Last updated

Regional transcription(s)
   Sundanese ᮊᮧᮒ ᮞᮥᮊᮘᮥᮙᮤ
Sukabumi Grand Mosque 2022 01.jpg
Sukabumi Adipura Roundabout 00.jpg
Sukabumi Train Station 2020.jpg
Clockwise from top:
Great Mosque of Sukabumi, Sukabumi railway station, Alun-alun Sukabumi
City Flag of Sukabumi.svg
Lambang Kota Sukabumi Vektor.svg
Indonesian: Kota Santri
English: City of Learners [1]
Sundanese: Reugreug, Pageuh, Repeh, Rapih
Adamant, Firm, Peaceful, Harmonious
Map of West Java highlighting Sukabumi City.svg
Location within West Java
Indonesia Java location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Sukabumi City
Location in Java and Indonesia
Indonesia location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Sukabumi City
Sukabumi City (Indonesia)
Coordinates: 6°55′05″S106°55′53″E / 6.9181°S 106.9315°E / -6.9181; 106.9315 Coordinates: 6°55′05″S106°55′53″E / 6.9181°S 106.9315°E / -6.9181; 106.9315
Country Flag of Indonesia.svg  Indonesia
Province Flag of West Java (vectorised).svg  West Java
Historic residency Statenvlag.svg Priangan Residency
Flag of the Netherlands.svg Buitenzorg Residency
Consolidated1 April 1914
(as Gemeente Soekaboemi)
  BodySukabumi City Government
  MayorAchmad Fahmi
  Vice MayorAndri Setiawan Hamami
  Total48.33 km2 (18.66 sq mi)
  Water4.815 km2 (1.859 sq mi)
584 m (1,916 ft)
 (mid 2021 estimate) [2]
  Rank 37th, Indonesia
  Density7,300/km2 (19,000/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Sukabumian
Warga Sukabumi (id)
Urang Sukabumi (su)
Time zone UTC+7 (Indonesia Western Time)
Area code (+62)266
Registration plate F
HDI Increase2.svg 0.742 (High)
Largest district by areaLembursitu – 10.69 square kilometres (4.13 sq mi)
Largest district by populationCikole (61,885 – 2020 Census) [3]

Sukabumi (Sundanese : ᮞᮥᮊᮘᮥᮙᮤ) is a landlocked city surrounded by the regency of the same name (enclave) in the southern foothills of Mount Gede, in West Java, Indonesia, about 100 km (62 mi) south of the national capital, Jakarta.


At an altitude of approximately 584 m (1,916 ft), the city is a minor hill station resort, with a cooler climate than the surrounding lowlands. The area around Sukabumi is also a popular destination for whitewater rafting. Tea and Rubber production is a major industry in the area. The suburban area surrounding Sukabumi circling the mountain has grown tremendously in population, such that northern Sukabumi Regency, hugging the volcano, and bordering Greater Jakarta, is home to the bulk of the regency's population.

The area of the city is 48.33 km2, and the population at the 2010 Census was 300,359, while the 2020 Census was 346,325; [4] the official estimate as at mid 2021 was 350,804. [5] However, some 1.8 million people, as of the 2010 census figures, live in the surrounding metropolitan area. The bulk of the metro area population is unusual in that it forms a narrow southwest ring around Mount Gede. The eastern portion of the ringed population belt continues on to Cianjur Regency.


Early history

The area around Sukabumi was already inhabited at least in the 11th century. The first written record found in this area was the Sanghyang Tapak inscription in Cibadak, 20 km west of the city. Written in Kawi script, the stone tells about the prohibition of fishing activity in the nearby river by the authorities of the Sunda Kingdom. [6]

At the end of the 16th century, the area was captured by the Banten Sultanate, after the fall of the Sunda Kingdom. The area however became contested in the 1620s between Banten, the Mataram Sultanate in the east and the Batavia-based Dutch East India Company. After a series of military clashes between them, the area was included in a buffer zone territory between Banten and Mataram, although the area is considered de jure as a part of Mataram. [7]

In 1677, after the Dutch forced Mataram to sign a series of unequal treaties as a consequence of Dutch assistance for quelling the Trunajaya rebellion, Sukabumi came under direct control of Tjiandjoer. [8] [9] By that time, there were only few rural Sundanese settlements existed, one of the largest was Tjikole. [10]

