Sultanate of Mogadishu

Last updated
Sultanate of Mogadishu

Saldanadda Muqdisho
سلطنة مقديشو
9th century–13th century
Fra Mauro Somalia.jpg
The "City of Mogadishu" on Fra Mauro's medieval map.
Capital Mogadishu
Common languages Somali, Arabic
Religion
Islam
Government Sultanate
Sultan  
Historical era Middle Ages
 9th century
9th century
 10th century [1]
13th century
Currency Mogadishan
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Near East - india 3.JPG[[Ajan Coast]]
Ajuran Empire Muzzaffar (Mogadishu area) flag according to 1576 Portuguese map.svg
Today part ofFlag of Somalia.svg  Somalia

The Sultanate of Mogadishu (Somali : Saldanadda Muqdisho, Arabic : سلطنة مقديشو) (fl. 9th-13th centuries [1] ), also known as the Kingdom of Magadazo, [1] was a medieval Somali trading empire centered in southern Somalia. It rose as one of the preeminent powers in the Horn of Africa during the 10th, 11th and 12th centuries, before being served as the capital for the Ajuran Empire during the early 13th century. The Mogadishu Sultanate maintained a vast trading network, dominated the regional gold trade, minted its own currency, and left an extensive architectural legacy in present-day southern Somalia. [2]

Somali language Afroasiatic language belonging to the Cushitic branch

Somali is an Afroasiatic language belonging to the Cushitic branch. It is spoken as a mother tongue by Somalis in Greater Somalia and the Somali diaspora. Somali is an official language of Somalia, a national language in Djibouti, and a working language in the Somali Region of Ethiopia. It is used as an adoptive language by a few neighboring ethnic minority groups and individuals. The Somali language is written officially with the Latin alphabet.

Floruit, abbreviated fl., Latin for "he/she flourished", denotes a date or period during which a person was known to have been alive or active. In English, the word may also be used as a noun indicating the time when someone flourished.

Somalis ethnic group inhabiting the Horn of Africa

The Somali are an ethnic group belonging to the Cushitic peoples inhabiting the Horn of Africa. The overwhelming majority of Somalis speak the Somali language, which is part of the Cushitic branch of the Afroasiatic family. They are predominantly Sunni Muslim. Ethnic Somalis number around 28-30 million and are principally concentrated in Somalia, Ethiopia, Kenya, and Djibouti (534,000). Somali diasporas are also found in parts of the Middle East, North America, Western Europe, African Great Lakes region, Southern Africa and Oceania.

Contents

History

Entrance of a coral stone house in Mogadishu. Coral house mogadishu.JPG
Entrance of a coral stone house in Mogadishu.

According to the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea , maritime trade connected Somalis in the Mogadishu vicinity with other communities along the Indian Ocean coast as early as the 1st century CE. The ancient trading power of Sarapion has been postulated to be the predecessor of Mogadishu. During the 8th century, Mogadishu was well-suited to become a regional center for commerce.

<i>Periplus of the Erythraean Sea</i> literary work

The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, also known by its Latin name as the Periplus Maris Erythraei, is a Greco-Roman periplus written in Koine Greek that describes navigation and trading opportunities from Roman Egyptian ports like Berenice Troglodytica along the coast of the Red Sea, and others along Horn of Africa, the Persian Gulf, and the Arabian Sea, including the modern-day Sindh region of Pakistan and southwestern regions of India. The text has been ascribed to different dates between the first and third centuries, but a mid-first century date is now the most commonly accepted. While the author is unknown, it is clearly a firsthand description by someone familiar with the area and is nearly unique in providing accurate insights into what the ancient Hellenic world knew about the lands around the Indian Ocean.

Indian Ocean The ocean between Africa, Asia, Australia and Antarctica (or the Southern Ocean)

The Indian Ocean is the third-largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering 70,560,000 km2 (27,240,000 sq mi) or 19.8% of the water on the Earth's surface. It is bounded by Asia to the north, Africa to the west, and Australia to the east. To the south it is bounded by the Southern Ocean or Antarctica, depending on the definition in use.

Sarapion

Sarapion, was an ancient proto-Somali port city in present-day Somalia. It was situated on a site that later became Mogadishu.

Sultanate of Mogadishu period

The origins of the name Mogadishu (Muqdisho) has many theories but it is most likely derived from a morphology of the Somali words "Muuq" and "Disho" which literally means "Sight Killer" or "Blinder" possibly referring to the city's blinding beauty. [3]

The Sultanate of Mogadishu was established by a local Somali man called Fakr ad-Din who hails from the Ajuran (clan) and was the first Sultan of Mogadishu Sultanate and founder of Garen Dynasty. [4] [5]

The Ajuran is a Somali clan. Group members largely inhabit Kenya as well as Ethiopia; considerable numbers are also found in Somalia.

According to Al-Yaqubi mentioned Muslims were living on the board of southern Somalia. He mentioned Mogadishu in the 9th century calling it a beautiful wealthy city who are inhabited by the people of Bilad Al-Berber, a medieval term used by Arabs to describe Somalis. [6]

For many years Mogadishu functioned as the pre-eminent city in the بلد البربر (Bilad al Barbar - "Land of the Berbers"), as medieval Arabic-speakers named the Somali coast. [7] [8] [9] [10] Following his visit to the city, the 12th-century Syrian historian Yaqut al-Hamawi (a former slave of Greek origin) wrote a global history of many places he visited Mogadishu and called it the richest and most powerful city in the region and was an Islamic center across the Indian Ocean. [11] [12]

Syria Country in Western Asia

Syria, officially the Syrian Arab Republic, is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon to the southwest, the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest. A country of fertile plains, high mountains, and deserts, Syria is home to diverse ethnic and religious groups, including Syrian Arabs, Greeks, Armenians, Assyrians, Kurds, Circassians, Mandeans and Turkemens. Religious groups include Sunnis, Christians, Alawites, Druze, Isma'ilis, Mandeans, Shiites, Salafis, Yazidis, and Jews. Sunnis make up the largest religious group in Syria.

Yāqūt Shihāb al-Dīn ibn-'Abdullāh al-Rūmī al-Hamawī (1179–1229) is famous for his great "geography", Mu'jam ul-Buldān, an encyclopedia of Islam written in the late Abbāsid era and as much a work of biography, history and literature as a simple work of geography.

Archaeological excavations have recovered many coins from China, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam. The majority of the Chinese coins date to the Song Dynasty, although the Ming Dynasty and Qing Dynasty "are also represented," [13] according to Richard Pankhurst.

Ajuran Empire period

Almnara Tower, Mogadishu. Ancient-Almnara.jpg
Almnara Tower, Mogadishu.

In the early 13th century, Mogadishu along with other coastal and interior Somali cities in southern Somalia and eastern Ethiopia came under the Ajuran Sultanate control and experienced another Golden Age.

During his travels, Ibn Sa'id al-Maghribi (1213–1286) noted that Mogadishu city had already become the leading Islamic center in the region. [14] By the time of the Moroccan traveller Ibn Battuta's appearance on the Somali coast in 1331, the city was at the zenith of its prosperity. He described Mogadishu as "an exceedingly large city" with many rich merchants, which was famous for its high quality fabric that it exported to Egypt, among other places. [15] [16] Battuta added that the city was ruled by a Somali Sultan, Abu Bakr ibn Sayx 'Umar, [17] [18] who was originally from Berbera in northern Somalia and spoke both Somali (referred to by Battuta as Benadir, a southern Somali dialect) and Arabic with equal fluency. [18] [19] The Sultan also had a retinue of wazirs (ministers), legal experts, commanders, royal eunuchs, and other officials at his beck and call. [18]

Ibn Khaldun (1332 to 1406) noted in his book that Mogadishu was a massive metropolis city that served as the capital of the Ajuran Kingdom. He also claimed that the city of Mogadishu was a very populous city with many wealthy merchants, yet nomad in character. He referred to the characteristics of the inhabitants of Mogadishu as tall swarthy Berbers and called them the people of Al-Somaal. [20]

