Summerfolk (Russian : Дачники, romanized: Dachniki) is a play by Maxim Gorky written in 1904 and first published in 1905 by Znaniye (1904 Znaniye Anthology, book Three), in Saint Petersburg.
Russian is an East Slavic language, which is official in the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely used throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia. It was the de facto language of the Soviet Union until its dissolution on 25 December 1991. Although nearly three decades have passed since the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russian is used in official capacity or in public life in all the post-Soviet nation-states, as well as in Israel and Mongolia.
Romanization of Russian is the process of transliterating the Russian language from the Cyrillic script into the Latin script.
Alexei Maximovich Peshkov, primarily known as Maxim Gorky, was a Russian and Soviet writer, a founder of the socialist realism literary method, and a political activist. He was also a five-time nominee for the Nobel Prize in Literature. Around fifteen years before success as a writer, he frequently changed jobs and roamed across the Russian Empire; these experiences would later influence his writing. Gorky's most famous works were The Lower Depths (1902), Twenty-six Men and a Girl (1899), The Song of the Stormy Petrel (1901), My Childhood (1913–1914), Mother (1906), Summerfolk (1904) and Children of the Sun (1905). He had an association with fellow Russian writers Leo Tolstoy and Anton Chekhov; Gorky would later mention them in his memoirs.
Full of characters who "...might have stepped out of a Chekhovian world",it takes place in 1904—the same year that Anton Chekhov died. The play dramatises the Russian bourgeois social class and the changes occurring around them. In Russia the play premiered on 10 November 1904 at the Komissarzhevskaya Theatre in Saint Petersburg.
Anton Pavlovich Chekhov was a Russian playwright and short-story writer, who is considered to be among the greatest writers of short fiction in history. His career as a playwright produced four classics, and his best short stories are held in high esteem by writers and critics. Along with Henrik Ibsen and August Strindberg, Chekhov is often referred to as one of the three seminal figures in the birth of early modernism in the theatre. Chekhov practiced as a medical doctor throughout most of his literary career: "Medicine is my lawful wife", he once said, "and literature is my mistress."
Bourgeoisie is a polysemous French term that can mean:
The Komissarzhevskaya Theatre is a theatre in Saint Petersburg named after Vera Komissarzhevskaya. It was founded in 1901 and made stage productions at various locations in St. Petersburg and Moscow, Russia. Vera's brother, Theodore Komisarjevsky, established a studio of his sister's theatre in New York City in 1939. Since 1942, the company is permanently located in St. Petersburg, at 19 Italyanskaya Street in the former "Passage Hall" of the elite department store The Passage. The resident company was named the Komissarzhevskaya Theatre in 1959.
The British premiere of the play was given by the Royal Shakespeare Company at the Aldwych Theatre in London on 27 August 1974. It was directed by David Jones, who introduced several of Gorky's plays to Britain.
The Royal Shakespeare Company (RSC) is a major British theatre company, based in Stratford-upon-Avon, Warwickshire, England. The company employs over 1,000 staff and produces around 20 productions a year. The RSC plays regularly in London, Newcastle upon Tyne, and on tour across the UK and internationally.
The Aldwych Theatre is a West End theatre, located in Aldwych in the City of Westminster. It was listed Grade II on 20 July 1971. Its seating capacity is 1,200 on three levels.
David Hugh Jones was an English stage, television and film director.
Nick Dear adapted the play for a production on London's Olivier stage, part of the Royal National Theatre, in 1999.
Nick Dear is an English writer for stage, screen and radio. He received a BAFTA for his first screenwriting credit, a TV adaptation of Jane Austen's Persuasion.
The Royal National Theatre in London, commonly known as the National Theatre (NT), is one of the United Kingdom's three most prominent publicly funded performing arts venues, alongside the Royal Shakespeare Company and the Royal Opera House. Internationally, it is known as the National Theatre of Great Britain.
London is the capital and largest city of England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile (80 km) estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans. The City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles (2.9 km2) and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow closely its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is also an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of London and the London Assembly.
Sir Trevor Robert Nunn is an English theatre director. Nunn has been the Artistic Director for the Royal Shakespeare Company, the Royal National Theatre, and, currently, the Theatre Royal, Haymarket. He has directed dramas for the stage, like Macbeth, as well as opera and musicals, such as Cats (1981) and Les Misérables (1985).
