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politics and government of
The Supreme Political Council (SPC; Arabic : المجلس السياسي الأعلىal-Majlis as-Siyāsiyy al-ʾAʿlā) is an executive body formed by Houthi Ansarullah and the General People's Congress (GPC) to rule Yemen. Formed on 28 July 2016, the presidential council consists of 10 members and until his death from a drone air strike on 19 April 2018 was headed by Saleh Ali al-Sammad as president with Qassem Labozah as vice-president. SPC carries out the functions of head of state in Yemen and is to manage Yemen's state affairs in a bid to fill in political vacuum during Yemeni Civil War in 2015. The Council aims to outline a basis for running the country and managing state affairs on the basis of the existing constitution. Later, SPC was also responsible for forming a new government led by Abdel-Aziz bin Habtour known as the National Salvation Government.
The General People's Congress is a political party in Yemen. The party is dominated by a nationalist line, and its official ideology is Arab nationalism, seeking Arab unity. In course of the Yemeni Civil War, the party's founder and leader Ali Abdullah Saleh was killed, while the GPC fractured into three factions backing different sides in the conflict.
Yemen, officially the Republic of Yemen, is a country at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia. It is the second-largest Arab sovereign state in the peninsula, occupying 527,970 square kilometres. The coastline stretches for about 2,000 kilometres. It is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the north, the Red Sea to the west, the Gulf of Aden and Guardafui Channel to the south, and the Arabian Sea and Oman to the east. Yemen's territory encompasses more than 200 islands, including the largest island in the Middle East, Socotra. Yemen is a member of the Arab League, United Nations, Non-Aligned Movement and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.
Saleh Ali al-Sammad was a Yemeni political figure from the Houthi movement who served as the president of Yemen's Supreme Political Council until his death.
The members were sworn in on 14 August 2016.On 15 August, the Supreme Revolutionary Committee (SRC) handed power to the Supreme Political Council. However, the SPC is only recognized by Iran but remains not internationally recognized.
The Supreme Revolutionary Committee, sometimes referred to as the Revolutionary Council or the Revolutionary Committee, is an interim body in Yemen formed by the Zaidiyyah Shia group Ansar Allah. In their 6 February 2015 "constitutional declaration" after seizing control of the Yemeni capital and much of former North Yemen, and the failure of Thursday talks between the Houthis and Yemen’s many political parties that were aimed at forming a government to replace Hadi and his cabinet, the group declared the committee would act as Yemen's interim authority. The committee was given the task of forming a new 551-seat parliament, which would then select a five-member presidential council to rule the country for two years.
Iran, also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia. With 82 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th most populous country. Its territory spans 1,648,195 km2 (636,372 sq mi), making it the second largest country in the Middle East and the 17th largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. Its central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the political and economic center of Iran, and the largest and most populous city in Western Asia with more than 8.8 million residents in the city and 15 million in the larger metropolitan area.
In the wake of president Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi and prime minister Khaled Bahah resignations over Houthi rebels takeover of presidential palace on January 2015, Houthi leader Abdul Malik Al Houthi reportedly proposed a six-member "transitional presidential council" which would have equal representation from north and south, although this proposal was rejected by Southern Movement.Nevertheless, on 1 February, the Houthis gave an ultimatum to Yemen's political factions warning that if they did not reach a solution to the current political crisis, then the Houthi "revolutionary leadership" would assume formal authority over the state. According to Reuters, political factions have agreed to form an interim presidential council to manage the country for up to one year. Former South Yemen president Ali Nasser Mohammed was originally being considered as a prospective interim leader, but Mohammed later declined the post.
Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi is a Yemeni politician and former Field Marshal of the Yemeni Armed Forces. He has been the President of Yemen since 27 February 2012, and was Vice President from 1994 to 2012.
Khaled Mahfoudh Bahah is a Yemeni politician and diplomat who served as Prime Minister of Yemen between 2014 and 2016, as well as Vice President of Yemen from 2015 until he was sacked on April 3, 2016 by President of Yemen Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi.
The Southern Movement, sometimes known as the Southern Separatist Movement, or South Yemen Movement, and colloquially known as al-Hirak, is a political movement and paramilitary organization active in the south of Yemen since 2007, demanding secession from the Republic of Yemen and a return to the former independent state of South Yemen. At present, its political branch, the Southern Transitional Council led by Aidarus al-Zoubaidi, is the de facto leadership in all provinces of the south.