The ruler of the Somali Ajuran Empire sent ambassadors to China to establish diplomatic ties, creating the first ever recorded African community in China and the most notable Somali ambassador in medieval China was Sa'id of Mogadishu who was the first African man to set foot in China. In return, Emperor Yongle, the third emperor of the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644), dispatched one of the largest fleets in history to trade with the Somali nation. The fleet, under the leadership of the famed Hui Muslim Zheng He, arrived at[Mogadishu the capital of Ajuran Empire while the city was at its zenith. Along with gold, frankincense and fabrics, Zheng brought back the first ever African wildlife to China, which included hippos, giraffes and gazelles. [21] [22] [23] [24]

Vasco Da Gama, who passed by Mogadishu in the 15th century, noted that it was a large city with houses of four or five storeys high and big palaces in its centre and many mosques with cylindrical minarets. [25] In the 16th century, Duarte Barbosa noted that many ships from the Kingdom of Cambaya sailed to Mogadishu with cloths and spices for which they in return received gold, wax and ivory. Barbosa also highlighted the abundance of meat, wheat, barley, horses, and fruit on the coastal markets, which generated enormous wealth for the merchants. [26] Mogadishu, the center of a thriving weaving industry known as toob benadir (specialized for the markets in Egypt and Syria), [27] together with Merca and Barawa also served as transit stops for Swahili merchants from Mombasa and Malindi and for the gold trade from Kilwa. [28] Jewish merchants from the Hormuz also brought their Indian textile and fruit to the Somali coast in exchange for grain and wood. [29]

The Portuguese Empire was unsuccessful of conquering Mogadishu where the powerful naval Portuguese commander called João de Sepúvelda and his army fleets was soundly defeated by the powerful Ajuran navy during the Battle of Benadir. [30]

According to the 16th-century explorer, Leo Africanus indicates that the native inhabitants of the Mogadishu the capital of Ajuran Sultanate polity were of the same origins as the citizens of the northern people of Zeila the capital of Adal Sultanate. They were generally tall with an brown skin complexion, with some being darker and spoke Somali. They would wear traditional rich white silk wrapped around their bodies and have Islamic turbans and coastal people would only wear sarongs, and use Arabic writing script as their lingua franca. Their weaponry consisted of traditional Somali weapons such as swords, daggers, spears, battle axe, and bows, although they received assistance from its close ally the Ottoman Empire and with the import of firearms such as muskets and cannons. Most were Muslims, although a few adhered to heathen bedouin tradition; there were also a number of Abyssinian Christians further inland. Mogadishu itself was a wealthy, powerful and well-built city-state, which maintained commercial trade with kingdoms across the world. The metropolis city was surrounded by walled stone fortifications. [31] [32]

Trade

Somali merchants from Mogadishu established a colony in Mozambique to extract gold from the mines in Sofala. [33]

Mogadishu currency. Horizontal Mogadishan Coins version.JPG
Mogadishu currency.

During the 9th century, Mogadishu minted its own Mogadishu currency for its medieval trading empire in the Indian Ocean. [34] [35] It centralized its commercial hegemony by minting coins to facilitate regional trade. The currency bore the names of the 13 successive Sultans of Mogadishu. The oldest pieces date back to 923-24 and on the front bear the name of Imsail ibn Muhahamad, the then Sultan of Mogadishu. [36] On the back of the coins, the names of the four Caliphs of the Rashidun Caliphate are inscribed. [37] Other coins were also minted in the style of the extant Fatimid and the Ottoman currencies. Mogadishan coins were in widespread circulation. Pieces have been found as far away as modern United Arab Emirates, where a coin bearing the name of a 12th-century Somali Sultan Ali b. Yusuf of Mogadishu was excavated. [34] Bronze pieces belonging to the Sultans of Mogadishu have also been found at Belid near Salalah in Dhofar. [38]

Upon arrival in Mogadishu's harbour, it was custom for small boats to approach the arriving vessel, and their occupants to offer food and hospitality to the merchants on the ship. If a merchant accepted such an offer, then he was obligated to lodge in that person's house and to accept their services as sales agent for whatever business they transacted in Mogadishu.

