Sulaimankhel

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The Sulaimankhel (Pashto : سليمان خېل), or Suleiman Khel, are a Pashtun sub-tribe of the Ghilji tribe of Bettani confederation of Pashtuns. In the early 20th century, the tribe was recognised as generally pastoral. [1]

Contents

In 1924, the Sulaimankhel joined in the Khost Rebellion initiated by the Mangal tribe. [2]

The present president of Afghanistan Ashraf Ghani is from the tribe of Sulaimankhel. The Sulaimankhel are one of the largest Ghilji Pashtun subtribes. Population of this tribe primarily lies in Afghanistan. Alikhel, Lodhi, Suri, Niazi, Tanoli and Umer Khel are brother tribes of SulemanKhel tribe. According to Gulab Mangal, former governor of Paktika Province, the Sulaimankhel provided the majority of recruits for the Taliban in the province. [3] As a result, the level of Anti-Coalition Militia activities remain high in areas dominated by Sulemankhel. [3] The bias of some sub-tribes toward the Taliban in part may be explained by their proximity to the Pakistan border and the influx of insurgents and the radical politics. [3] Umer khel is also one of the well known Tribe member in pakistan along with a minority of other members, They have been allied with the Hotaki in the past, and their traditional rivals include the Kharoti. [4] Principal sub-divisions of the Sulemankhel include the (Khazarkhel), (Alizai), (Dustukhel),(Sulemanzai), (Ahmadzai), and (Jalalzai), (QasarKhel) , Other sub-divisions include the (Alikhel), the (Nizamkhel), the (Dinnarkhel), and the Shakhel, which primarily lives in the northwest of Paktika, has been more cooperative with the central government and coalition forces. [3] The Nizamkhel and Shakhel also remain more supportive of the government, which may be explained in part by their rivalry with the Jalalzai. [3] Sulemankhel tribesmen are known as warriors and have been major contributors to the mujahideen during Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. The Sulaimankhel also have a strong presence in Swat, Hazara, Abbottabad, Mansehra, Balochistan, dera ismail khan and karachi and Ghazni, Zabul, Paktia, Khost, Logar, Wardak, Kabul, Nangarhar and Helmand. There is also a large presence of Sulemankhel in the northern Kunduz province. Haji Maula Nazar Dustukhel is the chief of Sulemankhel Kochi Tribe's in Afghanistan and Sardar Syed Abbas khan Brother of Sardar Mussa khan Sulemankhel Yahyakhel is chief of Sulemankhel in Pakistan.

Cuisine

Meat is the common part of their diet which they usually have it with 'Sharwa' which is soup. It's a rich and hearty soup made with meat and potatoes. They generally serve the sharwa in a large communal bowl. Everyone rips their nan into small piece, throws it into the shorwa and enjoys the soup using their hand.[ citation needed ]

Culture

Tribe strictly follows its practice of Pashtunwali. It's a pre-Islamic tradition, also known for being the strongest tribesmen,dating back to Alexander's defeat of the Persian Empire in 330 BC,possibly survived in the form of traditional dances, while literary styles and music. Sulaimankhel tribe follows the principles of Pushtunwali tradition rigidly. Tribe have frequent blood feuds. Most of the population still lacks proper education which results in a high illiteracy. [5]

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The Andar are a Ghilji Pashtun sub-tribe. The Andar occupy nearly the whole of the extensive district of Shalgar south of Ghazni The Andar were traditionally known for their skill in the construction and maintenance of large karez. More concentrated in Ghazni Province, they have also a significant presence in Paktia. During the 19th century they joined in the Ghilji revolt and many were summarily sent into internal exile. Somewhat inexplicably, they allied themselves for a time with the Harakat-i Islami, originally a Shia faction, during the anti-Soviet campaign. In fact, there were two Mujaheddin parties named Harakat-i Islami Afghanistan, while one was a Shi'ite faction, the other and far more significant party was originally a 'united front' of mainly Hezb-i Islami and Jamiat-i Islami, that collapsed after only a few months, leaving behind a significant party that was in many ways a precursor to the present day Taliban movement. A majority of the Andar tribe were affiliated with this 'Harakt-i Islami' and it is notable that the leader of this united front and later party, Mawlawi Mohammad Nabi Mohammadi was Andar by tribe. Similarly, the senior Mawlawi Mansoor was Andar too. Mansoor's son Saifurrahman Mansoor was later an important figure and military leader in the Taliban movement.

Khost rebellion (1924–1925)

The Khost rebellion, also known as the 1924 Mangal uprising, the Khost revolt or the Mangal Revolt was an uprising against the Westernization and modernizing reforms of Afghanistan’s king, Amanullah Khan. The uprising was launched in Southern Province, Afghanistan, and lasted from March 1924 to January 1925. It was fought by the Mangal Pashtun tribe, later joined by the Sulaiman Khel, Ali Khel, Jaji, Jadran and Ahmadzai tribes. After causing the death of over 14,000 Afghans, the revolt was finally quelled in January 1925.

References

  1. Imperial gazetteer of India: provincial series. Supt. of Govt. Print. 1908. pp.  33. Retrieved 1 April 2011.
  2. Frank Clements (2003). Conflict in Afghanistan: a historical encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. pp. 148–. ISBN   978-1-85109-402-8 . Retrieved 1 April 2011.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 "Paktika Province: Provincial Overview" (PDF). Program for Culture and Conflict Studies, Naval Postgraduate School, United States Navy. Archived (PDF) from the original on 11 June 2010. a publication of the United States Government in the public domain
  4. US Department of State Gardez Provincial Reconstruction Team Political Officer Reporting, 2004.
  5. 2007 Afghanistan CIA World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency