Subprefectures of Japan

Last updated

Subprefecture of Japan (支庁, shichō) are a Japanese form of self-government which focuses on local issues below the prefectural level. It acts as part of the greater administration of the state and as part of a self-government system. [1]

Contents

History

They were given a definite form in 1878 (Meiji 11). [2]

The Meiji government established the sub-prefecture (, -gun) as an administrative unit. [1]

In 1888 (Meiji 21), the sub-prefecture as a form of self-government was officially recognized as more general than civic corporations like cities, towns and villages. [2]

Certain prefectures of Japan are now, or once were, divided into subprefectures. The subprefecture is the jurisdiction surrounding a "branch office" of the prefectural government. Normally, the area of a subprefecture consists of a few to a dozen cities, towns, and/or villages. Subprefectures are formed to provide services of the prefectural government in geographically remote areas. They are usually not used in postal addresses.

Existing subprefectures

Historical subprefectures

In addition, in 1907 Japan formed Karafuto Prefecture to govern the island of Sakhalin. Karafuto was divided into four subprefectures: Toyohara (in present-day Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk), Maoka (in present-day Kholmsk), Esutoru (in present-day Uglegorsk) and Shikuka (in present-day Makarov).

A number of islands gained by Japan in the Treaty of Versailles were placed under the direction of a South Pacific Prefecture (南洋庁, Nan'yōchō) from 1922 to 1945. This was divided into six subprefectures, on the islands of Saipan, Yap, Palau, Truk, Pohnpei and Jaluit. In November 1943, the six subprefectures were merged into "eastern," "western" and "northern" subprefectures, which remained in place until the Surrender of Japan in 1945.

Taiwan during Japanese rule initially had its prefectures – ken (), later termed shū () and chō () – subdivided into shichō. Most of the later subprefectures were named gun (, also "districts"). Some English texts translate "sub-prefecture" differently, using it instead for the chō of Taiwan, which were remote prefectures that were much less populated, once considered "sub-", or "lesser", prefectures, i.e., Hōko (the Pescadores), Karenkō (Hualien) and Taitō (Taitung). [7] [8] The offshore Hōko was home to the last two remaining subprefectures named shichō: Makō (馬公支廳) and Mōan (望安支廳).
(See: Political divisions of Taiwan (1895–1945))

See also

Related Research Articles

Hokkaido Island, region, and prefecture of Japan

Hokkaido is the second largest island of Japan and comprises the largest and northernmost prefecture. The Tsugaru Strait separates Hokkaido from Honshu; the two islands are connected by the undersea railway Seikan Tunnel.

Prefectures of Japan Overview of the prefectures of Japan

Japan is divided into 47 prefectures, which rank immediately below the national government and form the country's first level of jurisdiction and administrative division. They include 43 prefectures proper two urban prefectures, one "circuit" or "territory" and one metropolis. In 1868, the Meiji Fuhanken sanchisei administration created the first prefectures to replace the urban and rural administrators in the parts of the country previously controlled directly by the shogunate and a few territories of rebels/shogunate loyalists who had not submitted to the new government such as Aizu/Wakamatsu. In 1871, all remaining feudal domains (han) were also transformed into prefectures, so that prefectures subdivided the whole country. In several waves of territorial consolidation, today's 47 prefectures were formed by the turn of the century. In many instances, these are contiguous with the ancient ritsuryō provinces of Japan.

A subprefecture is an administrative division of a country that is below prefecture or province.

Hokkaido Prefecture had 14 branch offices called 支庁 (shichō) in Japanese, which is often translated in English as subprefectures. Normally, a subprefecture consists of a few to a dozen cities, towns, and/or villages. From April 2010, Hokkaido has 9 General Subprefectural Bureaus (総合振興局) and 5 Subprefectural Bureaus (振興局).

Tsushima Subprefecture was an administrative subdivision of Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan. The subprefecture was the administrative body for Tsushima Island which lies between Kyūshū and the Korean Peninsula. The only municipality in Tsushima Subprefecture is Tsushima City, which itself is the composite of the merger of six smaller towns on the island.

Sakishima Islands Island group within Ryukyu Islands

The Sakishima Islands are an archipelago located at the southernmost end of the Japanese Archipelago. They are part of the Ryukyu Islands and include the Miyako Islands and the Yaeyama Islands. The islands are administered as part of Okinawa Prefecture, Japan.