Colonial Sukabumi

Sukabumi Coffee Plantations

The area around the present-day Sukabumi (or Soekaboemi in Van Ophuijsen Spelling System) began to develop in the 18th century when the Dutch East India Company started to open coffee plantation areas in the western Priangan region of Java. [11] [12] Due to the high demands of coffee in Europe, in the year of 1709 the Dutch governor-general Abraham van Riebeeck started to open coffee plantations around the area of Tjibalagoeng (present-day Bogor), Tjiandjoer, Djogdjogan, Pondok Kopo, and Goenoeng Goeroeh. [13] Coffee plantations in these five areas had then undergone expansion and intensification during the era of Hendrick Zwaardecroon (1718–1725), where the Tjiandjoer regent at that time Wira Tanoe III acquired territorial expansion of his regency as a compensation for more coffee plantations openings. [14] [15]

The growth of Goenoeng Goeroeh coffee plantation led to the establishment of small settlements around its area, one of those was the Tjikole (Cikole) hamlet, named after the nearby Tjikole River. In 1776, regent of Tjiandjoer Wira Tanoe Datar VI established the Tjikole Viceregency which were the indirect predecessor of the present-day Sukabumi Regency. [16] The viceregency consisted of six districts of Djampang Koelon, Djampang Tengah, Goenoeng Parang, Tjiheoelang, Tjimahi, and Tjitjoeroeg. The administrative center was located in Tjikole, due to its very strategic locations for communications between Batavia and Tjiandjoer which were the capital of the Priangan Residency at that time. [17] [18]

Tjikole becomes Soekaboemi

Andries de Wilde proposed the renaming of Tjikole to Soekaboemi to the Raffles administration Andries de Wilde.jpg
Andries de Wilde proposed the renaming of Tjikole to Soekaboemi to the Raffles administration

After the Dutch East Indies were under the rule of the British in 1811, vast lands in the Tjikole area were bought by Stamford Raffles, the Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies at that time, via an auction held in Batavia. [19] The name Soekaboemi was first used on 1815, when a Priangan-based plantation owner (known then as Preanger Planter) and surgeon, Andries de Wilde visited Tjikole in 1814. From his consultations with local people, De Wilde wrote a letter to Nicolaus Engelhard, a friend and plantation investor, where de Wilde asked Engelhard to propose a name change of the viceregency from Tjikole to Soekaboemi, to which Raffles agreed. [20] [21]

In Dutch colonial times, Sukabumi was the site of Politieschool, the colonial police academy. During the Japanese occupation of Indonesia during the Second World War, the Japanese had created a strategic garrison in Ujung Genteng, part of the South Sukabumi Regency. Remains of the harbor and lookout towers at the end of this peninsula are still in place, along with the caves that the Japanese lived and died in towards the end of the war. Ujung Genteng is directly North of Christmas Island and Australia and would have made an excellent point of defense or attack, without official records to substantiate this, it is presumed that they had their sights on Christmas Island and a close link to Australia.[ citation needed ]

Present day

In early 2005, Sukabumi Regency became the first place in Indonesia that polio was reported in ten years, the beginning of a nationwide outbreak of the disease which had been believed to be eradicated in the country. [22]

Government and politics

Administrative districts

The city of Sukabumi is divided into seven districts (kecamatan), listed below with their areas and their populations at the 2010 Census and the 2020 Census, [23] together with the official estimates as of 2021. [24]

DistrictArea in
mid 2021
Gunung Puyuh5.1543,62248,29248,685


Sukabumi has an elevation moderated tropical rainforest climate (Af) with moderate rainfall from July to September and heavy rainfall in the remaining months.

Climate data for Sukabumi
Average high °C (°F)27.7
Daily mean °C (°F)23.2
Average low °C (°F)18.8
Average rainfall mm (inches)304
Source: [25]


Ahmad Yani Street Sukabumi.JPG
Ahmad Yani Street
Sukabumi railway station Stasiun Sukabumi 2020.jpg
Sukabumi railway station

After almost one year of hiatus, the railway transport between Sukabumi and Bogor of 57 kilometers was reactivated, with the new train called 'Pangrango' on 9 November 2013. The train has one executive-class car and three economy-class cars. [26]

Bogor-Ciawi–Sukabumi Toll Road is under construction that will connect Bogor Regency, Bogor city, Sukabumi Regency and Sukabumi city. The 15.35-kilometer first section of the toll road between Ciawi and Cigombong was inaugurated by Indonesian President Joko Widodo on 3 December 2018. [27]


Sukabumi also has some traditional dishes that are worth trying, for example Roti Priangan, Mochi, Bandros, Soto Mie and Bubur.