On 6 February 2015, the Houthis formally assumed over authority in Sana'a, declaring the dissolution of House of Representatives and announced that a "presidential council" would be formed to lead Yemen for two years, while a "revolutionary committee" would be put in charge of forming a new, 551-member national council.This governance plan was later affirmed by Houthi Ansarullah politburo leader Saleh Ali al-Sammad as he said that national council would choose a five-member presidential council to govern the country.
On 2 October 2016, Abdel-Aziz bin Habtour was appointed as Prime Minister by the Houthis.On 4 October, he formed his cabinet. The cabinet is composed by members of the Southern Movement. However, the cabinet is not internationally recognized.
Abdel-Aziz bin Habtour is a Yemeni politician who served as Governor of Aden during the Houthi takeover in Yemen. He is a member of the General People's Congress, sitting on its permanent committee since 1995. An ally of President Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi, he condemned the 2014–15 Yemeni coup d'état and received the deposed leader after his flight from the Houthi-controlled capital of Sana'a on 21 February 2015. He is also a vocal opponent of the separatist movement in the former South Yemen, saying the movement is too fractured and small to achieve its goals.
On 28 November 2016, a new cabinet was formed.It is only composed by members of pro-Saleh GNC and Ansarullah Movement.
However, the UN Special Envoy for Yemen Ismail Ould Cheikh Ahmed said the move was "a new and unnecessary obstacle. Yemen is at a critical juncture. The actions recently taken by Ansarullah and the General People's Congress will only complicate the search for a peaceful solution. The parties must hold Yemen’s national interests above narrow partisan ambitions and take immediate steps to end political divisions and address the country’s security, humanitarian and economic challenges." He further claimed that such an action could harm peace talks.
|President||Mahdi al-Mashat||25 April 2018||Incumbent|
|Prime Minister||Abdel-Aziz bin Habtour||4 October 2016||Incumbent|
|Deputy Prime Minister for the Affairs of the Security||Jalal al-Rowaishan||28 November 2016||Incumbent|
|Deputy Prime Minister for the Affairs of the Service||Mahmoud Abdel Kader al-Jounaïd||1 January 2018||Incumbent|
|Deputy Prime Minister for Economic Affairs||Hussein Abdullah Mkabuli||28 November 2016||Incumbent|
|Minister of Interior||Abdulhakim Ahmed al-Mawri||13 December 2017||Incumbent|
|Minister of Planning and International Cooperation||Abdulaziz Al-Kumaim||July 2017||Incumbent|
|Minister of Information||Abdel Salam Ali Mohammed Jaber||1 January 2018||Incumbent|
|Minister of Foreign Affairs||Hisham Sharaf Abdullah||28 November 2016||Incumbent|
|Minister of State for National Dialogue Outcomes' Affairs and National Reconciliation.||Ahmed Saleh al-Ganie||28 November 2016||Incumbent|
|Minister of Youth and Sport||Hassan Mohammed Zaid||28 November 2016||Incumbent|
|Minister of Legal Affairs||Abdulrahman Ahmed al-Mukhtar||28 November 2016||Incumbent|
|Minister of Education||Yahia Badreddin al-Houthi||28 November 2016||Incumbent|
|Minister of Civil Service and Insurance||Talal Aklan||28 November 2016||Incumbent|
|Minister of State for Parliamentary Affairs and the Shura Council||Ali Abdullah Abu Hulaykah||28 November 2016||Incumbent|
|Minister of Defense||Mohamed al-Atifi||28 November 2016||Incumbent|
|Minister of Industry and Trade||Abdu Mohammed Bishr||28 November 2016||Incumbent|
|Minister for Fisheries||Mohammad Mohammad al-Zubayri||28 November 2016||Incumbent|
|Minister of Justice||Ahmed Abdullah Akabat||28 November 2016||Incumbent|
|Minister of Higher Education and Scientific Research||Hussein Ali Hazeb||28 November 2016||Incumbent|
|Minister of Social Affairs and Labour||-Faiqah al-Sayed Ba'alawy||28 November 2016||Incumbent|
|Minister of Tourism||Nasser Mahfouz Bagazkoz||28 November 2016||Incumbent|
|Minister of Public Works and Highways||Ghalib Abdullah Mutlaq||28 November 2016||Incumbent|
|Minister of Water and Environment||Nabil Abdullah al-Wazair||28 November 2016||Incumbent|
|Minister of Petroleum and Minerals||Ahmed Abdullah Naji Dars||1 January 2018||Incumbent|
|Minister of Electricity and Energy||Lutf Ali al-Jermouzi||28 November 2016||Incumbent|
|Minister of Local Administration||Ali Bin Ali Al-Kays||28 November 2016||Incumbent|
|Minister of Religious Endowments and Guidance||Sharaf Ali al-Kulaisi||28 November 2016||Incumbent|
|Minister of Expatriate Affairs||Mohammed Saeed al-Mashjari||28 November 2016||Incumbent|
|Minister of Finance||Saleh Ahmed Shaaban||28 November 2016||Incumbent|
