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Summerfolk (Russian : Дачники, romanized: Dachniki) is a play by Maxim Gorky written in 1904 [1] and first published in 1905 by Znaniye (1904 Znaniye Anthology, book Three), in Saint Petersburg. [2]

Russian language East Slavic language

Russian is an East Slavic language, which is official in the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely used throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia. It was the de facto language of the Soviet Union until its dissolution on 25 December 1991. Although nearly three decades have passed since the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russian is used in official capacity or in public life in all the post-Soviet nation-states, as well as in Israel and Mongolia.

Romanization of Russian Romanization of the Russian alphabet

Romanization of Russian is the process of transliterating the Russian language from the Cyrillic script into the Latin script.

Maxim Gorky 19th and 20th-century Russian and Soviet writer

Alexei Maximovich Peshkov, primarily known as Maxim Gorky, was a Russian and Soviet writer, a founder of the socialist realism literary method, and a political activist. He was also a five-time nominee for the Nobel Prize in Literature. Around fifteen years before success as a writer, he frequently changed jobs and roamed across the Russian Empire; these experiences would later influence his writing. Gorky's most famous works were The Lower Depths (1902), Twenty-six Men and a Girl (1899), The Song of the Stormy Petrel (1901), My Childhood (1913–1914), Mother (1906), Summerfolk (1904) and Children of the Sun (1905). He had an association with fellow Russian writers Leo Tolstoy and Anton Chekhov; Gorky would later mention them in his memoirs.

Full of characters who "...might have stepped out of a Chekhovian world", [3] it takes place in 1904—the same year that Anton Chekhov died. The play dramatises the Russian bourgeois social class and the changes occurring around them. [4] In Russia the play premiered on 10 November 1904 at the Komissarzhevskaya Theatre in Saint Petersburg. [2]

Anton Chekhov Russian dramatist, author and physician

Anton Pavlovich Chekhov was a Russian playwright and short-story writer, who is considered to be among the greatest writers of short fiction in history. His career as a playwright produced four classics, and his best short stories are held in high esteem by writers and critics. Along with Henrik Ibsen and August Strindberg, Chekhov is often referred to as one of the three seminal figures in the birth of early modernism in the theatre. Chekhov practiced as a medical doctor throughout most of his literary career: "Medicine is my lawful wife", he once said, "and literature is my mistress."

Bourgeoisie polysemous French term which denotes the wealthy stratum of the middle class that originated during the latter part of the Middle Ages

Bourgeoisie is a polysemous French term that can mean:

The Komissarzhevskaya Theatre is a theatre in Saint Petersburg named after Vera Komissarzhevskaya. It was founded in 1901 and made stage productions at various locations in St. Petersburg and Moscow, Russia. Vera's brother, Theodore Komisarjevsky, established a studio of his sister's theatre in New York City in 1939. Since 1942, the company is permanently located in St. Petersburg, at 19 Italyanskaya Street in the former "Passage Hall" of the elite department store The Passage. The resident company was named the Komissarzhevskaya Theatre in 1959.

The British premiere of the play was given by the Royal Shakespeare Company at the Aldwych Theatre in London on 27 August 1974. It was directed by David Jones, who introduced several of Gorky's plays to Britain. [5]

Royal Shakespeare Company British theatre company

The Royal Shakespeare Company (RSC) is a major British theatre company, based in Stratford-upon-Avon, Warwickshire, England. The company employs over 1,000 staff and produces around 20 productions a year. The RSC plays regularly in London, Newcastle upon Tyne, and on tour across the UK and internationally.

Aldwych Theatre theatre in London

The Aldwych Theatre is a West End theatre, located in Aldwych in the City of Westminster. It was listed Grade II on 20 July 1971. Its seating capacity is 1,200 on three levels.

David Hugh Jones was an English stage, television and film director.

Nick Dear adapted the play for a production on London's Olivier stage, part of the Royal National Theatre, in 1999. [6]

Nick Dear is an English writer for stage, screen and radio. He received a BAFTA for his first screenwriting credit, a TV adaptation of Jane Austen's Persuasion.

Royal National Theatre Theatre in London, England

The Royal National Theatre in London, commonly known as the National Theatre (NT), is one of the United Kingdom's three most prominent publicly funded performing arts venues, alongside the Royal Shakespeare Company and the Royal Opera House. Internationally, it is known as the National Theatre of Great Britain.

Associated awards

London Capital of the United Kingdom

London is the capital and largest city of England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile (80 km) estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans. The City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles (2.9 km2) and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow closely its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is also an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of London and the London Assembly.

Sir Trevor Robert Nunn is an English theatre director. Nunn has been the Artistic Director for the Royal Shakespeare Company, the Royal National Theatre, and, currently, the Theatre Royal, Haymarket. He has directed dramas for the stage, like Macbeth, as well as opera and musicals, such as Cats (1981) and Les Misérables (1985).

<i>The Merchant of Venice</i> play by Shakespeare

The Merchant of Venice is a 16th-century play written by William Shakespeare in which a merchant in Venice named Antonio must default on a large loan provided by a Jewish moneylender, Shylock. It is believed to have been written between 1596 and 1599.

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Queer People is a four-act play by Maxim Gorky, also translated as Eccentrics. It was written during the spring and summer of 1910 and first published by the 1910 Znaniye Collection in Saint Petersburg. It came out as a separate edition via the Berlin-based Ladyzhnikov Publishers. On 2 September 1910 it received permission to be produced on stage the Russian Imperial Theatres.


  1. "Maxim Gorky". Moonstruck Drama Bookstore. Retrieved 2007-01-31.
  2. 1 2 Commentaries to Дачники. The Complete M. Gorky in 30 volumes, vol 6. // Собрание сочинений в тридцати томах: Государственное издательство художественной литературы; Москва; 1949 Том 6. Пьесы 1901-1906
  3. Thomson, Helen (November 7, 2003). "Summerfolk Review". Melbourne: The Age Company Ltd. Retrieved 2007-01-31.
  4. "Guys & Dolls Media Release & Upcoming Shows" (PDF). Studio 58. January–February 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 27, 2007. Retrieved 2007-01-31.
  5. Gorky: Five Plays, Methuen 1994 ISBN   978-0-413-18110-7
  6. "The Information: `Summerfolk'". Newspaper Publishing PLC. Sep 7, 1999. Retrieved 2007-01-31.[ dead link ]
  7. 1 2 "Summerfolk". National Theatre. Retrieved 2007-01-31.
  8. "Archive:Summerfolk". Albemarle of London. Archived from the original on 2006-10-23. Retrieved 2007-01-31.