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Java</span> Island in Indonesia

Java is one of the Greater Sunda Islands in Indonesia. It is bordered by the Indian Ocean to the south and the Java Sea to the north. With a population of 148.76 million people, Java is the world's most populous island, home to approximately 55% of the Indonesian population.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Banten</span> Province of Indonesia in western Java

Banten is the westernmost province on the island of Java, Indonesia. Its capital city is Serang. The province borders West Java and the Special Capital Region of Jakarta on the east, the Java Sea on the north, the Indian Ocean on the south, and the Sunda Strait on the west. The province covers an area of 9,662.82 km2 (3,730.84 sq mi). It had a population of over 11.9 million in the 2020 census, up from about 10.6 million in 2010. The estimated mid-2021 population was 12.06 million. Formerly part of the province of West Java, Banten was declared a separate province in 2000. The region is the homeland of the Bantenese people, whose culture differs slightly from that of West Java's Sundanese people. The northern half has recently experienced rapid rises in population and urbanization, and the southern half has a more traditional character.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">West Java</span> Province of Indonesia

West Java is a province of Indonesia on the western part of the island of Java, with its provincial capital in Bandung. West Java is bordered by the province of Banten and the country's capital region of Jakarta to the west, the Java Sea to the north, the province of Central Java to the east and the Indian Ocean to the south. With Banten, this province is the native homeland of the Sundanese people, the second-largest ethnic group in Indonesia.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">West Nusa Tenggara</span> Province of Indonesia

West Nusa Tenggara is a province of Indonesia. It comprises the western portion of the Lesser Sunda Islands, with the exception of Bali which is its own province. Mataram, on Lombok, is the capital and largest city of the province. The 2010 census recorded the population at 4,500,212; the total rose to 4,830,118 at the 2015 census and 5,320,092 at the 2020 census; the official estimate as at mid 2021 was 5,390,000. The province's area is 20,153.15 km2. The two largest islands by far in the province are Lombok in the west and the larger Sumbawa island in the east.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Probolinggo</span> City in East Java, Indonesia

Probolinggo is a city on the north coast of East Java province, Indonesia. It covers an area of 56.67 sq. km, and had a population of 217,062 at the 2010 census and 239,649 at the 2020 census; the official estimate as at mid 2021 was 241,202. It is surrounded on the landward side by Probolinggo Regency of which it was formerly the capital, but it is now not part of the regency.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bogor Regency</span> Regency in West Java, Indonesia

Bogor Regency is a landlocked regency (kabupaten) of West Java, Indonesia, south of DKI Jakarta. Covering an area of 2,986.20 km2, it is considered a bedroom community for Jakarta, and was home to 5,427,068 people at the 2020 census. The official estimate as at mid 2021 was 5,489,536. Its administration is located in the town of Cibinong.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sukabumi Regency</span> Regency in West Java, Indonesia

Sukabumi Regency is a regency (kabupaten) in southwestern Java, as part of West Java province of Indonesia. The regency seat is located in Palabuhan Ratu, a coastal district facing the Indian Ocean. The regency fully encircles the administratively separated city of Sukabumi. Covering an area of 4,145.70 km2, the regency is the largest regency in West Java and the second largest regency on Java after the Banyuwangi Regency in East Java. The regency had a population of 2,341,409 at the 2010 census and 2,725,450 at the 2020 census; the official estimate as at mid 2021 was 2,761,476 with a large part of it living in the northeastern part of the regency that encircles Sukabumi City, south of Mount Gede. A plan to create a new regency, the North Sukabumi Regency is currently waiting for the approval of the central government.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tasikmalaya Regency</span> Regency in West Java, Indonesia

Tasikmalaya Regency is a regency, or sub-province region, in the province of West Java, Indonesia. Tasikmalaya covers an area of 2,709 km2 and has close to two million residents. Located in southeastern Priangan (Preanger), the regency is by far the biggest and most important in East Preanger. The regency was previously administered from Tasikmalaya City. However Tasikmalaya City and Tasikmalaya Regency now are administratively independent of each other., The administrative centre of the regency is now at Singaparna, west of the city.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Cirebon Regency</span> Place in West Java, Indonesia