|Minister of Communications and Information Technology||Musfer Abdullah Saleh Al-Numeir||16 December 2017||Incumbent|
|Minister of Agriculture and Irrigation||Ghazi Ahmed Mohsen||28 November 2016||Incumbent|
|Minister of Technical Education and Vocational||Mohsen Ali al-Nakib||28 November 2016||Incumbent|
|Minister of Culture||Abdullah Ahmad al-Kibsy||28 November 2016||Incumbent|
|Minister of Transport||Zakaria Yahya al-Shami||28 November 2016||Incumbent|
|Minister of Human Rights||Alia Faisal Abdullatif al-Shaba||28 November 2016||Incumbent|
|Minister of State|| Fares Mana'a |
Nabih Mohsen Abu Nashtan
Radhiyah Mohammad Abdullah
Aubayd Salem bin Dhabia
Hamid Awadh al-Mizjaji
Abdulaziz Ahmed al-Bakir
|28 November 2016||Incumbent|
Politics of Yemen is in an uncertain state due to a 2014–15 coup d'état. An armed group known as the Houthis or Ansar Allah seized control of the Northern Yemeni government and announced it would dissolve parliament, as well as install a "presidential council", "transitional national council", and "supreme revolutionary council" to govern the country for an interim period. However, the deposed president, Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi, has declared he is still in office and is working to establish a rival government in Aden.
Ali Abdullah Saleh was a Yemeni politician who served as the first President of Yemen, from Yemeni unification on 22 May 1990 to his resignation on 25 February 2012, following the Yemeni Revolution. Previously, he had served as President of the Yemen Arab Republic, or North Yemen, from July 1978 to 22 May 1990, after the assassination of President Ahmad al-Ghashmi.
The Houthi insurgency in Yemen, also known as the Houthi rebellion, Sa'dah War, or Sa'dah conflict, was a military rebellion pitting Zaidi Shia Houthis against the Yemeni military that began in Northern Yemen and has since escalated into a full-scale civil war. The conflict was sparked in 2004 by the government's attempt to arrest Hussein Badreddin al-Houthi, a Zaidi religious leader of the Houthis and a former parliamentarian on whose head the government had placed a $55,000 bounty. Initially, most of the fighting took place in Sa'dah Governorate in northwestern Yemen, but some of the fighting spread to neighbouring governorates Hajjah, 'Amran, al-Jawf and the Saudi province of Jizan. Since 2014 the nature of the insurgency has changed with the Houthi takeover in Yemen and then into the ongoing Yemeni civil war (2015–present) with a major Saudi-led intervention in Yemen beginning in 2015.
The Houthi movement, officially called Ansar Allah, is an Islamic religious-political-armed movement that emerged from Sa'dah in northern Yemen in the 1990s. They are of the Zaidi sect, though the movement reportedly also includes Sunnis. Under the leadership of Hussein Badreddin al-Houthi, the group emerged as a Zaydi opposition to former Yemeni president Ali Abdullah Saleh, whom they charged with massive financial corruption and criticized for being backed by Saudi Arabia and the United States at the expense of the Yemeni people and Yemen's sovereignty. Resisting Saleh's order for his arrest, Hussein was killed in Sa'dah in 2004 along with a number of his guards by the Yemeni army, sparking the Houthi insurgency in Yemen. Since then, except for a short intervening period, the movement has been led by his brother Abdul-Malik al-Houthi.
Abu Bakr Abdullah al-Qirbi is a Yemeni diplomat who was Minister of Foreign Affairs of Yemen from 2001 to 2014.
The Cabinet of Yemen refers to the governing body of the internationally recognized Yemen government led by President Abd Rabbuh Mansur Al-Hadi who replaced former President of Yemen Ali Abdullah Saleh on February 25, 2012 as the new President of Yemen. He then selected new cabinet members of the Yemeni Government.
Abdul-Malik Badreddin al-Houthi is a leader of the Zaidi revolution movement Ansar Allah (Houthis). His brothers Yahia Badreddin al-Houthi and Abdul-Karim Badreddin Al-Houthi are also leaders of the group, as was his late brother Hussein Badreddin al-Houthi. Abdul-Malik Houthi is the leading figure in a revolution starting in the Sa'dah province in northern Yemen, which has been continuing from 2004 to the present day. The uprising has been called the Houthi Rebellion due to his leadership. The Zaidi community comprises around half of the population of Yemen, concentrated in the north. In traditional Zaidi religious belief, if there is no clear leader for the Zaidi community, an Imam/Caliph can emerge through armed struggle. Yemen was formerly ruled by a Zaidi Imamah/Caliphate, which ended in 1962.