Sultans of Mogadishu

The various Sultans of Mogadishu are mainly known from the Mogadishan currency on which many of their names are engraved. However, their succession dates and genealogical relations are obscure. [39] The founder of the Sultanate was reportedly Fakr ad-Din, who hails from the Ajuran (clan) and was the first Sultan of Mogadishu Sultanate and founder of Garen Dynasty. [40] While only a handful of the pieces have been precisely dated, the Mogadishu Sultanate's first coins were minted at the beginning of the 9th century, with the last issued around the early 13th century. For trade, the Ajuran Sultanate minted its own Ajuran currency. [41] It also utilized the Mogadishan currency originally minted by the Sultanate of Mogadishu, which later became incorporated into the Ajuran Empire during the 13th century. [35] Mogadishan coins have been found as far away as the present-day country of the United Arab Emirates in the Middle East. [42] The following list of the Sultans of Mogadishu is abridged and is primarily derived from these mints. [43] The first of two dates uses the Islamic calendar, with the second using the Julian calendar; single dates are based on the Julian (European) calendar.

# Sultan Reign Notes
1Abu Bakr b. Fakhr ad Dinfl 850Founder of the Mogadishu Sultanate's first ruling house, the Garen dynasty.
2Ismail b. Muhammadfl 1134Golden age for Mogadishu Sultanate
3Al-Rahman b. al-Musa'idprobably 8th/14th century
4Yusuf b. Sa'idfl 9th/13th century
5Sultan Muhammadfl 9th/13th century
6Rasul b. 'Alifl 9th/13th century
7Yusuf b. Abi Bakrfl 9th/13th century
8Malik b. Sa'idunknown dates, style of 1th/13th century
9Sultan 'Umarfl 9th/13th century (?)
10Zubayr b. 'Umarfl c. 9th/13th century

Related Research Articles

History of Somalia

Somalia, officially the Federal Republic of Somalia and formerly known as the Somali Democratic Republic, is a country located in the Horn of Africa.

Mogadishu Capital in Banaadir, Somalia

Mogadishu, locally known as Xamar or Hamar, is the capital and most populous city of Somalia. Located in the coastal Banadir region on the Somali Sea, the city has served as an important port for millennia. The original inhabitants are known as reer xamar. As of 2017, it had a population of 2,425,000 residents. Mogadishu is the nearest foreign mainland city to Seychelles, at a distance of 835 mi (1,344 km) over the Somali Sea.

Banaadir Region in Somalia

Benaadir is an administrative region (gobol) in southeastern Somalia. It covers the same area as the city of Mogadishu, Somalia's capital. Although by far the smallest administrative region in Somalia, it has the largest population, estimated at 1,650,227 in 2014.

Adal Sultanate Former Somali kingdom and sultanate located in the Horn of Africa

The Adal Sultanate, or Kingdom of Adal, was a Muslim Somali kingdom and sultanate located in the Horn of Africa. It was founded by Sabr ad-Din II after the fall of the Sultanate of Ifat. The kingdom flourished from around 1415 to 1577. The sultanate and state were established by the local inhabitants of Zeila. At its height, the polity controlled most of the territory in the Horn region immediately east of the Ethiopian Empire (Abyssinia). The Adal Empire maintained a robust commercial and political relationship with the Ottoman Empire.

Muhammad bin Tughluq Fakhr Malik

Muhammad bin Tughluq was the Sultan of Delhi from 1325 to 1351. He was the eldest son of Ghiyas -ud -Din -Tughlaq, the Turko-Indian founder of the Tughluq dynasty. He was born in New Delhi. His wife was the daughter of the Raja of Dipalpur. Ghiyas-ud-din sent the young Muhammad to the Deccan to campaign against king Prataparudra of the Kakatiya dynasty whose capital was at Warangal in 1321 and 1323. Muhammad ascended to the Delhi throne upon his father's death in 1325. He was interested in medicine and was skilled in several languages — Persian, Arabic, Turkish and Sanskrit. Ibn Battuta, the famous traveler and jurist from Morocco, was a guest at his court and wrote about his suzerainty in his book. From his accession to the throne in 1325 until his death in 1351, Muhammad contended with 22 rebellions, pursuing his policies, consistently and ruthlessly.

The first king of the Maldivian Hilaalee dynasty was Hassan I of the Maldives and he Was proclaimed king in the year 1388 AD. Hilali dynasty was a Somali Dynasty. Some historical writing and some folklores reveal that this Dynasty is from Somali descent. It seems they were travellers and traders of Ajuran Empire where they established a colony in Maldive islands. They settled in Hlhule' in Male' atoll. Some historical documents reveal that Hilali Kalo Hassan dethroned King Uthman Rasgefaan, who was the ruling King at that time and outcast him and all his ministers. After this Hilai Kalo Hassan started the Hilai Dynasty. The Hilaalee dynasty was a sub-dynasty of Garen Dynasty.

Ajuran Sultanate former Somali Muslim empire

The Ajuran Sultanate, also spelled Ajuuraan Sultanate, and often simply as Ajuran, was a Somali empire in the medieval times that dominated the Indian ocean trade. They belonged to the Somali Muslim sultanate that ruled over large parts of the Horn of Africa in the Middle Ages. Through a strong centralized administration and an aggressive military stance towards invaders, the Ajuran Sultanate successfully resisted an Oromo invasion from the west and a Portuguese incursion from the east during the Gaal Madow and the Ajuran-Portuguese wars. Trading routes dating from the ancient and early medieval periods of Somali maritime enterprise were strengthened or re-established, and foreign trade and commerce in the coastal provinces flourished with ships sailing to and coming from many kingdoms and empires in East Asia, South Asia, Europe, the Near East, North Africa and East Africa.

History of Mogadishu

Mogadishu is the largest city in Somalia and the nation's capital. Located in the coastal Benadir region on the Somali Sea, the city has served as an important port for centuries.

Mogadishu currency was an old coinage system minted by the medieval Sultanate of Mogadishu.

Sultanate of the Geledi former Somali kingdom that ruled parts of the Horn of Africa

The Sultanate of the Geledi was a Somali kingdom that ruled parts of the Horn of Africa during the late-17th century and 19th century. The Sultanate was governed by the Gobroon Dynasty. It was established by the Geledi soldier Ibrahim Adeer, who had defeated various vassals of the Ajuran Sultanate and founded the House of Gobroon. The dynasty reached its apex under the successive reigns of Sultan Yusuf Mahamud Ibrahim, who successfully consolidated Geledi power during the Bardera wars in 1843, and Sultan Ahmed Yusuf, who forced regional powers such as the Omani Empire to submit tribute. The sultanate was eventually incorporated into Italian Somaliland in 1908, and ended with the death of Osman Ahmed in 1910.

Sa'id of Mogadishu was a 14th-century Somali scholar and traveler.

Abd al-Aziz of Mogadishu was a 14th-century Somali ruler of the Maldives islands. When Ibn Battuta visited the Maldives islands, the governor of the island at that time was Abd Aziz Al Mogadishawi a Somali

Somali architecture

Somali architecture is the engineering and designing of multiple different construction types such as stone cities, castles, citadels, fortresses, mosques, temples, aqueducts, lighthouses, towers and tombs during the ancient, medieval and early modern periods in Somalia and other regions inhabited by Somalis, as well as the fusion of Somalo-Islamic architecture with Western designs in contemporary times.

Maritime history of Somalia

Maritime history of Somalia refers to the seafaring tradition of the Somali people. It includes various stages of Somali navigational technology, shipbuilding and design, as well as the history of the Somali port cities. It also covers the historical sea routes taken by Somali sailors which sustained the commercial enterprises of the historical Somali kingdoms and empires, in addition to the contemporary maritime culture of Somalia.

Somalis in India include naturalized citizens and residents of India who were born in or have ancestors from Somalia.

Military history of Somalia

The military history of Somalia encompasses the major conventional wars, conflicts and skirmishes involving the historic empires, kingdoms and sultanates in the territory of present-day Somalia, through to modern times. It also covers the martial traditions, military architecture and hardware employed by Somali armies and their opponents.