Cirebon Regency is a regency (kabupaten) of West Java, Indonesia. Sumber is its capital. It covers 1,070.29 km2 and had a population of 2,068,116 at the 2010 census and 2,270,621 at the 2020 census; the official estimate as at mid 2021 was 2,290,967. These area and population figures exclude those of Cirebon City, which is an independent administration, although totally surrounded by the regency on its landward side.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Purwakarta Regency</span> Place in West Java, Indonesia

Purwakarta Regency is a landlocked regency (kabupaten) of West Java, Indonesia. The town of Purwakarta is its capital.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lebak Regency</span> Regency in Banten, Indonesia

Lebak Regency is a regency of Banten province, Indonesia. It is located on the island of Java. The regency has an area of 3,305.072 km2 and had a population of 1,204,095 at the 2010 census and 1,386,793 at the 2020 census; the official estimate as at mid 2021 was 1,407,857. The town of Rangkasbitung in the north of the regency is the administrative centre. The regency is bordered by Pandeglang Regency to the west, Serang Regency to the north, and Tangerang Regency to the north-east, and by Bogor Regency and Sukabumi Regency of West Java Province to the east.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Banten Sultanate</span> Kingdom based on the island of Java (1527–1813)

The Banten Sultanate was a Bantenese Islamic trading kingdom founded in the 16th century and centred in Banten, a port city on the northwest coast of Java; the contemporary English name of both was Bantam. It is said to have been founded by Sunan Gunungjati, who had previously founded Cirebon.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Demak Regency</span> Regency of Indonesia

Demak is a regency located in the Indonesian province of Central Java, on northern coast of the island. It is bordered by Jepara regency and the Java Sea to the north, Kudus and Grobogan regencies to the east, Grobogan and Semarang regencies to the south, while to the west are Semarang Regency and the city of Semarang, to which the districts of Mranggen and Sayung are essentially suburban. The regency covers an area of 897.43 km2 (346.50 sq mi) and had a population of 1,055,579 at the 2010 Census and 1,203,956 at the 2020 Census. It was originally the centre of the Demak Sultanate, once a dominant power in the region. Due to its strong relation with the spread of Islam in Java and the Wali Sanga, it is sometimes referred to with the nickname Kota Wali.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Salakanagara</span>

The Salakanagara Kingdom is the first historically recorded Indianised kingdom in Western Java. The kingdom existed between 130-362 AD.
Claudius Ptolemaeus wrote about Java in his book, Geographie Hypogenesis. He mentions the name of Argyre Chora in Labadio. According to the historian, Labadio means Dwipa-Javaka, Dwipa-Javaka or Java Dwipa, which is the ancient name of Java Island. There was one kingdom which rule west coast Java in 160 AD, Salakanagara. Salakanagara means “Silver Nation”. It reinforces the theory that Ptolemaeus may have visited Java in 160 AD.
A relatively modern literature in the 17th century Pustaka Rajya Rajya i Bhumi Nusantara describes Salakanagara as being founded by an Indian merchant from Pallava Kingdom.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">West Bandung Regency</span> Regency in West Java, Indonesia

West Bandung Regency is a landlocked regency of West Java. It was established in 2007, formerly it was part of Bandung Regency. The capital of this new regency is Ngamprah, an industrial district on the west side of Bandung. It is part of the Bandung Metropolitan Area.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bandung metropolitan area</span> Metropolitan area in West Java, Indonesia

Bandung metropolitan area, officially Bandung Basin or Greater Bandung, is a metropolitan area surrounding the city of Bandung, West Java, Indonesia. It was home to 8.873 million people in mid 2021 and is composed of regencies and cities previously part of the Dutch East Indies era "Central Priangan Residency" administration.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Parahyangan</span> Cultural region in West Java, Indonesia

Parahyangan is a cultural and mountainous region in West Java province on the Indonesian island of Java. Covering a little less than one sixth of Java, it is the heartland of Sundanese people and their culture. It is bordered to the West by Banten province, to the North by the northern coast region of Subang, Cirebon and Indramayu, to the east by Central Java province, and to the south by the Indian Ocean.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Madiun Regency</span> Regency of Indonesia

