Suceava

Last updated
Suceava
City
Palatul Administrativ din Suceava6.jpg
Cladirea Palatului de Justitie din Suceava1.jpg Bukovina History Museum frontal view.jpg
Gara Burdujeni1.jpg Cetatea de Scaun a Sucevei17.jpg
Universitatea din Suceava1.jpg Biserica Sf. Apostoli din Itcani8.jpg Biserica Sfantul Ioan Nepomuk din Suceava.jpg
Left to right: the Administrative Palace, Palace of Justice, Bukovina History Museum, Burdujeni Train Station, The Medieval Seat Fortress, Ștefan cel Mare University, St. Apostles Church in Iţcani, St. John of Nepomuk Church
Suceava jud Suceava.png
Location in Suceava County
Romania location map.svg
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Suceava
Location of Suceava
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Suceava
Suceava (Europe)
Coordinates: 47°39′05″N26°15′20″E / 47.65139°N 26.25556°E / 47.65139; 26.25556 Coordinates: 47°39′05″N26°15′20″E / 47.65139°N 26.25556°E / 47.65139; 26.25556
Country Flag of Romania.svg  Romania
County Suceava County
Status County capital
Government
   Mayor Ion Lungu [1] (PNL)
Area
  City52.10 km2 (20.12 sq mi)
  Metro
473.29 km2 (182.74 sq mi)
Population
 (2011-10-31) [2]
  City92,121
  Estimate 
(2018) [3]
124,161 Increase2.svg
  Density1,800/km2 (4,600/sq mi)
   Metro
176,016 [4]
Time zone UTC+2 (EET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+3 (EEST)
Climate Dfb
Website http://www.primariasv.ro/

Suceava (Romanian:  [suˈtʃe̯ava] , German : Suczawa, Sotschen or Sutschawa) [5] [6] is the largest city and the seat of Suceava County, situated in the historical region of Bukovina, north-eastern Romania, [7] and at the crossroads of Central and Eastern Europe. [8] During the late Middle Ages, more specifically from 1388 to 1564, the city was the third capital of the Principality of Moldavia. [9] [10]

Contents

From 1775 and 1918, Suceava was controlled by the Habsburg Monarchy, initially part of its Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, then gradually becoming the third most populous urban settlement of the Duchy of Bukovina, [11] a constituent province of the Austrian Empire [12] and subsequently a crown land within Austria-Hungary. It was only surpassed by Cernăuți and Rădăuți, both located to the north. Furthermore, given its diverse ethnic background during the late Modern Age, Austrian architect Rudolf Gassauer stated that the city of Suceava could have well been perceived back then as a 'miniature Austria'. [13]

During this time, Suceava was an important, strategically-located commercial border town with the then Romanian Old Kingdom. At the same time, it also received a large influx of German-speaking settlers in the process of the Josephine colonization (heneceforth known as Bukovina Germans). This community has since dwindled to a very small number. [14] [15] However, despite their current numbers, the Germans from Suceava are still culturally, socially, and politically active. [16] [17] [18] [19] [20]

In the wake of World War I, after 1918, along with the rest of Bukovina, Suceava became part of the then newly enlarged Kingdom of Romania. [21] After the end of World War II, the city slowly underwent a process of forced Communist urbanization which increased its population about tenfold throughout the decades before the 1989 revolution. It became a municipality (Romanian : municipiu) in 1968.

Names and etymology

Moldavian chronicler Grigore Ureche presumed the name of the city came from the Hungarian Szűcsvár, which is combined of the words szűcs (furrier, skinner) and vár (castle). This was taken over by Dimitrie Cantemir, who in his work Descriptio Moldaviae gave the very same explanation of the origin of the city's name, however, there are neither historical nor vernacular evidences for this. According to another theory, the city bears the name of the river with the same name, that is supposed to be of Ukrainian origin. [22]

In Old German, the city was known as Sedschopff, [23] in High German sources it can be found under such variations as Sotschen, [24] [25] [26] Sutschawa, or Suczawa, [27] in Hungarian as Szucsáva [22] ( [ˈsut͡ʃaːvɒ] ) or Szőcsvásár, in Polish as Suczawa, in Ukrainian as Сучава (Sučava), while in Yiddish as שאָץ ( [ʃɔts] ). [28]

History

Artist's impression of the city Suceava from 1867 by Austrian painter Franz Xaver Knapp. Franz Xavier Knapp - Granz-Stadt Suczarva.jpg
Artist's impression of the city Suceava from 1867 by Austrian painter Franz Xaver Knapp.
Artist's impression of the city of Suceava from 1870 by Austrian painter Franz Xaver Knapp. 1 Suchava.jpg
Artist's impression of the city of Suceava from 1870 by Austrian painter Franz Xaver Knapp.

The present-day territory of the city of Suceava and the adjacent surroundings were already inhabited since the Paleolithic period. Stemming from the late Antiquity, there are also traces of Dacian oppidum of the 2nd century. In stark contrast to several historical regions of Romania (most notably Transylvania and Oltenia), Suceava (along with the entire region of Bukovina for that matter) was not conquered by the legions of the Roman Empire and consequently was one of the lands of the Free Dacian tribes during the late Ancient Age. Nonetheless, according to Ptolemy, at that time in the region also dwelled two likely Celtic-speaking tribes, specifically the Anartes and the Taurisci, [29] as well as the Germanic Bastarnae, who have also been attested there. [30]

After the fall of Rome and during the Migration Period, the predominantly Carpiani population was successively invaded by East Germanic peoples (such as the Goths or the Gepids), Huns, Slavs, Magyars, Pechenegs, and ultimately Cumans. During the Late Middle Ages, the city of Suceava was the capital of the Principality of Moldavia and the main residence of the Moldavian princes for nearly two centuries (namely between 1388 and 1564). [31] [32]

The city was the capital of the lands of Stephen the Great, [33] one of the pivotal figures in Romanian history, who died in Suceava in 1504. During the rule of Alexandru Lăpușneanu, the seat was moved to Iași in 1565 and Suceava failed to become the capital again. Michael the Brave captured the city in 1600 during the Moldavian Magnate Wars as he became the ruler of Wallachia, Moldavia, and Transylvania, but he was defeated the same year.