Izu Islands Island group in Japan

The Izu Islands, formerly the De Vries Archipelago, are a group of volcanic islands stretching south and east from the Izu Peninsula of Honshū, Japan. Administratively, they form two towns and six villages; all part of Tokyo Prefecture. The largest is Izu Ōshima, usually called simply Ōshima.

Karafuto Prefecture Former prefecture of Japan, located in South Sakhalin

Karafuto Prefecture, commonly known as South Sakhalin, was a prefecture of Japan located in Sakhalin from 1907 to 1949.

Ōshima Subprefecture (Tokyo) Subprefecture of Tokyo Metropolis, Japan

Ōshima Subprefecture is a subprefecture of Tokyo Metropolis, Japan. The organization belong to Tokyo Metropolitan Government Bureau Of General Affairs.

The bureaucratic administration of Japan is divided into three basic levels; national, prefectural, and municipal. Below the national government there are 47 prefectures, six of which are further subdivided into subprefectures to better service large geographical areas or remote islands. The municipalities are the lowest level of government; the twenty most-populated cities outside Tokyo Metropolis are known as designated cities and are subdivided into wards.

New Ishigaki Airport

New Ishigaki Airport,, also branded as Painushima Ishigaki Airport, is a regional airport located in the Shiraho district of Ishigaki, Okinawa Prefecture, Japan. The airport is located near the eastern coast of Ishigaki Island. It connects the island to major cities in Japan as well as destinations throughout Okinawa Prefecture and the Yaeyama Islands. New Ishigaki Airport was built to replace Ishigaki Airport, which with a shorter runway of only 1,500 metres (4,900 ft), could not accommodate larger jets.

Between 1905 and 1945, the Japanese Empire administered the southern half of Sakhalin, using the name Karafuto (樺太). The area was designated a chō (廳), the same term given to Hokkaidō at the time. It is commonly referred to as Karafuto Prefecture in English. The prefecture was divided into 4 subprefectures, which in turn were subdivided into 11 districts, in turn divided into 41 municipalities

In 1869, the island of Hokkaido, Japan was divided into 11 provinces and 86 districts. The majority of Japan's former provinces were converted into prefectures by the Meiji government between 1870 and 1876.

Miyake Subprefecture

Miyake Subprefecture is a subprefecture of Tokyo Metropolis, Japan. The organization belongs to the Tokyo Metropolitan Government Bureau Of General Affairs.

Hachijō Subprefecture

Hachijō Subprefecture is a subprefecture of Tokyo Metropolis, Japan. The organization of government belongs to the Tokyo Metropolitan Government Bureau Of General Affairs. Hachijō includes the following towns and villages in the Izu Islands:

Yaeyama Subprefecture

Yaeyama Subprefecture was a subprefecture of Okinawa Prefecture, Japan. It was abolished in March 2009. Most of its functions were taken over by the Yaeyama Office of the prefecture.

Kumage Subprefecture

Kumage Subprefecture is a subprefecture of Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan. The subprefectural office is located in Nishinoomote.

Miyako Subprefecture

Miyako Subprefecture was a subprefecture of Okinawa Prefecture, Japan. It was abolished in March 2009. Most of its functions were taken over by the Miyako Office of the prefecture.

Hōko Prefecture

Hōko Prefecture was one of the administrative divisions of Taiwan during the Japanese ruling period from 1895 until 1945. The prefecture consisted of modern-day Penghu County.

References

  1. 1 2 Imperial Japanese Commission to the Louisiana Purchase Exposition. (1903). Japan in the beginning of the 20th century, p. 80.
  2. 1 2 Imperial Japanese Commission, p. 81.
  3. Favro, S. (2010). Island Sustainability, p. 195 citing Tokyo Metropolitan Government, Outline of Hachijo Subprefecture, 2009.
  4. Favro, p. 195 citing Tokyo Metropolitan Government, Outline of Miyake Subprefecture, 2009.
  5. Yong Hong, Seoung. (2009). Maritime Boundary Disputes, Settlement Processes, and the Law of the Sea, p. 148.
  6. Favro, p. 195 citing Tokyo Metropolitan Government, Outline of Oshima Subprefecture, 2009.
  7. Kratoska, Paul H. (2006). Asian Labor in the Wartime Japanese Empire, p. 102.
  8. Morris, Andrew. (2010). Colonial Project, National Game: A History of Baseball in Taiwan, p. 17.