Madiun Regency is a landlocked Regency in East Java province, Indonesia. It covers an area of 1,010.86 km2, and had a population of 662,278 at the 2010 Census and 744,350 at the 2020 Census. It is bordered by Bojonegoro Regency in the north, Nganjuk Regency in the east, Ponorogo Regency in the south, and Magetan Regency and Ngawi Regency in the west, while the city of Madiun is an enclave within the regency.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Cipanas, Cianjur</span> District of Cianjur Regency, West Java, Indonesia

Cipanas is a district in the extreme northwest corner of Cianjur Regency in West Java, Indonesia. It had an area of 67.28 km2 and a population of 103,911 at the 2010 Census. which had increased to 113,592 at the 2020 Census.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sumedang Larang Kingdom</span>

Sumedang Larang is an Islamic Kingdom based in Sumedang, West Java. Its territory consisted of the Parahyangan region, before becoming a vassal state under the Mataram Sultanate.


  1. Wawali, Pertahankan Julukan Kota Santri | Archived 9 October 2016 at the Wayback Machine
  2. Badan Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2022.
  3. Badan Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2021.
  4. Badan Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2021.
  5. Badan Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2022.
  6. Marwati Djoened Poesponegoro, Nugroho Notosusanto (1992). "Kerajaan Sunda". Sejarah nasional Indonesia: Jaman kuna. PT Balai Pustaka. p. 376. ISBN   978-979-407-408-4.
  7. G. G. Bandilenko, E.I. Gnevusheva, D.V. Deopik, V.A. Tsyganov (1992). History of Indonesia. pp. 175–179.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  8. Suryaningrat, Bayu (1982). Sajarah Cianjur Sareng Raden Aria Wira Tanu Dalem Cikundul Cianjur. Rukun Warga Cianjur-Jakarta, Jakarta.
  9. G. G. Bandilenko, E.I. Gnevusheva, D.V. Deopik, V.A. Tsyganov (1992). History of Indonesia. pp. 201–202.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  10. Jaya, Ruyatna (2003). Sejarah Sukabumi. Sukabumi City Government. p. 8.
  11. Beekman, E. M. (1988). Fugitive Dreams: An Anthology of Dutch Colonial Literature. University of Massachusetts Press. p. 90. ISBN   0870235753.
  12. Brommer, Bea (2015). To My Dear Pieternelletje:Grandfather and Granddaughter in VOC Time, 1710–1720. Leiden: Brill. p. 19. ISBN   9789004293328.
  13. Danasasmita, Saleh (1983). Sejarah Bogor, Volume 1. Bogor: Pemerintah Daerah Kotamadya DT II Bogor. p. 85.
  14. Klaveren, N. A. (1983). The Dutch Colonial System in the East Indies. Springer. p. 60. ISBN   9789401768481.
  15. Kumar, Ann (1997). Java and Modern Europe: Ambiguous Encounters. Routledge. p. 292. ISBN   1138863149.
  16. Coolsma, S. (2010). De zendingseeuw voor Neederlandsch Oost-Indië. Nabu Press. p. 118. ISBN   9781174732164.
  17. MPI Foundation (2005). West Java Miracle Sight: A Mass of Verb and Scene Information. p. 724.
  18. Marihandono, Djoko (2008). Titik balik historiografi di Indonesia. University of Indonesia. p. 217. ISBN   9789793258805.
  19. Bosma, Ulbe (2009). Being "Dutch" in the Indies: A History of Creolisation and Empire, 1500–1920. Ohio University Press. p. 97. ISBN   9789971693732.
  20. Dutch East Indies. Topografische Dienst (1918). Jaarverslag. p. 202.
  21. Dinas Pariwisata Provinsi Daerah Tingkat I Jawa Barat (1986). Wajah Pariwisata Jawa Barat. Bandung: Dinas Pariwisata Jawa Barat. p. 178. ISBN   9789798075001.
  22. Indonesia confirms the second case of polio, ABC Radio Australia 5 April 2005.
  23. Badan Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2021.
  24. Badan Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2022.
  25. "Climate: Sukabumi". Retrieved 12 November 2020.
  26. "PT KAI revives Bogor-Sukabumi route". 10 November 2013.
  27. "This New Toll Road Drastically Cuts the Time It Takes You to Drive to Sukabumi". Jakarta Globe. Retrieved 4 December 2018.