This article includes a list of general references, but it remains largely unverified because it lacks sufficient corresponding inline citations . (March 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Super Touring, Class 2 or Class II was a motor racing Touring Cars category defined by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA) for national touring car racing in 1993. litre Touring Car Formula" created for the British Touring Car Championship (BTCC) in 1990. The FIA organised a World Cup for the category each year from 1993 to 1995, and adopted the term "Super Tourer" from 1995.It was based on the "2
Super Touring replaced Group A as the norm in nearly every touring car championship across the world, but escalating costs, and the withdrawal of works teams caused the category to collapse in the late 1990s. The cars looked like regular production road cars, while expensive changes had to be made to provide space for racing tyres inside the standard wheel arches.
An example for this was the German Super Tourenwagen Cup (STW) series, which ran from 1994 to 1999, filling a void left after the end of the 2.5-litre V6-powered Deutsche Tourenwagen Meisterschaft (DTM) in 1996. In 2000, the Deutsche Tourenwagen Masters (keeping the 'DTM' acronym) resumed with 4.0-litre V8-powered cars.
The Super Touring cars were required to be a minimum of 4.20 metres (13.8 ft) in length, with four doors, effectively requiring a small family saloon car as a minimum. No more than 2 litres engine capacity, or six cylinders were permitted, and the engine was required to be naturally aspirated. Only two wheels could be driven and steered. For homologation, initially at least 2500 units of the model used must have been produced. In 1995, in a bid to counter the increasing numbers of homologation specials this number was increased to at least 25,000 units.
There was no restriction on body size and doors until 1993, when it was changed to only allow cars with a minimum of four doors and no smaller than the EuroNCAP 'Small Family Car' class, although 'Large Family Car' tends to dominate the category. Until 1995, teams were only permitted to fit aerodynamic device that were available through dealers, but that changed when, in 1994 BTCC season, Alfa Romeo entered a 155 with Gabriele Tarquini and Giampiero Simoni as drivers. The car had a front spoiler with a bottom piece that could be unscrewed and moved forward, acting as a splitter, and a rear spoiler with a pair of extensions, giving the car more downforce. When Alfa Romeo won the first five rounds, Ford, supported by Vauxhall, made a complaint to the race stewards. TOCA soon decided the aero devices were illegal and Alfa Romeo were stripped of the points they earned at Snetterton and Silverstone (although this decision was later reversed by appeal) and in return, walked out from the Oulton Park race. After this point, Alfa were forced to run their spoilers in the retracted position (the position in which the spoilers were fitted on the road going version, the Alfa 155 Silverstone – of which only 2,500 cars were homologated to allow the use of the aerodynamic devices and higher rev limits for a 1.8-litre car – though the road car was sold with two unfitted spoiler extension brackets). In the meantime, Renault and BMW responded by introducing their own limited edition road cars (Laguna Airflow and 318is, respectively) to enable them to run with oversized aerodynamic aids; Renault would win the Oulton Park race that Alfa Romeo had walked out. Soon after that, the FIA changed the regulation in all series to increase minimum number of produced road cars for homologation to 25,000, and allowing cars to only use non-production aerodynamic devices with a restricted size. Restrictions varied depending on body type, with Volvo having to revert from the 850 Estate to their four-door saloon model the following season when they found themselves to be disadvantaged by the new rules. In the Italian Supertourismo category, teams entered extended spoilers without complaints.
Some series however, would change the rules to suit crowd demands, and competition from rival series, one example, was the Japanese Touring Car Championship (JTCC), which made increases to body width and exhaust noise while restricting front aerodynamic devices in 1997 (which allowed Toyota to use the larger Toyota Chaser); it ultimately backfired when Nissan and Honda left the series at the end of season, leaving Toyota as the only manufacturer that competed. In 1999, a new formula using spaceframe cars came to nothing, and the series was abandoned altogether, as by then Japan's big three all had works entries in the then-JGTC.