The Merchant of Venice is a 16th-century play written by William Shakespeare in which a merchant in Venice named Antonio must default on a large loan provided by a Jewish moneylender, Shylock. It is believed to have been written between 1596 and 1599.
Emily Margaret Watson is an English actress. She was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actress for her debut film role as Bess McNeil in Lars von Trier's Breaking the Waves (1996) and for her role as Jacqueline du Pré in Hilary and Jackie (1998), winning the BIFA Award for Best Actress for the latter. She won the BAFTA TV Award for Best Actress for playing Janet Leach in the 2011 ITV television biopic Appropriate Adult.
Alex Jennings is an English actor, who has worked extensively with the Royal Shakespeare Company and National Theatre. A three-time Olivier Award winner, he won for Too Clever by Half (1988), Peer Gynt (1996), and My Fair Lady (2003). He is the only performer to have won Olivier awards in the drama, musical and comedy categories. He played Prince Charles in the 2006 film The Queen. His other film appearances include The Wings of the Dove (1997), Bridget Jones: The Edge of Reason (2004), Babel (2006) and The Lady in the Van (2015). He also played Edward VIII, the Duke of Windsor, in the critically acclaimed Netflix series The Crown.
Imelda Mary Philomena Bernadette Staunton, is an English stage and screen actress. After training at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art, Staunton began her career in repertory theatre in the 1970s before appearing in seasons at various theatres in the UK.
Matthew Warchus is a British director and dramatist. He has been Artistic Director of London's Old Vic Theatre since September 2015.
The Moscow Art Theatre is a theatre company in Moscow. It was founded in 1898 by the seminal Russian theatre practitioner Konstantin Stanislavski, together with the playwright and director Vladimir Nemirovich-Danchenko. It was conceived as a venue for naturalistic theatre, in contrast to the melodramas that were Russia's dominant form of theatre at the time. The theatre, the first to regularly put on shows implementing Stanislavski's system, proved hugely influential in the acting world and in the development of modern American theatre and drama.
Sir Simon Russell Beale, CBE is an English actor, author and music historian.
Margaret Maud Tyzack was an English actress. Her television roles included The Forsyte Saga (1967) and I, Claudius (1976). She won the 1970 BAFTA TV Award for Best Actress for the BBC serial The First Churchills, and the 1990 Tony Award for Best Featured Actress in a Play for Lettice and Lovage, opposite Maggie Smith. She also won two Olivier Awards. Her film appearances included 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968), A Clockwork Orange (1971), Prick Up Your Ears (1987) and Match Point (2005).
Douglas Hodge is an English actor, director, and musician who trained for the stage at the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art. Hodge is a council member of the National Youth Theatre for whom, in 1989, he co-wrote Pacha Mama's Blessing about the Amazon rain forests staged at the Almeida Theatre.
Christopher Thomas Morahan CBE was an English stage and television director and production executive.
Tovstonogov Bolshoi Drama Theater, formerly known as Gorky Bolshoi Drama Theater (1931–1992), often referred to as the Bolshoi Drama Theater and by the acronym BDT, is a theater in Saint Petersburg, that is considered one of the best Russian theaters. The theater is named after its long-time director Georgy Tovstonogov. Since 2013, Andrey Moguchy is the artistic director of the theatre.
Igor Petrovich Veselkin was a Russian Soviet realist painter, graphic artist, scenographer, stage designer, and art teacher, professor of the Repin Institute of Arts, who lived and worked in Saint Petersburg. He was a member of the Saint Petersburg Union of Artists, and regarded as one of the representatives of the Leningrad school of painting.
Znanie was a publishing company based in St. Petersburg, Russia founded by Konstantin Pyatnitsky and other members of the Committee for Literacy. It operated from 1898 to 1913.
The Philistines is a debut play by Maxim Gorky written in 1901. It was first published by Znaniye in 1902, subtitled: "The Scenes in the House of Bessemenov. The Drama sketch in 4 Acts".
Ilya Matveyevich Konkov was a Russian stage actor better known under his stage name Uralov (Уралов).
The Last Ones is a 1908 four-act drama by Maxim Gorky.
Queer People is a four-act play by Maxim Gorky, also translated as Eccentrics. It was written during the spring and summer of 1910 and first published by the 1910 Znaniye Collection in Saint Petersburg. It came out as a separate edition via the Berlin-based Ladyzhnikov Publishers. On 2 September 1910 it received permission to be produced on stage the Russian Imperial Theatres.
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