Sumo

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Sumo (相撲)
Asashoryu fight Jan08.JPG
A sumo match (tori-kumi) between yokozuna Asashōryū (left) and komusubi Kotoshōgiku in January 2008
Focus Clinch fighting
HardnessFull contact
Country of originJapan
Ancestor artsTegoi
Descendant arts Jujutsu, Jieitaikakutōjutsu
Olympic sportNo, but IOC recognized
Official website www.sumo.or.jp/En/
Sport
Highest governing body International Sumo Federation (Amateur)
Japan Sumo Association (Professional)
First playedJapan, mid-16th century (Edo period)
Characteristics
ContactYes
Team membersNo
Mixed-sex Yes (Amateur, separate divisions)
No (Professional, men only)
TypeGrappling sport
Equipment Mawashi
Venue Dohyō
Glossary Glossary of sumo terms
Presence
Country or regionWorldwide (Amateur)
Japan (Professional)
Olympic No
Paralympic No
World Games 2001 (invitational)
2005–Present

Related Research Articles

In sumo, a mawashi (廻し) is the loincloth that rikishi wear during training or in competition. Upper ranked professional wrestlers wear a keshō-mawashi as part of the ring entry ceremony or dohyō-iri.

<i>Rikishi</i> Professional sumo wrestler

A rikishi (力士), sumōtori (相撲取り) or, more colloquially, osumōsan (お相撲さん), is a professional sumo wrestler. Rikishi follow and live by the centuries-old rules of the sumo profession, with most coming from Japan, the only country where sumo is practiced professionally. Participation in official tournaments is the only means of marking achievement in sumo, with the rank of an individual rikishi based solely on official wins. The number of active rikishi peaked at 943 in May 1994, at the height of the "Waka-Taka boom," but had declined to 665 by January 2022.

<i>Makuuchi</i> Highest-ranking of the six divisions of professional sumo

Makuuchi (幕内), or makunouchi (幕の内), is the top division of the six divisions of professional sumo. Its size is fixed at 42 wrestlers (rikishi), ordered into five ranks according to their ability as defined by their performance in previous tournaments.

<i>Gyōji</i> Referee in professional sumo wrestling

A gyōji (行司) is a referee in professional sumo wrestling in Japan.

<i>Tsuyuharai</i> Attendant in sumo

In professional sumo, the tsuyuharai is one of the two attendants that accompany a yokozuna when he performs his dohyō-iri or ring entrance ceremony. The other attendant is called the tachimochi.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Isegahama stable (2007)</span>

Isegahama stable, formerly known as Ajigawa stable from 1979 to 2007, is a stable of sumo wrestlers, part of the Isegahama ichimon or group of stables. Its current head coach is former yokozuna Asahifuji. As of January 2023 it had 19 wrestlers.

Professional sumo as administered by the Japan Sumo Association is divided into six ranked divisions. Wrestlers are promoted and demoted within and between these divisions based on the merit of their win–loss records in official tournaments. For more information see kachi-koshi and make-koshi. Wrestlers are also ranked within each division. The higher a wrestler's rank within a division is, the stronger the general level of opponents he will have to face becomes. According to tradition, each rank is further subdivided into East and West, with East being slightly more prestigious, and ranked slightly higher than its West counterpart. The divisions, ranked in order of hierarchy from highest to lowest, are as follows:

The following words are terms used in sumo wrestling in Japan.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Jūmonji Tomokazu</span> Japanese sumo wrestler

Jūmonji Tomokazu is a former sumo wrestler from Aomori, Japan. Joining the professional ranks in 1992, he reached the top division in 2000 and was ranked there for 34 tournaments until 2007. His highest rank was maegashira 6. He was forced to retire in April 2011 after an investigation by the Japan Sumo Association found him guilty of match-fixing.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tatsunami stable</span>

Tatsunami stable is a stable of sumo wrestlers, formerly the head of the Tatsunami ichimon or group of stables. As of January 2023 it had 20 wrestlers. Previously situated in sumo's heartland of Ryōgoku nearby the Kokugikan stadium, it is now located in Ibaraki Prefecture and alongside Shikihide stable is one of the furthest from Ryōgoku. In April 2021 the stable announced it was moving to Taitō, to occupy the premises previously used by Tokiwayama stable.

Tomoefuji Toshihide is a former sumo wrestler from Akita Prefecture, Japan. His highest rank was komusubi.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Gojōrō Katsuhiro</span>

Gojōrō Katsuhiro is a former sumo wrestler from Aoba-ku, Sendai, Japan. Making his professional debut in 1989, he spent a total of 53 tournaments as an elite sekitori ranked wrestler, reaching a highest rank of maegashira 3 in 1998. After a number of injury problems he retired in 2005 at the age of 32. He is now a sumo coach under the name Hamakaze-oyakata.

The following are the events in professional sumo during 2010.

The following are the events in professional sumo during 2012.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Asanoyama Hiroki</span>

Asanoyama Hiroki is a Japanese professional sumo wrestler from Toyama Prefecture. He wrestles for Takasago stable. He debuted in sumo in March 2016 and made his makuuchi debut in September 2017. His highest rank has been ōzeki. He has earned six special prizes, and one gold star for defeating a yokozuna. In May 2019 he won his first top division yūshō or tournament championship, the first of the Reiwa era. He was also runner-up in November 2019 and finished the calendar year with more top division wins than any other wrestler. He was promoted to ōzeki after the March 2020 tournament, and was a runner-up in his ōzeki debut in July 2020 and in January 2021.

The following are the events in professional sumo during 2018.

