Sun Guoting (simplified Chinese :孙过庭; traditional Chinese :孫過庭) (646–691) or Sun Qianli (孫虔禮), was a Chinese calligrapher of the early Tang Dynasty, remembered for his cursive calligraphy and his Shu Pu (書譜, "A Narrative on Calligraphy" or "Treatise on Calligraphy" (ca. 687)). The work was the first important theoretical work on Chinese calligraphy, and has remained important ever since, though only its preface survived. The preface is the only surviving calligraphic work of Sun, therefore it is responsible for both Sun's reputation as an artist and as a theorist. The original handscroll can be seen at the National Palace Museum, in Taipei, Taiwan, and on its web site.
Li Bai, also known as Li Bo, courtesy name Taibai, art name Qinglian Jushi, was a Chinese poet acclaimed from his own day to the present as a genius and a romantic figure who took traditional poetic forms to new heights. He and his friend Du Fu (712–770) were the two most prominent figures in the flourishing of Chinese poetry in the Tang dynasty, which is often called the "Golden Age of Chinese Poetry". The expression "Three Wonders" denotes Li Bai's poetry, Pei Min's swordplay, and Zhang Xu's calligraphy.
The Qieyun is a Chinese rhyme dictionary, published in 601 during the Sui dynasty. The book was a guide to proper reading of classical texts, using the fanqie method to indicate the pronunciation of Chinese characters. The Qieyun and later redactions, notably the Guangyun, are important documentary sources used in the reconstruction of historical Chinese phonology.
Wang Xizhi was a Chinese calligrapher, writer and politician who lived during the Jin Dynasty (265–420), best known for his mastery of Chinese calligraphy. Wang is sometimes regarded as the greatest Chinese calligrapher in history, and was a master of all forms of Chinese calligraphy, especially the running script. Furthermore, he is known as one of the Four Talented Calligraphers (四賢) in Chinese calligraphy. Emperor Taizong of Tang admired his works so much that the original Preface to the Poems Composed at the Orchid Pavilion was said to be buried with the emperor in his mausoleum.
Sun Yaoting was the last surviving imperial eunuch of Chinese history. He was castrated at the age of eight by his father with a single razor cut, mere months before the last emperor Pu Yi was deposed. He still became a palace eunuch and had become the attendant to the empress before the imperial family was expelled from the Forbidden City, following which he continued to serve in Manchukuo until the puppet state's collapse.
The Book of Han or History of the Former Han is a history of China finished in 111, covering the Western, or Former Han dynasty from the first emperor in 206 BCE to the fall of Wang Mang in 23 CE. It is also called the Book of Former Han.
Cursive script, often mistranslated as grass script, is a script style used in Chinese and East Asian calligraphy. Cursive script is faster to write than other styles, but difficult to read for those unfamiliar with it. It functions primarily as a kind of shorthand script or calligraphic style. People who can read standard or printed forms of Chinese or related scripts may not be able to read this script.
Lu Ji (261–303), courtesy name Shiheng, was a Chinese essayist, military general, politician, and writer who lived during the late Three Kingdoms period and Jin dynasty of China. He was the fourth son of Lu Kang, a general of the state of Eastern Wu in the Three Kingdoms period, and a grandson of Lu Xun, a prominent general and statesman who served as the third Imperial Chancellor of Eastern Wu.
Huangdi Neijing, literally the Inner Canon of the Yellow Emperor or Esoteric Scripture of the Yellow Emperor, is an ancient Chinese medical text that has been treated as the fundamental doctrinal source for Chinese medicine for more than two millennia. The work is composed of two texts—each of eighty-one chapters or treatises in a question-and-answer format between the mythical Yellow Emperor and six of his equally legendary ministers.
Zhong Yao, also referred to as Zhong You, courtesy name Yuanchang, was a government official and calligrapher who lived during the late Eastern Han dynasty and Three Kingdoms period of China. He served in the state of Cao Wei during the Three Kingdoms period. His calligraphy was highly regarded as he was known as one of the Four Talented Calligraphers (四賢) in the history of Chinese calligraphy.
Chen Weiming (1881–1958) was a scholar, taijiquan teacher, and author. He was also known by his name Chen Zengze (陳曾則), Weiming being his hao, a pen-name.
Sun Sheng, courtesy name Anguo, was a Jin dynasty historian. He was a native of Pingyao County, Jinzhong, Shanxi. He was described to be very studious, and was never seen without holding a book in his hand from his youth to his old age.
The Tangut translation of The General's Garden is a unique manuscript translation in the Tangut language and script of a Chinese military text, The General's Garden. The manuscript was collected from the abandoned fortress city of Khara-Khoto by Aurel Stein in 1914, and is held at the British Library in London, where it is catalogued as Or.12380/1840. The translation dates to the 12th or early 13th century, and predates any of the extant Chinese editions by some two hundred years. The Tangut text may therefore represent a version that is closer to the original Chinese text than the extant Ming Dynasty (1368–1644) Chinese editions.