Somali nationalism

Somali nationalism (Somali:Soomaalinimo) is centered on the notion that the Somali people share a common language, religion, culture and ethnicity, and as such constitute a nation unto themselves. The ideology's earliest manifestations are often traced back to the resistance movement led by Mohammed Abdullah Hassan's Dervish movement at the turn of the 20th century. In northwestern present-day Somalia, the first Somali nationalist political organization to be formed was the Somali National League (SNL), established in 1935 in the former British Somaliland protectorate. In the country's northeastern, central and southern regions, the similarly-oriented Somali Youth Club (SYC) was founded in 1943 in Italian Somaliland, just prior to the trusteeship period. The SYC was later renamed the Somali Youth League (SYL) in 1947. It became the most influential political party in the early years of post-independence Somalia.

Somali aristocratic and court titles

This is a list of Somali aristocratic and court titles that were historically used by the Somali people's various sultanates, kingdoms and empires. Also included are the honorifics reserved for Islamic notables as well as traditional leaders and officials within the Somali customary law (xeer), in addition to the nobiliary particles set aside for distinguished individuals.

Ajuran currency was an old coinage system minted in the Ajuran Sultanate. The polity was a Somali Muslim kingdom that ruled over large parts of the Horn of Africa during the Middle Ages. The Ajuran Sultanate maintained an active commercial network with other contemporaneous polities in the Arabian peninsula, Near East and Central Asia. Many ancient bronze coins inscribed with the names of Ajuran Sultans have been found in the coastal Benadir province in southern Somalia, in addition to pieces from the Sultanate's Islamic trading partners in Southern Arabia and Persia.

The history of the taka refers to the history of currency known as taka, tanka, tanga, tangka, tenge and tenga in many countries. The origin of the word is unclear. It is speculated that the origin lies with the term Tamga. Some sources consider the origin of the word to have come from an Indo-European language. The currency is used in Central Asia and the Indian subcontinent. It was also used in Tibet and Arakan.