Masaru Maeta, known by his shikonaMaeta (前田), was a Japanese sumo wrestler from the city of Tsuruoka in Yamagata Prefecture. He was a former amateur sumo competitor for Nihon University and made his professional debut in 2005. His sumo stable was Shibatayama and previously he belonged to Hanaregoma. His height was 180 cm and his peak weight was 213 kg (470 lbs). His highest rank was makushita 3. He retired in 2018.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Meisei Chikara</span> Japanese sumo wrestler

Meisei Chikara is a Japanese professional sumo wrestler from Setouchi, Kagoshima. He debuted in sumo wrestling in July 2011 and made his makuuchi debut in July 2018. His highest rank has been sekiwake. He wrestles for Tatsunami stable. Unusually for a top-class sumo wrestler, he uses his given name as his shikona.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Enhō Akira</span> Japanese sumo wrestler

Enhō Akira is a Japanese professional sumo wrestler from Ishikawa Prefecture. He made his debut in March 2017 and wrestles for Miyagino stable. His highest rank has been maegashira 4. He is shorter and weighs significantly less than the vast majority of sumo wrestlers in the upper ranks, but has learned to use his small stature and size for maximum advantage, becoming known for toppling larger opponents. He has achieved one special prize for Technique.

The following are the events in professional sumo during 2022.

References

Citations

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  7. 1 2 3 4 Blaine Henry (April 14, 2020). "History Lesson: Sumo Wrestling's Ancient Origins". Fight-Library.com.
  8. Ashkenazi, Michael (2003). Handbook of Japanese Mythology . ABC-CLIO. p.  266. ISBN   9781576074671.
  9. 1 2 Shigeru Takayama. "Encyclopedia of Shinto: Sumō". Kokugakuin University. Archived from the original on November 24, 2020. Retrieved December 29, 2019.
  10. Worth Davison, Michael, ed. (1993). When, Where, Why, and How It Happened. Reader's Digest. p. 243.
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  12. "Kimarite Menu". Japan Sumo Association. Archived from the original on July 9, 2009. Retrieved January 20, 2010.
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  31. An exception to this rule occurred when Hirohito, the former Emperor of Japan, died on Saturday, January 7, 1989. The tournament that was to start on the following day was postponed to start on Monday, January 9 and finish on Monday, January 24.
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Further reading

  • Adams, Andy; Newton, Clyde (1989). Sumo. London, UK: Hamlyn. ISBN   0600563561.
  • Benjamin, David (2010). Sumo: A Thinking Fan's Guide to Japan's National Sport. North Clarendon, Vermont, USA: Tuttle Publishing. ISBN   978-4-8053-1087-8.
  • Bickford, Lawrence (1994). Sumo And The Woodblock Print Masters. Tokyo, New York: Kodansha International. ISBN   4770017529.
  • Buckingham, Dorothea M. (1997). The Essential Guide to Sumo. Honolulu, USA: Bess Press. ISBN   1880188805.
  • Cuyler, P.L.; Doreen Simmons (1989). Sumo From Rite to Sport. New York: Weatherhill. ISBN   0834802031.
  • Hall, Mina (1997). The Big Book of Sumo. Berkeley, CA: Stone Bridge Press. ISBN   1880656280.
  • Ito, Katsuharu (the 34th Kimura Shonosuke) (2017). The Perfect Guide To Sumo, in Japanese and English. Translated by Shapiro, David. Kyoto, Japan: Seigensha. ISBN   978-4-86152-632-9.
  • Kenrick, Douglas M. (1969). The Book of Sumo: Sport, Spectacle, and Ritual. New York: Weatherhill. ISBN   083480039X.
  • Newton, Clyde (2000). Dynamic Sumo. New York and Tokyo: Kodansha International. ISBN   4770025084.
  • Patmore, Angela (1991). The Giants of Sumo. London, UK: Macdonald Queen Anne Press. ISBN   0356181200.
  • PHP Institute; Kitade, Seigoro, eds. (1998). Grand Sumo Fully Illustrated. Translated by Iwabuchi, Deborah. Tokyo: Yohan Publications. ISBN   978-4-89684-251-7.
  • Sacket, Joel (1986). Rikishi The Men of Sumo. text by Wes Benson. New York: Weatherhill. ISBN   0834802147.
  • Sargent, John A. (1959). Sumo The Sport and The Tradition. Rutland, Vt.: Charles E. Tuttle Company. ISBN   0804810842.
  • Schilling, Mark (1984). Sumo: A Fan's Guide. Tokyo, Japan: The Japan Times, Ltd. ISBN   4-7890-0725-1.
  • Shapiro, David (1995). Sumo: A Pocket Guide. Rutland, Vermont, USA & Tokyo, Japan: Charles E. Tuttle Company. ISBN   0-8048-2014-7.
  • Sharnoff, Lora (1993) [1st pub. 1989]. Grand Sumo: The Living Sport and Tradition (2nd ed.). New York: Weatherhill. ISBN   0-8348-0283-X.
  • Sports Watching Association (Japan); Kakuma, Tsutomu, eds. (1994). Sumo Watching. Translated by Iwabuchi, Deborah. New York: Weatherhill. ISBN   4896842367.
  • Takamiyama, Daigoro; John Wheeler (1973). Takamiyama The World of Sumo. Tokyo, New York: Kodansha International. ISBN   0870111957.
  • Yamaki, Hideo (2017). Discover Sumo: Stories From Yobidashi Hideo. Translated by Newton, Clyde. Tokyo: Gendai Shokan. ISBN   978-4768457986.
Sumo
Sumo (Chinese characters).svg
"Sumo" in kanji