Former Communist dictator Nicolae Ceausescu visiting Suceava in 1970. Ceausescu la Suceava 1970.jpg
Former Communist dictator Nicolae Ceaușescu visiting Suceava in 1970.
Suceava valley industrial platform, bird's-eye view taken at some point during the 1960s. Platforma industriala Valea Sucevei.jpg
Suceava valley industrial platform, bird's-eye view taken at some point during the 1960s.

Together with the rest of Bukovina, Suceava was under the rule of the Habsburg Monarchy (and, later, the Austrian Empire as well as Austria-Hungary) from 1775 to 1918 (with the border of the Habsburg domains passing just south-east of the city). [34] [35]

During the late 19th century and early 20th century, the city was the third largest in the Duchy of Bukovina, after Cernăuți and Rădăuți. Throughout this period of time, the Habsburgs and, later on, the Austrians, attracted many ethnic Germans from abroad to settle down in Bukovina and, implicitly, in the contemporary city of Suceava, then just a small market town. [36] Over the passing of time, these newly arrived German settlers and their descendants became collectively known as Bukovina Germans. [37] Additionally, at that time, on an administrative level, the city of Suceava was part of a namesake bezirk with a total population of 66,826 inhabitants. [38] [39] [40]

In 1918, the city of Suceava (as well as the entire region of Bukovina) became part of what is known as 'Greater Romania', after an overwhelming vote of the German, Romanian, and Polish representatives of the General Congress of Bukovina. [41] [42] All 7 political representatives of the Bukovina Germans led by Alois Lebouton voted for the union of Bukovina with the Kingdom of Romania. [43] [44]

Throughout the interwar period, Suceava undergone further infrastructural development within the then enlarged Kingdom of Romania. Moreover, from an administrative point of view, it had also briefly belonged to Ținutul Suceava (between 1938 and 1940), one of the 10 lands established during King Carol II of Romania's reign.

Subsequently, from the 1950s onwards (along with the onset of Communism), Suceava was heavily industrialized and a significant series of historical buildings from its old city centre (more specifically the entire Franz Josef Straße) [45] were demolished in order for Plattenbau-like blocks of flats to be constructed at the orders of the Communist officials. [46] [47]

Geography

Arable land near the city of Suceava, as seen from above. Around Suceava, Romania (10766493523).jpg
Arable land near the city of Suceava, as seen from above.

The city covers two types of geographical areas, the hills (of which the highest is Zamca Hill) and the meadows of the Suceava river valley. [48] The unique setting of the urban settlement includes two groves, Zamca and Șipote, which are both located within the city limits. Burdujeni, one of the neighbourhoods, is connected to the rest of the city by a prominent avenue, which makes the neighbourhood appear to be a separate satellite city.

Climate

Climate data for Suceava, Romania
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °C (°F)−1
(30)
1
(34)
7
(45)
14
(57)
20
(68)
23
(73)
25
(77)
24
(75)
21
(70)
15
(59)
8
(46)
2
(36)
13.2
(55.8)
Average low °C (°F)−9
(16)
−7
(19)
−3
(27)
3
(37)
8
(46)
11
(52)
13
(55)
12
(54)
8
(46)
3
(37)
−1
(30)
−6
(21)
2.6
(36.7)
Average precipitation mm (inches)24
(0.9)
25
(1.0)
27
(1.1)
50
(2.0)
74
(2.9)
95
(3.7)
90
(3.5)
64
(2.5)
44
(1.7)
30
(1.2)
30
(1.2)
26
(1.0)
609
(24.0)
Source: Weather Atlas [49]

Demographics

Historical data for the city proper

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1869 7,450    
1880 10,104+35.6%
1890 10,221+1.2%
1900 10,955+7.2%
1912 11,229+2.5%
1930 17,028+51.6%
1948 10,123−40.6%
1956 20,949+106.9%
1966 37,697+79.9%
1977 62,715+66.4%
1992 114,462+82.5%
2002 106,138−7.3%
2011 92,121−13.2%
2016 116,404+26.4%
2018 124,161+6.7%
Source: Austrian and Romanian census data and/or official estimates

The Austrian census of 1869, which recorded only population in absolute numbers (bereft of ethnicity or religion), indicated that the city of Suceava had a total population of 7,450 permanent inhabitants. [50] The Austrian census of 1880 indicated that the city of Suceava had a total population of 10,104, of which 5,862 were Germans (i.e. Bukovina Germans), 2,652 Romanians, 441 Ruthenians, and 784 inhabitants belonging to other ethnic groups. [51] The Austrian census of 1890 indicated that the city of Suceava had a total population of 10,221, of which 5,965 were Germans (i.e. Bukovina Germans), 2,417 Romanians, 644 Ruthenians, and 905 inhabitants belonging to other ethnic groups. [52]

