|Supreme Court of the Czech Republic|
|Nejvyšší soud České republiky|
|Established||1 January 1993|
|Location||Brno, Czech Republic|
|Authorized by||Constitution of the Czech Republic|
|Since||20 May 2020|
|Since||1 January 2011|
The Supreme Court of the Czech Republic (Nejvyšší soud České republiky) is the court of highest appeal for almost all legal cases heard in the Czech Republic. As set forth in the Constitution of the Czech Republic, however, cases of constitutionality, administrative law and political jurisdiction are heard by other courts.
Along with the Supreme Administrative and Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court forms a triumvirate of courts at the summit of the Czech judiciary. It is situated on Burešova Street 20, Brno.
The Supreme Court sits in panels consisting of a Chairman and two judges or it sits in Grand Panels (velký senát) of the Divisions.
The Divisions analyse and evaluate legally effective decisions of lower courts.
The Criminal Division (trestní kolegium) consists of the judges of the Supreme Court, who apply substantive and procedural criminal law.
The Civil and Commercial Division (občanskoprávní a obchodní kolegium) is responsible for ensuring uniformity and lawfulness in the decision-making of courts in civil proceedings. It does so in extraordinary appeal proceedings against decisions of courts of appeal and within its non-decision-making jurisdiction by providing standpoints.
The Grand Panel of the Division (velký senát kolegia) decides cases referred to it by divisions.
The Plenum (plénum) discusses the Supreme Court's Rules of Procedure and adopts standpoints on the courts decision-making.
The Czech Republic is a unitary parliamentary constitutional republic, in which the President is the head of state and the Prime Minister is the head of government.
Executive power is exercised by the Government of the Czech Republic which reports to the Chamber of Deputies. The Legislature is exercised by the Parliament. Czech Parliament is bicameral, the upper house of the Parliament is the Senate, the lower house of the Parliament is the Chamber of Deputies. The Senate consists of 81 members who are elected for six years. The Chamber of Deputies consists of 200 members who are elected for four years. The Judiciary system is topped by the trio of Constitutional Court, Supreme Court and Supreme Administrative Court.
The highest legal document is the Constitution of the Czech Republic, complemented by constitutional laws and the Charter of Fundamental Rights and Freedoms. The current constitution went in effect on 1st January 1993, after the Dissolution of Czechoslovakia.
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A supreme court is the highest court within the hierarchy of courts in many legal jurisdictions. Other descriptions for such courts include court of last resort, apex court, and highcourt of appeal. Broadly speaking, the decisions of a supreme court are not subject to further review by any other court. Supreme courts typically function primarily as appellate courts, hearing appeals from decisions of lower trial courts, or from intermediate-level appellate courts.
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