|Born||15 May 1907|
|Died||23 March 1931 23) (aged|
Lahore, British India (now in Punjab, Pakistan)
|Organization||HSRA, Naujawan Bharat Sabha|
|Movement||Indian Independence movement|
Sukhdev Thapar (15 May 1907 – 23 March 1931) was an Indian revolutionary. He was a senior member of Hindustan Socialist Republican Association. He was hanged on 23 March 1931 at the age of 23. His ancestral house is in Naughara Mohalla of Ludhiana town, Punjab, India. He was son of Ram Lal and Ralli Devi.
India, also known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west; China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the northeast; and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia.
A revolutionary is a person who either participates in, or advocates revolution. Also, when used as an adjective, the term revolutionary refers to something that has a major, sudden impact on society or on some aspect of human endeavor.
Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA) was a revolutionary organisation, also known as the Hindustan Socialist Republican Army, established in 1928 at Feroz Shah Kotla in New Delhi by Chandrasekhar Azad, Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev Thapar and others. Previously it was known as the Hindustan Republican Association (HRA) whose written constitution and published manifesto titled The Revolutionary were produced as evidence in the Kakori conspiracy case of 1925.
Sukhdev Thapar, born in Ludhiana, Punjab, British India to Ramlal Thapar and Ralli Devi in a Khatri family. Sukhdev's father died and he was brought up by his uncle Lala Achintram.
Ludhiana is a city and a municipal corporation in Ludhiana district in the Indian state of Punjab, and India's largest city north of Delhi, with an area of 310sq. km and an estimated population of 1,618,879 as of the 2011 census. The city stands on the Sutlej River's old bank, 13 kilometres (8.1 mi) south of its present course. It is an industrial center of northern India; the BBC has called it India's Manchester. Ludhiana was among the list of smart cities that will be developed by government of India. According to World Bank Group Ludhiana is the best city in India to do business.
Punjab is a state in northern India. Forming part of the larger Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent, the state is bordered by the Indian states of Jammu and Kashmir to the north, Himachal Pradesh to the east, Haryana to the south and southeast, Rajasthan to the southwest, and the Pakistani province of Punjab to the west. The state covers an area of 50,362 square kilometres, 1.53% of India's total geographical area. It is the 20th-largest Indian state by area. With 27,704,236 inhabitants at the 2011 census, Punjab is the 16th-largest state by population, comprising 22 districts. Punjabi is the most widely spoken and official language of the state. The main ethnic group are the Punjabis, with Sikhs (58%) forming the demographic majority. The state capital is Chandigarh, a Union Territory and also the capital of the neighbouring state of Haryana. The five tributary rivers of the Indus River from which the region took its name are Sutlej, Ravi, Beas, Chenab and Jhelum Rivers; Sutlej, Ravi and Beas are part of the Indian Punjab.
Sukhdev was a member of the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA), and organised revolutionary cells in Punjab and other areas of North India.He was the chief of Punjab unit of HSRA and instrumental in taking decisions.
Sukhdev is best remembered for his involvement in the Lahore Conspiracy Case of 18 December 1928 and its aftermath.He was an accomplice of Bhagat Singh, and Shivaram Rajguru, whose conspiracy led to the assassination of Deputy Superintendent of Police, J. P. Saunders in 1928 in response to the violent death of the veteran leader Lala Lajpat Rai.
Bhagat Singh was an Indian socialist revolutionary whose two acts of dramatic violence against the British in India and execution at age 23 made him a folk hero of the Indian independence movement.
Shivaram Hari Rajguru was an Indian revolutionary from Maharashtra, known mainly for his involvement in the assassination of a British Raj police officer. On 23 March 1931 he was hanged by the British government along with Bhagat Singh.
Sukhdev participated in numerous revolutionary activities such as the 'Prison hunger strike' in 1929; he is best known for his assaults in the Lahore Conspiracy Case (18 December 1928).Sukhdev was the prime accused in the Lahore Conspiracy Case of 1930, whose title reads "Crown versus Sukhdev and others". The first information report (FIR) of the Lahore Conspiracy Case, filed by Hamilton Harding, senior superintendent of police, in the court of R.S. Pandit, special magistrate in April 1929, mentions Sukhdev as accused number 1. It describes him as Swami alias villager, son of Ram Lal, caste Thapar Khatri. In a list of 25 accused, Bhagat is on the 12th position, while Rajguru is on the 20th position. It’s Sukhdev who leads the pack. Bhagat Singh and Shivaram Rajguru, who had been concerned in the assassination of Deputy Superintendent of Police, J.P. Saunders in 1928, consequently avenging the death of a veteran leader, Lala Lajpat Rai, owing to immoderate police beating within the Conspiracy case. After the Central Assembly Hall bombings in New Delhi (8 April 1929), Sukhdev and his accomplices were arrested and convicted of their crime, going through the loss of life sentence as the verdict.
Lala Lajpat Rai
On 23 March 1931, the 3 revolutionaries, Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev Thapar and Shivaram Rajguru hanged in Lahore jail.Their bodies were secretly cremated at the banks of the River Sutlej.
The executions were reported widely by the press, especially as they took place on the eve of the annual convention of the Congress party at Karachi.The New York Times reported:
A reign of terror in the city of Cawnpore in the United Provinces and an attack on Mahatma Gandhi by a youth outside Karachi were among the answers of the Indian extremists today to the hanging of Bhagat Singh and two fellow-assassins.