In 1900, when the city was still under Imperial Austrian administration, its total population amounted to 10,955 inhabitants. [53] Of those, 61.5% declared their native language to be German (i.e. Hochdeutsch), followed by Romanian with 25.38% and Ruthenian (or Ukrainian) with 5.46%. 20 years later, when the city switched to the Kingdom of Romania, the 1930 Romanian census recorded a population which amounted to c. 17,000 inhabitants with the following ethno-linguistic composition: [54]

According to the 2002 Romanian census, the ethnic structure of the city of Suceava can be broken down in distinct groups as follows: [55]

According to the 2011 census data, Suceava had a population of 92,121, [56] a decrease from the figure recorded at the 2002 census (106,138), making it the 23rd largest city in Romania at that time. Additionally, the ethnic composition was as follows:

Historical data for the Ițcani neighborhood

Gheorghe Doja street from the Itcani neighborhood, situated northwest of the city proper. PTF Itcani.jpg
Gheorghe Doja street from the Ițcani neighborhood, situated northwest of the city proper.

Breakdown of ethnic groups in Ițcani in 1930:

   Bukovina Germans (45%)
   Romanians (21.4%)
   Jews (17.84%)
   Ukrainians (6.77%)
   Poles (5.24%)
   Russians (2.15%)
   Hungarians (1.53%)

According to the 1930 Romanian census, the population of present-day Ițcani neighborhood (which at the time was considered a separate commune comprising two villages, namely Ițcanii Noi/Neu Itzkany and Ițcani Gară/Itzkany Bahnhof) amounted to 2,422 residents. By ethnic criterion, those residents were:

In religious terms, 28.4% of the then residents were Roman Catholic, 22.7% were Evangelical Lutheran, 22.04% were Orthodox, 18.04% belonged to Judaism, 8.17% were Greek Catholic, and the rest either belonged to other smaller cults or were irreligious.

Administration and local politics

The renovated town hall of Suceava in Bukovina, Romania Suceava town hall.jpg
The renovated town hall of Suceava in Bukovina, Romania

List of mayors (1990–present)

Former Austrian-born mayor Franz Des Loges (of Swiss-French origin) is credited with modernising the city as well as developing its culture and infrastructure during his term (1891-1914). Franz Des Loges.jpg
Former Austrian-born mayor Franz Des Loges (of Swiss-French origin) is credited with modernising the city as well as developing its culture and infrastructure during his term (1891–1914).

The mayors elected since Romania's transition back to democracy and a free market economy in the wake of the 1989 revolution have been the following ones: [58] [59] [60] [61]

NameTerm startTerm endPolitical party
1Filaret Poenariu19901992 National Salvation Front (FSN)
2Gheorghe Toma19921996 Ecologist Party of Romania (PER)
3 Constantin Sofroni 19962000 National Liberal Party (PNL)1
4Marian Ionescu20002004 Social Democratic Party (PSD)
5 Ion Lungu 2004incumbent National Liberal Party (PNL)2

Notes:

1Initially elected on the lists of the Democratic Agrarian Party of Romania (PDAR) but subsequently switched to the National Liberal Party (PNL). [62]
2Initially elected on the lists of the National Liberal Party (PNL), subsequently switched to the Democratic Liberal Party, then re-elected on the lists of the PNL

City council

The city's current local council has the following multi-party political composition, based on the results of the ballots cast at the 2020 Romanian local elections:

   PartySeatsCurrent Council
  National Liberal Party (PNL)9         
  Social Democratic Party (PSD)5         
  People's Movement Party (PMP)4         
  USR-PLUS 3      
  PRO Romania (PRO)2         

Culture

The Seat Fortress of Suceava

Antiquited image showcasing the plan of Suceava seat fortress according to Austrian architect Karl Adolf Romstorfer. 1470 - Planul cetatii Suceava Rosetti arta 211.png
Antiquited image showcasing the plan of Suceava seat fortress according to Austrian architect Karl Adolf Romstorfer.

Suceava is the place of several medieval sites that are closely linked to the history of the former Principality of Moldavia. By far the most significant (and at the same time the most well preserved one) is the Seat Fortress of Suceava (Romanian : Cetatea de Scaun a Sucevei) or Suceava Citadel, a medieval castle situated on the eastern edge of the contemporary city. [63]

The fortress was built during the reign of Petru of Moldavia (1375–1391), also known as Petru Mușat. It was further expanded and strengthened during the reigns of Alexander I of Moldavia (1400–1432) and Stephen the Great (1457–1504). The medieval castle was part of the fortification system built in Moldavia during the late 14th century, given the emergence of the Ottoman danger. It even became strong enough to hold off an attack by Ottoman sultan Mehmed II (the conqueror of Constantinople) in 1476.

The late 14th century Suceava seat fortress during daytime, as seen in June, 2009. Cetatea de Scaun a Sucevei2.jpg
The late 14th century Suceava seat fortress during daytime, as seen in June, 2009.

Suceava was the capital city of the former Principality of Moldavia between 1388 and 1565. During this period, the castle served as princely residence. Alexandru Lăpușneanu had subsequently moved the Moldavian capital to Iași in 1565, so the castle lost its status. Afterwards, the citadel entered a period of steep decline. In 1675, during the reign of voivode Dumitrașcu Cantacuzino, the fortress was destroyed. Then, for over two centuries, the castle was completely deserted.

The late 14th century Suceava seat fortress as seen during nighttime in May, 2015. Cetatea de Scaun a Sucevei la ceas de seara.jpg
The late 14th century Suceava seat fortress as seen during nighttime in May, 2015.