In Australia, the series began in 1993 when the Group A regulations for the Australian Touring Car Championship series was replaced by Supercars Group 3A Formula (known as V8 Supercars from 1997 onwards) and Super Touring. The advent of a new management structure and telecast arrangement for V8 Supercars put them in conflict with Bathurst 1000 organisers. Super Touring were offered the chance to compete at Bathurst after race organisers could not come to terms with V8 Supercars. Bathurst City Council and V8 Supercars came to a separate arrangement to host their own breakaway "Australian 1000 Classic" race. Super Touring did not become a viable option, and the third and final race was transformed into a motorsport carnival, with several categories attending and the Super Touring event halved to 500 kilometres (310 mi), before collapsing in the aftermath of the 1999 race. In 2000, in the absence of a rival, the V8 Supercars event took up the Bathurst 1000 name.
During the Super Touring's long run, the category suffered two fatal accidents. In 1995, Gregg Hansford at Phillip Island, and Kieth O'dor at Avus, were involved in fatal accidents as a result of a broken neck caused by their cars' being hit side-on. Soon after, rollcages in competition cars with built-in side impact bars, and seats with head restraints on the side would become mandatory.
One reason for Super Touring's demise was the cost of preparing a car for competition. In 1990, a Vauxhall Cavalier cost £60,000. By the later part of the 90's, a similar car with more sophisticated aerodynamics device and telemetry cost £250,000.[ citation needed ]
The later World Touring Car Championship regulations are very inspired by the old series, with production-based four-door saloons powered by 2.0-litre engines. Wider wheel arches are allowed, which makes the cars look more spectacular. Cars under S2000 regulations are cheaper than their predecessors, to which serious modifications had to be made to allow for wider tires, lower ride height and different suspension – as the width of Super 2000 cars does not need to be the same as that of the production models, development costs can be kept lower. Various national championships use similar rules.
Although it bears no resemblance to its predecessor, the "Super Touring" name was retained by the Championnat de France de Supertourisme for their 3.0-litre tube frame cars.
|Major championships that used the Super Touring formula|
|British Touring Car Championship|
|Championnat de France de Supertourisme|
|Italian Superturismo Championship|
|Touring Car World Cup|
|Copa de las Naciones|
|Japanese Touring Car Championship|
|Super Tourenwagen Cup|
|Belgian Procar Championship|
|Swedish Touring Car Championship|
|Campeonato de España de Turismos|
|Portuguese Touring Car Championship|
|Central European Supertouring Car Championship|
|South African Touring Car Championship|
|Asia-Pacific Touring Car Championship||South East Asian Touring Car Challenge|
|Australian Super Touring Championship|
|New Zealand Touring Car Championship|
|North American Touring Car Championship|
|European Touring Car Championship|
|Italy||Alfa Romeo||155||M.Y. 1994||ST-7||1 March 1994||31 December 2002|
|M.Y. 1995||ST-9||1 March 1995||31 December 2003|
|156||M.Y. 1997||ST-37||1 January 1998||1 January 1998|
|M.Y. 1998||ST-43||1 November 1998||31 December 2005|
|Germany||Audi||80||B4||ST-6||1 March 1995||31 December 2003|
|A4||B5 M.Y. 1995||ST-17||1 April 1995||31 December 2008|
|B5 M.Y. 1996||ST-28||1 April 1996||31 December 2008|
|Germany||BMW||E36||320i||ST-8||1 March 1995||31 December 2004|
|United States||Chrysler||Stratus||base||ST-30||1 April 1996||31 December 2004|
|United Kingdom||Ford||Mondeo||Mk I 4Door||ST-19||1 April 1995||31 December 2002|
|Mk I 5Door||ST-20||1 April 1995||31 December 2002|
|Mk II 4Door M.Y. 1997||ST-34||1 March 1997||31 December 2004|
|Mk III Zetec||ST-45||1 March 1999||31 December 2006|
|United Kingdom||Honda||Accord (fifth generation)||LS CC756||ST-1||1 March 1995||31 December 2002|