The Houthi takeover in Yemen, also known as the September 21 Revolution, or 2014–15 coup d'état, was a gradual armed takeover by the Houthis and supporters of former Yemeni President Ali Abdullah Saleh that pushed the Yemeni government from power. It had origins in Houthi-led protests that began the previous month, and escalated when the Houthis stormed the Yemeni capital Sana'a on 21 September 2014, causing the resignation of Prime Minister Mohammed Basindawa, and later the resignation of President Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi and his ministers on 22 January 2015 after Houthi forces seized the presidential palace, residence, and key military installations, and the formation of a ruling council by Houthi militants on 6 February 2015.
Mohammed Ali al-Houthi is a Yemeni political figure who is former President of the Revolutionary Committee or Revolutionary Council, a body formed by Houthi militants. He was one of the military field commanders who led the group's seizure of the Yemeni capital Sana’a in September 2014, and eventually became the de facto leader of Yemen after the Houthi takeover of the Yemeni government in 2015. He is a cousin of Abdul-Malik Badreddin al-Houthi, the group's leader.
The Yemeni Crisis began with the 2011–12 revolution against President Ali Abdullah Saleh, who had led Yemen for more than three decades. After Saleh left office in early 2012 as part of a mediated agreement between the Yemeni government and opposition groups, the government led by Saleh's former vice president, Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi, struggled to unite the fractious political landscape of the country and fend off threats both from Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula and Houthi militants that had been waging a protracted insurgency in the north for years. In 2014, Houthi fighters swept into the capital of Sana'a and forced Hadi to negotiate a "unity government" with other political factions. The rebels continued to apply pressure on the weakened government until, after his presidential palace and private residence came under attack from the militant group, Hadi resigned along with his ministers in January 2015. The following month, the Houthis declared themselves in control of the government, dissolving Parliament and installing an interim Revolutionary Committee led by Mohammed Ali al-Houthi, a cousin of Houthi leader Abdul-Malik al-Houthi. However, Hadi escaped to Aden, where he declared that he remains Yemen's legitimate president, proclaimed the country's temporary capital, and called on loyal government officials and members of the military to rally to him. On 27 March 2015, BBC reported that Hadi had "fled rebel forces in the city of Aden" and subsequently "arrived in Saudi Arabia's capital Riyadh" as "Saudi authorities began air strikes in Yemen". Civil War subsequently erupted between Hadi's government and the Houthis. Since 2017 the separatist Southern Transitional Council (STC) has also fought against the government.
The Battle of Sana'a in 2014 marked the advance of the Houthis into Sana'a, the capital of Yemen, and heralded the beginning of the armed takeover of the government that unfolded over the following months. Fighting began on 9 September 2014, when pro-Houthi protesters under the command of Abdul-Malik al-Houthi marched on the cabinet office and were fired upon by security forces, leaving seven dead. The clashes escalated on 18 September, when 40 were killed in an armed confrontation between the Houthis led by military commander Mohammed Ali al-Houthi and supporters of the Sunni hardliner Islah Party when the Houthis tried to seize Yemen TV, and 19 September, with more than 60 killed in clashes between Houthi fighters and the military and police in northern Sana'a. By 21 September, the Houthis captured the government headquarters, marking the fall of Sana'a.
The aftermath of the Houthi takeover in Yemen refers to developments following the Houthis' takeover of the Yemeni capital of Sana'a and dissolution of the government, which eventually led to a civil war and the Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen.
The Yemeni Civil War is an ongoing conflict that began in 2015 between two factions: the Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi led Yemeni government and the Houthi armed movement, along with their supporters and allies. Both claim to constitute the official government of Yemen.
The battle of Port Midi refers to a battle between the Saudi coalition backed Hadi loyalists, and the Houthi government. Although the port has been seized by the Hadi loyalists, the Houthi fighters along with the popular committees have managed to conduct some attacks in the Midi area. The conflict also spillovers in the rest of the Hajjah region. By 26 January 2017, Hadi loyalists had extended their control to Harad District in Hajjah Region.
Events in the year 2018 in Yemen.
The Battle of Al Hudaydah, codenamed as Operation Golden Victory, is a major Saudi-led coalition assault on the port city of Al Hudaydah in Yemen. It is spearheaded by the United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia and has been considered as the largest battle since the start of Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen in 2015.