During the late 19th century and early 20th century, under the patronage of Austrian architect Karl Adolf Romstorfer, a series of rehabilitation works and archaeological research had been conducted. [64] [65] Between 1961 and 1970 other restoration and consolidation processes were carried out. In 2013, a major reconstruction program was launched, aiming to return the castle to its original architecture and shape.

The Seat Fortress of Suceava consists of two concentric citadels. The inner citadel, known as fortul mușatin, has a rectangular shape and a patio. It was built by Petru Mușat in late 14th century. During the second half of the 15th century, Stephen the Great expanded the structure by adding another citadel which had a circular shape surrounding the old one.

After 1476, new fortifications were added to the outer citadel. Furthermore, the whole castle is encircled by a large defensive ditch. Today, the fortress is a landmark of Suceava and a noteworthy touristic attraction. Since 2011, it has also been used for hosting cultural events such as the rock music festival Bucovina Rock Castle. The festival attracted a series of renowned national and international bands and artists (e.g. guitarist Jan Akkerman, formerly of Dutch progressive rock band Focus). [66]

The Princely Court of Suceava

Present-day ruins of the local Princely Court. Curtea domneasca din Suceava9.jpg
Present-day ruins of the local Princely Court.

The Princely Court of Suceava (Romanian : Curtea Domnească din Suceava) was built and developed along with the Seat Fortress. During the late 14th century, voivode Petru Mușat built the Princely House, a structure made in wood, which included a cellar. After 1400, Alexander I of Moldavia rebuilt the wooden house and added a surrounding stone wall and a complex of buildings also built in stone. During the second half of the 15th century, the Princely Court was severely affected by fire, the wooden house being completely burned out.

During his reign, Stephen the Great (1457–1504) restored the whole complex. A new Princely House was built, this time made of stone, and the other buildings were extended. Vasile Lupu (1634–1653) was the last ruler of Moldavia who took care of the Princely Court. During his time, the cellars were rehabilitated. The complex was abandoned at some point in the late 17th century, the buildings and the walls being gradually dismantled. Currently, on the site of the Princely Court there are only ruins and leftovers of the former buildings. The ruins of the former medieval court are located in the city center of Suceava. Between 14th and 17th century, in the proximity of the Princely Court there were built several churches that still exist today and attract tourists.

The ruined walls of the Scheia Fortress on Septilici Hill. Cetatea Scheia10.jpg
The ruined walls of the Șcheia Fortress on Șeptilici Hill.

Șcheia Fortress

On the north-western edge of the contemporary city, on a hilltop, there is another medieval citadel known as Șcheia Fortress (Romanian : Cetatea Șcheia) or the Western Fortress of Suceava (Romanian : Cetatea de Apus a Sucevei). Unlike the Seat Fortress, Șcheia Fortress has left nothing but some ruined walls. The citadel proper was built during the reign of Petru Mușat during the late 14th century, but was short-lived, given that it was dismantled during the early 15th century, in the time of Alexander I of Moldavia. Șcheia Fortress, just like the main Seat Fortress, was part of the fortification system built in medieval Principality of Moldavia during the late 14th century.

Museums

The entrance to the Bukovina History Museum. During the interwar period, the building served as Suceava County prefecture. Bukovina History Museum in Suceava, Romania.jpg
The entrance to the Bukovina History Museum. During the interwar period, the building served as Suceava County prefecture.

The first museum in Suceava was opened in 1900, by the initiative of some local intellectuals. In the beginning, the museum included only a few collections that were obtained as a result of the researches and excavation works at the Seat Fortress of Suceava. The museum was expanded and developed over time and became an important cultural institution, currently named Bukovina Museum (Romanian : Muzeul Bucovinei). It has several departments and administers the medieval sites of the Seat Fortress, Șcheia Fortress and the Princely Court, local museums (Bukovina Village Museum, the history, ethnographic, and natural sciences museums), the memorial houses of Simion Florea Marian in Suceava, Nicolae Labiș in Mălini, Eusebiu Camilar in Udești, Ciprian Porumbescu in Stupca, and two traditional houses located in Solca and Bilca.

The oldest department of Bukovina Museum is the history museum, which was the backbone for creating a county museum at Suceava. This museum presents the local history of Suceava and Moldavia in the context of Romanian national history. The exhibits of the history museum and the offices of Bukovina Museum are located in a historic building, in the city center. The building, which hosted the prefecture of Suceava County during the interwar period, was built between 1902 and 1903. Since 1968, it houses the history museum. In 2014, the building and the museum entered an extensive program of modernization, rehabilitation, and expansion.

Crasma din Saru Dornei - panoramio.jpg
Inn from Dorna ethnographic area, exhibited at Bukovina Village Museum
Casa Vicovu de Jos1.jpg
Traditional household from Vicovu de Jos
Gospodaria Straja6.jpg
Traditional household from Straja
Moara din Manastirea Humorului.jpg
Windmill from Mănăstirea Humorului

At the history museum there is a reconstitution of a scene from the former throne hall located in the Seat Fortress. The scene presents some notable people from the history of Moldavia, made in glass fiber: Stephen the Great (ruler of Moldavia), Maria Voichița (his third wife), Bogdan III the One-Eyed (his son and successor to the throne), officials of that time. The scene chosen to be reconstructed is an allotment of land for peasants. The reconstitution is based on medieval documents, frescoes, and archaeological researches. Furthermore, the history museum periodically organizes a wide range of cultural events, several of which also involve the local branch of the Democratic Forum of Germans in Romania (FDGR/DFDR). [67] [68] [69] Furthermore, the local branch of the FDGR/DFDR (German : DFDR Buchenland) is also in charge of the ACI Bukowina Stiftung, a Romanian-German cultural foundation whose president is Josef-Otto Exner. [70] [71]

Bukovina Village Museum (Romanian : Muzeul Satului Bucovinean) is an open-air museum that highlights the traditional cultural and architectural heritage of Bukovina region. It is located in the eastern part of Suceava, near the Seat Fortress. It was founded in the 1970s, but its major expansion and development took place after 1990. The museum is designed as a traditional village in Bukovina, containing houses and various objectives from the ethnographic areas of Rădăuți, Humor, Câmpulung Moldovenesc, Dorna, and Fălticeni.

