi

Subhadra Kumari Chauhan wrote in the Khariboli dialect of Hindi, in a simple, clear style. Apart from heroic poems, she also wrote poems for children. She wrote some short stories based on the life of the middle class too.

Death

She died in 1948 in a car accident near Seoni M.P. on her way back to Jabalpur from Nagpur, the then capital of CP, where she had gone to attend the assembly session. She was a member of the legislative assembly of the state.

Memorials

The ICGS Subhadra Kumari Chauhan, [9] an Indian Coast Guard ship, was named for the poet. [1] The government of Madhya Pradesh placed a statue of Subhadra Kumari Chauhan before the Municipal Corporation office of Jabalpur. On August 6, 1976, India Posts released a postage stamp to commemorate her. [10]

Works

Collections of poems

These anthologies consist some of the well-known poems like Jhansi ki Raani, Veeron Ka Kaisa Ho Basant and Yeh Kadamb Ka Ped.

Bikhare moti (1932) Jhansi ki rani

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References

  1. 1 2 "Biography of Subhadra Kumari Chauhan". All poetry. Retrieved 27 June 2017.
  2. Rai, Alok (4 October 2008) Chauhan (née Singh), Subhadra Kumarilocked (1904–1948). Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. doi : 10.1093/ref:odnb/97283
  3. सुभद्रा कुमारी. bharatdarshan.co.nz
  4. Rajaswi, M.I. (2016). Rashtrabhakt Kavyitri Subhadra Kumari Chauhan (Hindi) (1 ed.). New Delhi: Prabhat Prakashan. ISBN   978-9384344375.
  5. Chauhan, Subhadra Kumari (1 January 2012). Subhadrakumari Chauhan Ki Sampoorna Kahaniyan (Hindi Edition). New Delhi: Rajpal & Sons.
  6. "Biography of Subhadra Kumari Chauhan". www.bharatdarshan.co.nz. Bharat Darshan. Retrieved 27 June 2017.
  7. "Poems of Bundelkhand". www.bundelkhand.in. Bundelkhand.In. Retrieved 27 June 2017.
  8. Chauhan, Subhadra Kumari. "Jhansi ki rani". www.poemhunter.com. Poem hunter. Retrieved 27 June 2017.
  9. India, Pakistan plan hotline on maritime security - NATIONAL. The Hindu (April 29, 2006). Retrieved on 2018-12-13.
  10. Indian Postage Stamps | Commemorative | Definitive | Miniature Sheets | Sheetlets. Stampsathi.in. Retrieved on 2018-12-13.

Further reading