Sun Jiagan (Chinese :孫嘉淦; Hanyu Pinyin :Sūn Jiāgàn; Tongyong Pinyin :Sun Chia-kan, 1683–1753) was a Chinese politician of the Qing dynasty.
Born in Taiyuan, Shanxi, Sun was son of a family that was so poor that he had to work hard all day collecting firewood, and could only study at night.
In 1713, he graduated as a jinshi in the imperial examination during the reign of the Kangxi Emperorand rose to the position of Libu Shilang for his frankness and uprightness.
During the reign of the Qianlong Emperor, Sun rose to the position of Xingbu Shangshu [ citation needed ], and later to Libu Shangshu in 1738. [ citation needed ]by
After holding various posts, in 1741 Sun became Viceroy of Huguang, where he introduced the system of subsidized chiefs, in order to keep the aborigines under control.
In 1743, he was relieved from his position due to shielding his men, [ citation needed ], but resumed office and served as Gongbu Shangshu in 1750.yet was recalled to be head of the Imperial Clan Court in 1744.
Jinshi was the highest and final degree in the imperial examination in Imperial China. The examination was usually taken in the imperial capital in the palace, and was also called the Metropolitan Exam. Recipients are sometimes referred to in English-language sources as Imperial Scholars.
The Śūraṅgama Sūtra is a Mahayana Buddhist sutra that has been especially influential in Chan Buddhism. The general doctrinal outlook of the Śūraṅgama Sūtra is that of esoteric Buddhism and Buddha-nature, with some influence from Yogacara. There have been questions regarding the translation of this sutra as it was not sponsored by the Imperial Chinese Court and as such the records regarding its translation in the early eighth century were not carefully preserved ; however, it has never been classified as apocrypha in any Chinese-language Tripitakas including the Taisho Tripitaka where it is placed in the Esoteric Sutra category (密教部). The sutra was translated into Tibetan during the late eighth to early ninth century and a complete translation exists in Tibetan, Mongolian and the Manchu languages. Current consensus is that the text is a compilation of Indic materials with extensive editing in China, rather than a translation of a single text from Sanskrit. A Sanskrit language palm leaf manuscript consisting of 226 leaves with 6 leaves missing which according to the introduction "contains the Śūraṅgama Sūtra" was discovered in a temple in China; it has yet to be verified.
Empress Xiaoherui, of the Manchu Bordered Yellow Banner Niohuru clan, was a posthumous name bestowed to the wife and second empress consort of Yongyan, the Jiaqing Emperor. She was Empress consort of Qing from 1801 until her husband's death in 1820, after which she was honoured as Empress Dowager Gongci during the reign of her step-son, Mianning, the Daoguang Emperor. She was the longest-serving empress consort in Qing history.
Empress Xiaoshurui (孝淑睿皇后), of the Manchu Plain White Banner Hitara clan (喜塔臘氏) was a posthumous name bestowed to the wife and first empress consort of Yongyan, the Jiaqing Emperor. She was Empress consort of Qing from 1796 until her death in 1797, having been empress for barely a year.
Empress Xiaoyichun, of the Manchu Bordered Yellow Banner Weigiya clan, was a consort of the Qianlong Emperor.
Imperial Noble Consort Chunhui, of the Han Chinese Plain White Banner Su clan, was a consort of the Qianlong Emperor. She was two years his junior.
Imperial Noble Consort Qinggong, of the Han Chinese Bordered Yellow Banner Lu clan, was a consort of the Qianlong Emperor. She was 13 years his junior. She came from the Lu clan. Although her family was not a very prominent one, Lady Lu rose to Noble Consort in her lifetime. Imperial Noble Consort Qinggong had no children of her own, but raised Prince Yongyan, the future Jiaqing Emperor.
Noble Consort Ying, of the Mongol Bordered Red Banner Barin clan, was a consort of the Qianlong Emperor. She was 20 years his junior.
Consort Dun, of the Manchu Plain White Banner Wang clan, was a consort of the Qianlong Emperor. She was 35 years his junior.
Consort Shu, of the Manchu Plain Yellow Banner Yehe Nara clan, was a consort of the Qianlong Emperor. She was 17 years his junior.
Noble Consort Xun, of the Manchu Bordered Blue Banner Irgen Gioro clan, was a consort of the Qianlong Emperor. She was 47 years his junior.
Noble Consort Wan, of the Han Chinese Chen clan, was a consort of the Qianlong Emperor. She was six years his junior.
Empress of the Nara clan was the wife and second empress consort of Hongli, the Qianlong Emperor. She was Empress consort of Qing from 1750 until her death in 1766.
The Xiqing Gujian is a 40-volume catalogue of Chinese ritual bronzes in the collection of the Qianlong Emperor of the Qing dynasty. It was compiled from 1749 to 1755 and documents 1529 bronze artefacts in the imperial collection.
Noble Consort Yu, of the Mongol Bordered Blue Banner Keliyete clan, was a consort of the Qianlong Emperor. She was three years his junior.
Han Weiji, courtesy name Zhenzi, was a Chinese official who lived in the Qing dynasty. Han was born in Xiaotian Village, Zichuan County, Shandong Province, China. Han was a tong jinshi who obtained the third highest position in his class in the imperial examination. During the reign of the Kangxi Emperor, Han served as a county magistrate in Wenxi County, Shanxi and Boye County, Zhili.
Imperial Noble Consort Shujia, of the Korean Gingiya clan which was placed into the Manchu Plain Yellow Banner after her death, was a consort of the Qianlong Emperor. She was two years his junior. Imperial Noble Consort Shujia was also the Qing Dynasty's only imperial concubine from Korea.
Events from the year 1683 in China.
Consort Rong, from the Uyghur minority, was a consort of Qianlong Emperor.
Consort Fang, of the Han Chinese Chen clan, was a consort of Qianlong Emperor.