The museum includes among others a water mill from Mănăstirea Humorului, a traditional blacksmith workshop, a pottery workshop from Marginea and one of the many old wooden churches in northern Moldavia: Church of the Ascension, a Romanian Orthodox wooden church built in 1783 in Vama, a village in Suceava County. The bell tower is also made in wood, and dates from 1787. The church and the bell tower were both relocated in 2001, and currently are part of the museum.

Entrance to the Princely Inn (now Ethnographic Museum) Hanul Domnesc din Suceava9.jpg
Entrance to the Princely Inn (now Ethnographic Museum)

Besides Bukovina Village Museum, another museum that reflects the traditional life in this part of Romania is the ethnographic museum. It was opened in 1968 and includes old collections and exhibits that are housed in a medieval inn located in the center of Suceava, known as the Princely Inn of Suceava (Romanian : Hanul Domnesc din Suceava). This landmark dates from the late 16th and early 17th century. It was built of stone and has two floors and a cellar. During the Austrian rule (1775–1918), the inn operated as a hunting lodge for the imperial family. Since 1968, it hosts the ethnographic museum. The Princely Inn is the oldest civic building in Suceava which had not been seriously affected by time and maintained its original architecture.

Natural Sciences Museum Muzeul de Stiintele Naturii din Suceava4.jpg
Natural Sciences Museum

The natural sciences museum was founded in 1976–1977, being the newest museum in Suceava. It highlights the flora and fauna of the surrounding area. The museum's rare exhibits and collections are housed in an old building, located in the central park of the city and built between 1811 and 1814. In the past, before being an attraction for visitors, the building operated as a school for boys.

Along with all these museums, Bukovina Museum includes memorial houses of some writers and artists born in this area of the country. The memorial house of Simion Florea Marian (Romanian : Casa memorială Simion Florea Marian) is the only one located in Suceava, the other ones being in the surrounding area. The memorial house operates as a museum. It was opened in 1974 in the home where Romanian priest and writer Simion Florea Marian lived, from 1884 until 1907, when he died. The museum hosts a collection that contains over 10,000 volumes, over 450 collections of magazines and newspapers, of which 150 are from Bukovina, manuscripts, letters, cultural and historical documents, old photos. In front of the memorial house it was opened a small park with a statue dedicated to Simion Florea Marian.

Historical buildings

Austrian-style house situated in the city centre, also the local headquarters of PNL Suceava. PNL local headquarters in downtown Suceava.jpg
Austrian-style house situated in the city centre, also the local headquarters of PNL Suceava.

Colegiul de Artă Ciprian Porumbescu (Romanian : Ciprian Porumbescu Art College) is a high school which is hosted in a historic building, built in 1859, in the city center of Suceava. The building had several destinations in the past: Suceava Town Hall (until 1904) and Școala primară română de fete (Primary Romanian school for girls). Romanian jazz singer Anca Parghel taught music for a living in Suceava at this local Arts high school before turning to a professional singing career in 1989.

Itcani railway station during the early 20th century. Gara Suceava Nord.jpg
Ițcani railway station during the early 20th century.
Burdujeni railway station during the early 20th century. Suceava railway station (39856700481).jpg
Burdujeni railway station during the early 20th century.

Gara Suceava Nord-Ițcani (Suceava North railway station, also known as Ițcani) is a train station built in 1871 in the village of Ițcani (today district of Suceava). Between 1871 and 1918, it was a train station at the Austro-Hungarian border. The historic building of Ițcani railway station was built in the Gothic style of the Central European railway stations of that period.

Palatul de Justiție (The Palace of Justice) is a historic building which was built in 1885 to serve as the seat of Suceava Tribunal and Court. The building has four sides and a patio, and was designed by Viennese architect Ferdinand Fellner. Later, during the communist regime, the city hall was moved in this palace and operated here until 2000.

Spitalul Vechi (The Old Hospital) is a complex of buildings built between 1891 and 1903 which originally hosted the district hospital. The hospital ensemble consists of four pavilions of historic value and was built in the southwestern end of Suceava, in Areni neighborhood. In 1964 a new hospital building (known as Spitalul Nou) was inaugurated nearby.

Colegiul Național Ștefan cel Mare (Ștefan cel Mare National College) is the oldest and most prestigious high school in Suceava County, established in 1860. The baroque style building which houses the high school was built between 1893 and 1895, downtown Suceava, and today is considered a historical monument.

The Administrative Palace during the interwar period Palatul Administrativ din Suceava19.jpg
The Administrative Palace during the interwar period
St. John of Nepomuk Roman Catholic church in 1990 BRC Sv.jpg
St. John of Nepomuk Roman Catholic church in 1990

Gara Suceava-Burdujeni (Suceava railway station, also known as Burdujeni) is a train station built between 1892 and 1902 in the village of Burdujeni (today district of Suceava). Between 1902 and 1918, it was a train station at the Austro-Hungarian border. The historic building of Burdujeni railway station was built in the architectural style of Fribourg railway station, located in Switzerland.