|Accord (sixth generation)||LS CE856||ST-33||1 March 1997||31 December 2004|
|CG||ST-46||1 March 1999||31 December 2006|
|Japan||Honda||Civic (fifth generation)||Ferio 4Door||ST-11||1 April 1995||31 December 2002|
|Japan||Mazda||Lantis||Coupe 2.0||ST-4||1 March 1995||31 December 2002|
|Xedos 6||1.0||ST-5||1 March 1995||31 December 2002|
|Japan||Nissan||Primera||HP10||ST-21||1 April 1995||31 December 2002|
|HP11||ST-29||1 April 1996||31 December 2006|
|Pulsar||FN14||ST-10||1 April 1995||31 December 2006|
|Sunny||FB14||ST-23||1 October 1995||31 December 2006|
|United Kingdom||Primera||P11||ST-48||1 January 2000||31 December 2006|
|Germany||Opel||Astra||F||ST-16||1 April 1995||31 December 2004|
|Vectra||ST-27||1 December 1995||31 December 2006|
|A||ST-15||1 April 1995||31 December 2004|
|CD||ST-39||1 April 1998||31 December 2006|
|GL Plus||ST-40||1 April 1998||31 December 2006|
|France||Peugeot||405||Signature||ST-13||1 April 1995||31 December 2003|
|406||ST-31||1 April 1996||31 December 2003|
|M.Y. 1998||ST-38||1 April 1998||31 December 2005|
|France||Renault||Laguna I||B56||ST-14||1 April 1995||31 December 2002|
|B56 M.Y. 1998||ST-38||1 April 1998||31 December 2005|
|Spain||SEAT||Toledo||GT||ST-22||1 August 1995||31 December 2002|
|Japan||Toyota||Camry||SXV11||ST-26||1 January 1996||31 December 2005|
|Carina E||ST191||ST-2||1 March 1995||31 December 2005|
|Chaser||JZX100||ST-47||1 May 1999||31 December 2006|
|Corolla||AE101||ST-3||1 January 1995||31 December 2002|
|AE110||ST-25||1 January 1996||31 December 2003|
|Liftback EE111 5Door||ST-42||1 July 1998||31 December 2006|
|Corona EXiV||ST202||ST-24||1 October 1995||31 December 2005|
|Germany||Vauxhall||Vectra||ST-36||1 November 1997||31 December 2004|
|Sweden||Volvo||850||T5 Estate||ST-12||2 April 1995||1 January 2006|
|T5 Sedan||ST-18||2 April 1995||1 January 2006|
|S40||ST-32||2 January 1997||1 January 2006|
|M.Y. 1999||ST-44||2 January 1999||1 January 2007|
Touring car racing is a motorsport road racing competition with heavily modified road-going cars. It is popular in Argentina, Australia, New Zealand, Brazil, Britain, Germany, Sweden and Denmark. It has both similarities to and significant differences from stock car racing, which is popular in the United States.
The Supercars Championship is a touring car racing category in Australia, running as an International Series under Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA) regulations.
Group A was a set of motorsport regulations introduced by FIA covering production-derived vehicles intended for outright competition in touring car racing and rallying. In contrast to the short-lived Group B and Group C, the Group A referred to production-derived vehicles limited in terms of power, weight, allowed technology and overall cost. Group A was aimed at ensuring numerous privately owned entries in races.
A grand tourer (GT) is a type of sports car that is designed for high speed and long-distance driving, due to a combination of performance and luxury attributes. The most common format is a front-engine, rear-wheel-drive two-door coupé with either a two-seat or a 2+2 arrangement. Grand tourers are most often the coupé derivative of luxury saloons.
The Deutsche Tourenwagen Masters is a touring car series sanctioned by ITR e.V. who have been affiliated to the DMSB-FIA since 1984. The series is based in Germany, with rounds elsewhere in Europe, racing a silhouette racing car based on a mass-produced road car.
The Kwik Fit British Touring Car Championship is a touring car racing series held each year in the United Kingdom, currently organised and administered by TOCA. It was established in 1958 as the British Saloon Car Championship and was renamed as the British Touring Car Championship for the 1987 season. The championship, currently running Next Generation Touring Car regulations, has been run to various national and international regulations over the years including FIA Group 2, FIA Group 5, FIA Group 1, FIA Group A, FIA Super Touring and FIA Super 2000. A lower-key Group N class for production cars ran from 2000 until 2003.