Jia Yinghua was a Chinese writer and researcher who focused on the late Qing Dynasty. He served as Vice President of the Biography Society of China, commissioner of National Commission of the Chinese Writers’ Association, President of China's Electrical Power Writers' Association. Representative works of his include The Later Half of the Last Emperor's Life, The Last Eunuch of China: The Life of Sun Yaoting, The Last Emperor’s Brother: The Life of Pujie. The Japanese version of The Later Half of the Last Emperor's Life is a bestseller in Japan, attracting great attention and garnering enormous popularity. According to authoritative media and press organizations in more than 100 countries and regions, including China, the United Kingdom, the United States, France, Japan, Hong Kong, Macao, and Taiwan this book is a successful continuation of From Emperor to Citizen : The Autobiography of Aisin-Gioro Pu Yi written by Pu Yi himself. The Chinese version of The Later Half of the Last Emperor’s Life is always a domestic bestseller and has been published nine times in total, and also won the Gold Key Award in the 5th Chinese Books Fair. His calligraphic works were also incorporated into First Exhibition of Chinese Celebrities’ Calligraphic Works, Exhibition of Contemporary Celebrities’ Paintings and Calligraphies, etc.
His book The Extraordinary Life of The Last Emperor of China was awarded the country's top prize for biographies in 2013.
The Last Eunuch of China: The Life of Sun Yaoting is a 1992 biography by Chinese writer Jia Yinghua. This book depicts the entire real life of Sun Yaoting, the last imperial eunuch of China, from his entry into the imperial palace to his old age. As a person close to the emperor, the empress and imperial concubines, he participated in royal court politics and witnessed extraordinary events, like the expelling of Puyi from the royal palace, and his re-emergence as monarch of the puppet regime in Manchuria. He saw the last royal palace's extravagant lifestyle and experienced the breakdown of the last imperial empire and felt the new changes brought by the new age. The Last Eunuch of China was partially translated into 15 foreign languages and published overseas. An English translation was published in 2008.
Dr. Kwok Kin Poon was born in Guangdong, China. He is a historian, a teacher, a Chinese calligrapher as well as a columnist. He studied under the renowned Chinese historian, Keng-wang Yen (嚴耕望), at the Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK) in the seventies, and eventually obtained his B.A., M.Phil. degrees, as well as a Diploma in Education from the CUHK. Subsequently, he obtained his M.A. and Ph.D. degrees from the University of Hong Kong, and a M.Ed degree from the University of Toronto. One of his major contributions to the studies of Chinese History is his book The Northern Wei State and Juan-juan Nomadic Tribe《北魏與蠕蠕關係研究》.
Huaisu'sAutobiography is a representative Chinese calligraphy work written by the renowned Tang dynasty Chinese calligrapher Huaisu in 777 AD. It is often considered today to be one of the best written cursive script (草書) works in Chinese calligraphy. The work measures 28.3 cm by 755 cm and is currently kept in the National Palace Museum, Taipei. However, recent studies on this particular piece kept in the National Palace Museum revealed that it was likely a Northern Song Dynasty modelling replica (映寫) of the original; there are also other replica versions of Huaisu's Autobiography.
Shu Pu is a representative Chinese calligraphic work by the Tang Calligrapher Sun Guoting. The work of about 3500 Chinese characters was written in 687AD and can be currently observed in the National Palace Museum in Taiwan. However, whether this is the whole, part or the preamble of an unfinished work is still in debate.
The coinage of the Great Shu Kingdom is the earliest known coinage produced by a peasant revolt in the history of China, the revolt lasted from 993 until 995 and during this period a small number of cash coins were produced by the peasant rebellion using the era names of the rebel leader Li Shun. It was only with the strongest military efforts that the Song dynasty was able to suppress the rebellion and restore their rule over the Shu region. The coinage produced by the Da Shu Kingdom is often rather roughly produced and as the rebellion only lasted a few years not many cash coins were produced leading to them being extremely rare today.
"The Raksha Country and the Sea Market" is a short story by Pu Songling first published in Strange Tales from a Chinese Studio. Told in two parts, the story follows the adventures of scholar-merchant Ma Ji, and is one of the first Strange Tales entries to be translated into English. Some critics have argued that "The Raksha Country" serves as social commentary relating to various topics including hypocrisy, conventional standards of beauty, and nationalism. The story was likely inspired by both ancient Hindu mythology and early Chinese literature; it has been adapted for the stage.
Court Lady is a 2021 Chinese television series produced by Yu Zheng, starring Xu Kai and Li Yitong.
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