B.R.Ambedkar, writing in an editorial in his newspaper Janata, blamed the British government for its decision to go ahead with the execution of the trio (Sukhdev, Rajguru and Bhagat SIngh) despite strong popular public opinion in India in support of these revolutionaries.He felt that the decision to execute the trio was not taken in the true spirit of justice, but was driven by the Labour Party-led British government's fear of backlash from the Conservative Party and a need to appease public opinion in England. The Gandhi-Irwin pact, signed just weeks before the execution, was viewed by the Conservatives as having dented the prestige of the British Empire. In such a situation, if the British government or the Viceroy of India commuted the death sentence awarded to the trio convicted of assassinating a British policeman, it would have given the Conservatives more ammunition to criticize an already weak British government in the parliament.
National Martyrs Memorial is located at Hussainiwala, where Sukhdev, along with Bhagat Singh and Rajguru was cremated. Every year on 23 March martyrs day (Shaheed diwas) is observed remembering three revolutionaries. Tributes and homage is paid at the memorial.
Shaheed Sukhdev College of Business Studies, a constituent college of the University of Delhi, is named in memory of martyr Sukhdev Thapar. It was established in August 1987.
Amar Shaheed Sukhdev Thapar Inter-State Bus Terminal is the main bus stand of Ludhiana city, the birth place of Sukhdev.
Events in the year 1931 in India.
Yashpal was a Hindi-language author who is sometimes considered to be the most gifted since Premchand. A political commentator and a socialist who had a particular concern for the welfare of the poor and disadvantaged, he wrote in a range of genres, including essays, novels and short stories, as well as a play, two travel books and an autobiography. He won the Hindi-language Sahitya Akademi Award for his novel, Meri Teri Uski Baat in 1976 and was also a recipient of the Padma Bhushan.
Chandra Shekhar Azad, popularly known as by his self-taken name Azad, was an Indian revolutionary who reorganised the Hindustan Republican Association under its new name of Hindustan Socialist Republican Army (HSRA) after the death of its founder, Ram Prasad Bismil, and three other prominent party leaders, Roshan Singh, Rajendra Nath Lahiri and Ashfaqulla Khan. He often used the pseudonym "Balraj" when signing pamphlets issued as the commander in chief of the HSRA.
The Legend of Bhagat Singh is an Indian historical biographical film directed by Rajkumar Santoshi and released in 2002. The film is about Bhagat Singh, a socialist revolutionary who fought for Indian independence along with fellow members of the Hindustan Republic Association. It features Ajay Devgn as the titular character along with Sushant Singh, D. Santosh and Akhilendra Mishra as the other lead characters. Raj Babbar, Farida Jalal and Amrita Rao play supporting roles. The film chronicles Bhagat's life from his childhood where he witnesses the Jallianwala Bagh massacre until the day he was hanged to death—23 March 1931.
The Revolutionary movement for Indian independence is a part of the Indian independence movement comprising the actions of the underground revolutionary factions. Groups believing in armed revolution against the ruling British fall into this category, as opposed to the generally peaceful civil disobedience movement spearheaded by Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. The revolutionary groups were mainly concentrated in Bengal, Maharashtra, Bihar, the United Provinces and Punjab. More groups were scattered across India.
23rd March 1931: Shaheed is a 2002 Indian Hindi historical biographical film about Bhagat Singh, directed by Guddu Dhanoa which depicts the events leading up to the hanging of Indian freedom fighter Bhagat Singh and his companions Rajguru and Sukhdev on 23 March 1931. The film stars Bobby Deol as Bhagat Singh, his elder brother Sunny Deol as Chandrashekhar Azad and Amrita Singh in her comeback role as Bhagat Singh's mother. Aishwarya Rai has a special appearance in a song.
Baikuntha Shukla was an Indian nationalist and revolutionary. He was the nephew of Yogendra Shukla, one of the founders of Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA).
In India, there are five days declared as Martyrs' Day. They are named in honour of those who are recognised as martyrs for the nation.
PanditKishori Lal was a freedom fighter from Punjab, India who worked with Bhagat Singh and the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA).
Durgavati Devi was an Indian revolutionary and a freedom fighter. She was one of the few women revolutionaries who actively participated in armed revolution against the ruling British Raj. She is best known for having accompanied Bhagat Singh on the train journey in which he made his escape in disguise after the Saunders killing, Since she was the wife of Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA) member Bhagwati Charan Vohra, other members of HSRA referred to her as Bhabhi and became popular as "Durga Bhabhi" in Indian revolutionary circles.
Bhagwati Charan Vohra was an Indian revolutionary, associated with Hindustan Socialist Republican Association. He was an ideologue, organiser, orator and a campaigner.
Why I am an Atheist is an essay written by Indian revolutionary Bhagat Singh in 1930 in Lahore Central Jail. The essay was a reply to his religious friends who thought Bhagat Singh became an atheist because of his vanity.
Bhagat Singh Memorial Foundation (BSMF) is a nonprofit foundation based in Pakistan.
Hussainiwala National Martyrs Memorial in memory of the Indian freedom fighters Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev Thapar and Shivaram Rajguru, is at Hussainiwala village in Punjab, India. A daily flag lowering ceremony, similar to the Wagah-Attari border ceremony is also held here jointly by the Indian and Pakistani armed forces.
Prithvi Singh Azad (1892–1989) was an Indian independence activist, revolutionary and one of the founder members of Ghadar Party. He came from a Rajput family and suffered incarceration several times during the pre-independence period, including a term in the Cellular Jail. After the Indian independence, he served as the minister of labor and local self-government in the Bhim Sen Sachar ministry in the state of Punjab. He was also a member of the first Constituent Assembly of India. The Government of India awarded him the third highest civilian honour of the Padma Bhushan, in 1977, for his contributions to society.
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