I.G. Sbiera Bukovina Library in Suceava I.G. Sbiera Library.jpg
I.G. Sbiera Bukovina Library in Suceava
The County Forestry Department in Suceava Directia Silvica Judeteana din Suceava1.jpg
The County Forestry Department in Suceava
Former Burdujeni town hall building Primaria din Burdujeni.jpg
Former Burdujeni town hall building

Palatul Administrativ (The Administrative Palace) is a historic building which was built between 1903–1904 to serve as the seat of Suceava City Hall. The building originally had only two sides of the four current sides, and was designed by Viennese architect Peter Paul Brang. It was designed in the baroque style. Currently, the palace houses the prefecture and the county council of Suceava County.

The 'Dom Polski' Polish House Casa Polona din Suceava4.jpg
The 'Dom Polski' Polish House

Casa Polonă (The Polish House) is a building made between 1903 and 1907 by the Polish community in the city of Suceava. The building was designed by architect Alojz Friedel. During the communist regime, The Polish House was nationalized, and since 1954, it housed Ansamblul Artistic Ciprian Porumbescu (Ciprian Porumbescu Artistic Ensemble). In 1984 the building was restored, and then hosted a local theatre, until 1990. In 1996, the building was returned to the Polish community of the city.

Uzina de Apă (The Water Plant) is a set of industrial heritage buildings, designed in 1908 by engineer G. Thiem from Leipzig and built between 1910 and 1912. [72] The water plant operated in these buildings between 1912 and 1960, and then it was moved into a modern building. In 2012, in celebration of 100 years since its establishment, in the former water plant buildings there was inaugurated the Centre for Architecture, Urban Culture and Landscape in Suceava.

Biblioteca Bucovinei I.G. Sbiera (I.G. Sbiera Bukovina Library) is the first public library in Suceava, inaugurated on 12 December 1923. It is also the largest library in Suceava County, with over 350,000 bibliographic units. Currently, the library is hosted by two historic buildings located in downtown Suceava and built between 1925 and 1926, respectively 1929–1930.

The County Forestry Department in Suceava is an institution which operates in a heritage building located in Areni neighborhood, in the city of Suceava. The building dates from the first half of the 20th century.

The Unions House in Suceava is a heritage building, located in downtown Suceava, which houses the unions offices, along with some shops. The building is also known as Samuil Isopescu House.

Casa Costin Tarangul (Costin Tarangul House) is a heritage house dating from the 19th century (1886). The building is located next to Simion Florea Marian Memorial House, in the center of Suceava.

Casa Ciprian Porumbescu (Ciprian Porumbescu House) is a heritage house dating from the 19th century, where Romanian composer Ciprian Porumbescu lived and created some of his works. The house is located in Prunului street, downtown Suceava.

School No. 5 Jean Bart in Burdujeni (Suceava) is a school built in 1902 in the village Burdujeni, today a town district of Suceava. The building that houses the school has historic value.

School No. 6 in Burdujeni-Sat (Suceava) is a school built in 1911 in the village Burdujeni, today a town district of Suceava. The building that houses the school has historic value.

Former Burdujeni Town Hall in Suceava is a building that was built in 1902 in the village Burdujeni and initially was the town hall of the locality. In 1926 Burdujeni became a district of Suceava, and so the town hall was abolished. The historic building currently houses the headquarters of Electrica company.

Ițcani neighbourhood

Gara Suceava Nord1.jpg
Politia din Itcani1.jpg
Scoala din Itcani1.jpg
Cladire din Itcani.jpg
Clockwise from left to right: Suceava North railway station, former police station, the old elementary school in Ițcani, and a local Austrian-style household.

Ițcani is a neighbourhood located several miles northwest of the city centre. Initially established as a small village in the 15th century under the rulership of Alexăndrel of Moldavia, it subsequently expanded as a German-speaking colony much later, specifically starting in the late 19th century, seeing an influx of German settlers during the Josephine colonization which took place in the time of the Austrian Empire. [73] [74] The north railway station (which depicts architectural elements of both Gothic revival and Neo-romanticist styles, also the oldest in the city) is situated in this neighbourhood as well.

Monuments

Near the fortress, in Șipote-Cetate Park, there is an equestrian statue of Stephen the Great, designed and made by the local sculptor Iftimie Bârleanu in 1977. The monument has 23 meters in height, being the tallest equestrian statue in Romania. In the city centre there's also a statue dedicated to Petru Mușat, Prince of Moldavia between 1375 and 1391.

Religious buildings

Romanian Orthodox churches

One of the most important cultural sites in Suceava is Saint John the New Monastery which includes the monumental Church of Saint George, built between 1514 and 1522. The construction began during the reign of voivode Bogdan III the One-Eyed of Moldavia, after the nearby Mirăuți Church (the metropolitan cathedral of Moldavia at that moment) was devastated in 1513. The construction was completed by Stephen IV of Moldavia (also known as Ștefăniță). The monastery church served as metropolitan cathedral of Moldavia until 1677. It has frescoes painted on the outside, typical of the region, and is one of eight buildings that make up the churches of Moldavia UNESCO World Heritage Site. [75] Since 1991 Saint John the New Monastery serves as the cathedral of the Archdiocese of Suceava and Rădăuți. Saint John the New [76] was a Moldavian monk who preached during Turkish occupation and was subsequently martyred in Cetatea Albă, present-day Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi in Ukraine. Alexander I of Moldavia brought his relics to Suceava in 1402.