The FIA World Touring Car Championship was an international touring car championship promoted by Eurosport Events and sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA). It has had several different incarnations, including a single season in 1987 as the World Touring Car Championship and most recently a world championship (WTCC) that has run between 2005 and 2017. Following the 2017 season, an agreement was reached for the FIA WTCC to become FIA WTCR and use the TCR technical regulations.
Paul Radisich is a retired New Zealand racing driver and businessman of Croat origin. He has competed in saloon cars for many years — both European-style tourers and the V8 Supercars of Australia and New Zealand.
Fabrizio Giovanardi is an Italian racing driver. During his career he has won ten touring car titles, including European and British crowns making him the most successful touring car driver worldwide. He has spent the majority of his career racing for Alfa Romeo and Vauxhall.
The Alfa Romeo Alfetta is a front-engine, five-passenger sedan and fastback coupé manufactured and marketed by Alfa Romeo from 1972 to 1987 with a production total over 400,000.
The European Touring Car Championship was an international touring car racing series organised by the FIA. It had two incarnations, the first one between 1963 and 1988, and the second between 2000 and 2004. In 2005 it was superseded by the World Touring Car Championship, and replaced by the European Touring Car Cup between 2005 and 2017 when became also defunct.
Group 5 was an FIA motor racing classification which was applied to four distinct categories during the years 1966 to 1982. Initially Group 5 regulations defined a Special Touring Car category and from 1970 to 1971 the classification was applied to limited production Sports Cars restricted to 5 litre engine capacity. The Group 5 Sports Car category was redefined in 1972 to exclude the minimum production requirement and limit engine capacity to 3 litres. From 1976 to 1982 Group 5 was for Special Production Cars, a liberal silhouette formula based on homologated production vehicles.
During its history, Alfa Romeo has competed successfully in many different categories of motorsport, including Grand Prix motor racing, Formula One, sportscar racing, touring car racing and rallies. They have competed both as a constructor and an engine supplier, via works entries and private entries. The first racing car was made in 1913, three years after the foundation of A.L.F.A., the 40-60HP had 6 liter straight-4 engine. Alfa Romeo quickly gained a good name in motorsport and gave a sporty image to the whole marque.
The 1994 Auto Trader RAC British Touring Car Championship season was the 37th British Touring Car Championship (BTCC) season.
The Australian Super Touring Championship was a CAMS-sanctioned national motor racing title for Super Touring Cars.
Class 1 Touring Cars refers to two generations of silhouette-style touring car regulations employed by the FIA.
Next Generation Touring Car, also known as NGTC and by its Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA) designation TCN-1, is an FIA and TOCA specification and classification for production based race cars. The specification covers national level touring car racing. The goal of the limited choices in engines and parts in the NGTC classification is to allow more manufacturers and privateers to race by reducing the cost of a competitive car and to reduce reliance on the increasingly expensive Super 2000 equipment. The only significant differences between different models is the external body shells and the use of front- or rear-wheel drive; the suspension, brakes and transmissions are common to all cars, and engines are of uniform performance.
JAS Motorsport is an Italian motor racing team and an engineering and manufacturing company. It was founded in 1995 by Paolo Jasson, Maurizio Ambrogetti and Giorgio Schon. The company initially competed with Alfa Romeo in 1996 and 1997. Since 1998, they have been an official partner of Honda, and have developed, built and raced cars in various different disciplines for the Japanese manufacturer, as well as provided customer racing services.
Group GT3, known technically as Cup Grand Touring Cars and commonly referred to as simply GT3, is a set of regulations maintained by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA) for grand tourer racing cars designed for use in various auto racing series throughout the world. The GT3 category was initially created in 2005 by the SRO Group as a third rung in the ladder of grand touring motorsport, below the Group GT1 and Group GT2 categories which were utilized in the SRO's FIA GT Championship, and launched its own series in 2006 called the FIA GT3 European Championship. Since then, Group GT3 has expanded to become the de facto category for many national and international grand touring series, although some series modify the ruleset from the FIA standard. By 2013, nearly 20 automobile manufacturers have built or been represented with GT3 machines.
Colin Bond Racing was an Australian motor racing team that competed in the Australian Touring Car Championship between 1984 and 1993.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Super Touring .|