References

  1. 1 2 3 Africanus, Leo (1526). The History and Description of Africa. Hakluyt Society. p. 53. Adea, the second kingdome of the land of Aian, situate upon the easterne Ocean, is confined northward by the kingdome of Adel, & westward by the Abassin empire[...] unto the foresaid kingdome of Adea belongeth the kingdome of Magadazo, so called of the principall citie therein
  2. Jenkins, Everett (1 July 2000). The Muslim Diaspora (Volume 2, 1500-1799): A Comprehensive Chronolog. Mcfarland. p. 49. Retrieved 22 January 2017. Mogadishu history.
  3. http://phonebookoftheworld.com/mogadishu/
  4. I.M. Lewis, Peoples of the Horn of Africa: Somali, Afar, and Saho, Issue 1, (International African Institute: 1955), p. 47.
  5. I.M. Lewis, The modern history of Somaliland: from nation to state, (Weidenfeld & Nicolson: 1965), p. 37
  6. https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=Q2GkZwEACAAJ&dq=al+yaqubi&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjGldyXvKDaAhWHL8AKHeBBApEQ6AEILzAB
  7. M. Elfasi, Ivan Hrbek "Africa from the Seventh to the Eleventh Century", "General History of Africa". Retrieved 31 December 2015.
  8. Sanjay Subrahmanyam, The Career and Legend of Vasco Da Gama, (Cambridge University Press: 1998), p. 121.
  9. J. D. Fage, Roland Oliver, Roland Anthony Oliver, The Cambridge History of Africa, (Cambridge University Press: 1977), p. 190.
  10. George Wynn Brereton Huntingford, Agatharchides, The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea: With Some Extracts from Agatharkhidēs "On the Erythraean Sea", (Hakluyt Society: 1980), p. 83.
  11. Roland Anthony Oliver, J. D. Fage, Journal of African history, Volume 7, (Cambridge University Press.: 1966), p. 30.
  12. I.M. Lewis, A modern history of Somalia: nation and state in the Horn of Africa, 2nd edition, revised, illustrated, (Westview Press: 1988), p. 20.
  13. Pankhurst, Richard (1961). An Introduction to the Economic History of Ethiopia . London: Lalibela House. ASIN B000J1GFHC., p. 268
  14. Michael Dumper, Bruce E. Stanley (2007). Cities of the Middle East and North Africa: A Historical Encyclopedia. US: ABC-CLIO. p. 252.
  15. Helen Chapin Metz (1992). Somalia: A Country Study. US: Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. ISBN   0844407755.
  16. P. L. Shinnie, The African Iron Age, (Clarendon Press: 1971), p.135
  17. Versteegh, Kees (2008). Encyclopedia of Arabic language and linguistics, Volume 4. Brill. p. 276. ISBN   9004144765.
  18. 1 2 3 David D. Laitin, Said S. Samatar, Somalia: Nation in Search of a State, (Westview Press: 1987), p. 15.
  19. Chapurukha Makokha Kusimba, The Rise and Fall of Swahili States, (AltaMira Press: 1999), p.58
  20. Brett, Michael (1 January 1999). "Ibn Khaldun and the Medieval Maghrib". Ashgate/Variorum. Retrieved 6 April 2018 via Google Books.
  21. Wilson, Samuel M. "The Emperor's Giraffe", Natural History Vol. 101, No. 12, December 1992 "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2 December 2008. Retrieved 14 April 2012.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  22. Rice, Xan (25 July 2010). "Chinese archaeologists' African quest for sunken ship of Ming admiral". The Guardian.
  23. "Could a rusty coin re-write Chinese-African history?". BBC News. 18 October 2010.
  24. "Zheng He'S Voyages to the Western Oceans 郑和下西洋". People.chinese.cn. Archived from the original on 30 April 2013. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
  25. Da Gama's First Voyage pg.88[ full citation needed ]
  26. East Africa and its Invaders pg.38[ full citation needed ]
  27. Alpers, Edward A. (1976). "Gujarat and the Trade of East Africa, c. 1500-1800". The International Journal of African Historical Studies. 9 (1): 35. doi:10.2307/217389. JSTOR   217389.
  28. Harris, Nigel (2003). The Return of Cosmopolitan Capital: Globalization, the State and War. I.B.Tauris. p. 22. ISBN   978-1-86064-786-4.
  29. Barendse, Rene J. (2002). The Arabian Seas: The Indian Ocean World of the Seventeenth Century: The Indian Ocean World of the Seventeenth Century. Taylor & Francis. ISBN   978-1-317-45835-7.
  30. The Portuguese period in East Africa – Page 112
  31. (Africanus), Leo (6 April 1969). "A Geographical Historie of Africa". Theatrum Orbis Terrarum. Retrieved 6 April 2018 via Google Books.
  32. Dunn, Ross E. (1987). The Adventures of Ibn Battuta . Berkeley: University of California. p. 373. ISBN   0-520-05771-6., p. 125
  33. pg 4 - The quest for an African Eldorado: Sofala, By Terry H. Elkiss
  34. 1 2 Northeast African Studies, Volume 2. 1995. p. 24.
  35. 1 2 Stanley, Bruce (2007). "Mogadishu". In Dumper, Michael; Stanley, Bruce E. (eds.). Cities of the Middle East and North Africa: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 253. ISBN   978-1-57607-919-5.
  36. The Oxford History of Islam. 1999. p. 502.
  37. The Numismatic Chronicle. 1978. p. 188.
  38. Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies, Volume 1. The Seminar. 1970. p. 42. ISBN   0231107145 . Retrieved 28 February 2015.
  39. Bosworth, Clifford Edmund (1996). The New Islamic Dynasties. Columbia University Press. p. 139. ISBN   0231107145 . Retrieved 28 February 2015.
  40. Luling, Virginia (2001). Somali Sultanate: The Geledi City-state Over 150 Years. Transaction Publishers. p. 272. Retrieved 15 February 2017.
  41. Ali, Ismail Mohamed (1970). Somalia Today: General Information. Ministry of Information and National Guidance, Somali Democratic Republic. p. 206. Retrieved 7 November 2014.
  42. Chittick, H. Neville (1976). An Archaeological Reconnaissance in the Horn: The British-Somali Expedition, 1975. British Institute in Eastern Africa. pp. 117–133.
  43. Album, Stephen (1993). A Checklist of Popular Islamic Coins. Stephen Album. p. 28. ISBN   0963602403 . Retrieved 28 February 2015.