Mirăuți Church, dedicated to Saint George, is the oldest religious building in Suceava, founded by Petru II of Moldavia in late 14th century, in the same period with the Seat Fortress, when he moved the capital from Siret to Suceava. The church established the city as a see of it. Mirăuți was the metropolitan cathedral of Moldavia between 1402 and 1522, when the church of Saint John the New Monastery was completed. In 1402, the relics of Saint John the New were transferred to this church from Cetatea Albă, and then, in 1589 transferred again to the nearby monastery church by voivode Peter the Lame. The name Mirăuți derives from the fact that it was the coronation church of Moldavia until 1522. Stephen the Great was crowned in here in 1457. After the church was devastated, it was rebuilt in early 17th century, and then, in the 18th century, abandoned.

Church of Saint Demetrius was founded by Peter IV Rareș, ruler of Moldavia (1527–1538, 1541–1546), and the son of Stephan the Great. The church was built in 1534–1535, with a bell tower added in 1560–1561 by Alexandru Lăpușneanu. The bell tower is 40 meters high, being the tallest bell tower in Suceava and a landmark of the city. The church had frescoes painted on the outside, that are still visible on one side wall. The frescoes inside were restored recently. Church of Saint Demetrius is located near the ruins of the former Princely Court of Suceava.

Biserica ,,Sf. Gheorghe" Suczawa SM.jpg
Biserica Sf. Dumitru din Suceava34.jpg
Biserica Mirauti27.jpg
Biserica Sfantul Nicolae din Suceava2.jpg
Clockwise from left to right: St. John the New Monastery (UNESCO World Heritage site), Church of St. Demetrius, Mirăuți Church, Church of St. Nicholas.

Furthermore, there is another old church near these ruins. Church of Saint John the Baptist, also known as Coconilor Church or Domnițelor Church, was founded in 1643 by Vasile Lupu, voivode of Moldavia between 1632 and 1653. It has no exterior frescoes and a short bell tower that has its roof linked with the roof above the church. In its early days, the church functioned as a chapel for the Princely Court.

Church of the Resurrection (located in the proximity of Saint John the New Monastery) dates from 1551, and was founded by Elena Rareș, the wife of voivode Peter IV Rareș. The church has no tower above the naos, its architecture reflecting the urban style of the medieval period. Instead of the bell tower, the church has a zvonnitsa, an architectural form especially used in the Russian architecture of the 14th–17th centuries. Church of the Resurrection was used by the local Roman Catholic community during the Habsburg occupation, and then by the Ruthenian Greek Catholic community, until 1936. It is also known as Văscresenia Church or Elena Doamna Church.

Church of Saint Nicholas (Prăjescu) is another religious building in Suceava that features the medieval Moldavian architectural style. The present church was rebuilt by treasurer Nicoară Prăjescu in 1611, during the reign of Constantin Movilă (1607–1611). Throughout its history, the church functioned as a necropolis for the local boyars.

Between the city center and Ițcani neighborhood, on the slopes that descend to the Suceava river valley, there is Church of the Assumption, another old Romanian Orthodox church, founded in the first half of the 17th century (1639). The church was built on the place where Ițcani Monastery existed before. It functioned as a nunnery until late 18th century. Today it is parish church, and has a zvonnitsa similar to that of Church of the Resurrection, located downtown.

In Burdujeni neighborhood, 4 km (2 mi) north-east of the city center, there is Teodoreni Monastery, founded in 1597 by local boyar Teodor Movilă, the elder brother of Ieremia Movilă, ruler of Moldavia (1595–1600, 1600–1606). Burdujeni village (now a district of Suceava) was established and developed around this monastery. The set of buildings includes Church of Ascension, the bell tower, living quarters for nuns and a surrounding wall. Just 1 km (0.6 mi) north of Teodoreni Monastery, in the old district of Burdujeni, there is Church of the Holy Trinity, founded by archimandrite Filaret Scriban in 1851.

Ițcani neighborhood has two Romanian Orthodox churches founded in the first half of the 20th century: Church of the Holy Archangels (built near Suceava North railway station, in 1933–1938) and Church of the Holy Apostles (located on European route E85 and built in 1905–1908 by the German community of Ițcani, initially as a Lutheran church).

Church of the Holy Cross, located in Pătrăuți village (a few miles north-west of Ițcani), was founded in 1487 by Stephen the Great, and is one of the monuments that make up the churches of Moldavia UNESCO World Heritage Site. Also not far away from Ițcani, there is Dragomirna Monastery, established by clergyman Anastasie Crimca in 1609. Voroneț Monastery is located 40 km (25 mi) west of Suceava, in the town of Gura Humorului.

German Roman Catholic and Lutheran churches

Biserica Sf. Ioan Nepomuk din Suceava44.jpg
Biserica Sf. Elisabeta din Itcani15.jpg
Biserica Sf. Apostoli din Itcani10.jpg
Biserica Evanghelica din Suceava1.jpg
Clockwise from left to right: St. John of Nepomuk Roman Catholic Church, St. Elizabeth Roman Catholic Church, St. Apostles Lutheran Church, The Evangelical Church.

During the late Modern Age up until the early 1940s, a sizable German community lived in Suceava. They were of both Roman Catholic and Evangelical Lutheran faith. [77] [78] These German-speaking colonists who were settled by the Austrian Empire in the city proper can trace their origins most notably to the territories of present-day southern Germany, Austria, and the Czech Republic (Bohemia), being thus both Catholics and Protestants. [79] Several religious buildings that served both aforementioned religious denominations can still be found today both in the city proper and in the Ițcani neighborhood, where a bygone community of ethnic Germans (stemming from contemporary Rhineland-Palatinate land in Germany) once lived. [80]

Armenian Orthodox churches

Church of the Holy Cross Biserica Sf. Cruce din Suceava.jpg
Church of the Holy Cross
Zamca Monastery Manastirea Zamca30.jpg
Zamca Monastery

In the past, Suceava used to have an important Armenian community as well. Their cultural and historical legacy is highlighted by a series of well preserved religious buildings that still exist to this today.

The most representative ecclesiastical landmark established by the local Armenian population is Zamca Monastery (the term Zamca can actually trace its linguistic origin to Polish, denoting as such a 'fortified place' and being named this way by King Jan Sobieski of Poland in 1691), a fortified complex of buildings located on a plateau at the western point of the contemporary city. [81]

Zamca Monastery was constructed between 1551 and 1606 and its church is dedicated to Saint Auxentius. Along with the church, the monastery includes several buildings made of stone and a defensive wall that surrounds the whole medieval complex.

Between Zamca Monastery and the city center there are two more Armenian Orthodox churches. Church of Saint Simon (also known as The Red Tower Church because of its bell tower) was founded in 1513. The bell tower was constructed in 1551.

The church has an old Armenian cemetery in the proximity and a chapel that was built in 1902 (Pruncul Chapel). Church of the Holy Cross was established in 1521 and was renovated several times in its history. The Armenian parsonage is located near the church, along with several old tomb stones.

Hagigadar Monastery is another medieval complex built by the local Armenians. It was founded in 1512–1513, and is located on the south-western proximity of the city, on a valley near European route E85.

Tourism

In the past few years Suceava started to evolve more rapidly. The most important sights in the town date from its time as a princely capital (i.e. the Middle Ages). There are numerous museums in the city proper including, most notably, the Bucovina History Museum, the Bucovina Village Museum, [82] Bucovina Ethnographic Museum (housed in an inn dating back to the 17th century), [83] or the Natural History Museum.

Sports

Football

Areni Stadium stand Stadionul Areni7.jpg
Areni Stadium stand

ACS Foresta Suceava (Romanian : Asociația Club Sportiv Foresta Suceava), formerly known as Rapid CFR Suceava, is the football team that currently represents the city of Suceava in the third tier of the Romanian football system, more specifically in Liga III.

In the past, the city has also had other significant football clubs competing in either Liga I or Liga II (depending on their level of performance) such as CSM Suceava, FC Cetatea Suceava, or Foresta Suceava (the latter one being initially based in the city of Fălticeni from the same county). The city also used to have another Liga III side called Sporting Suceava, but due to financing reasons the club had subsequently went bankrupt and ceased playing.

All the major sporting events are hosted on the Areni Stadium, a multi-purpose stadium in Suceava. It is currently the home ground of ACS Foresta Suceava and can hold up to 12,500 people. The stadium was initially opened in 1963 as the "Municipal Stadium".

Handball

CS Universitatea Bucovina Suceava is the city's men's handball team which currently competes in the Romanian Handball League (Romanian : Liga Națională). [84] It was founded in 2002 and it started playing in the first tier of the Romanian handball system in 2006. In 2011 it achieved its greatest performance to date, namely finishing 3rd in the national handball division.

Education

The only university of the city (and also of the entire county) is Ștefan cel Mare University of Suceava which was established in 1990.

Stefan cel Mare University of Suceava Universitatea din Suceava1.jpg
Ştefan cel Mare University of Suceava

The most prominent high schools with theoretical pathways of the city are the following ones:

National College "Mihai Eminescu" Suceava [85]

National College "Petru Rareș" Suceava [86]

Stefan cel Mare National College Stefan cel Mare National College.jpg
Ștefan cel Mare National College

National College "Ștefan cel Mare" Suceava [87]

Economical College "Dimitre Cantemir" Suceava [88]

Transportation

Air

Suceava Stefan cel Mare International Airport - new TWR and main terminal building in 2015. Aerogara Suceava.jpg
Suceava Ştefan cel Mare International Airport - new TWR and main terminal building in 2015.

Suceava is served by the Suceava International "Ştefan cel Mare" Airport (SCV), located 12 km (7.5 mi) east of the city centre, in the small town of Salcea. [89] The airport initially opened in 1962 when commercial services started with TAROM, the oldest operating Romanian airline. [90] In 1963, the runway was paved, and an apron was built. Services by TAROM were discontinued in 2001, but resumed in 2004. During this period, the airport was served only by Angel Airlines. In March 2005, the airport was renamed Ștefan cel Mare Airport, and opened to international traffic.

In 2013, Suceava International Airport started a plan (worth c. €39 million) to rebuild and extend the old runway of 1,800 m (5,906 ft), to construct a new control tower and to install a new ILS system. [91] In August 2013, the construction works commenced, [92] and on 12 January 2014, the airport closed in order to allow the runway works to resume. [93] The old concrete runway was completely removed, and a new runway, made out of asphalt, was constructed.

On 25 October 2015, the airport was officially reopened. [94] As of 2019, Suceava International Airport had an annual traffic of 430,064 passengers, a local record thus far, making it the 8th busiest airport in Romania. [95]

Natives

See also

International relations

Twin towns — Sister cities

Suceava is twinned with:

Regional, cultural, and economic partnerships

In addition to the official town/city twinning, the city of Suceava shares a series of regional, cultural, and economic partnerships with the following: [103]

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