Sur (Pashto : سور, literally the color "red"), also known as Suri, Zur and Zuri (Pashto : زوري), are a historical Pashtun tribe living primarily in Afghanistan and Pakistan. They supposedly trace their descent to the Ghorids, a dynasty originating from Mandesh in the Ghor region of modern-day central Afghanistan. The founder of the Suri Empire in India, Sher Shah Suri, belonged to the Sur tribe. They ruled the Suri Empire from 1540 until they were removed from power in 1555 after the Battle of Sirhind by Humayun and the Persian army, who re-established the Mughal Empire. [ citation needed ]
Today, the Sur are part of the Pashtun tribal system, and identify with the Lodi Bettani confederacy. The Sur are also related to the Ghilji, another Bettani tribal confederacy but it is also believed that Suri is the sub-tribe of Kakar Pashtun. [ citation needed ]
It was at the time of this bounty of Sultán Bahlol, that the grandfather of Sher Sháh, by name Ibráhím Khán Súr,with his son Hasan Khán, the father of Sher Sháh, came to Hindu-stán from Afghánistán, from a place which is called in the Afghán tongue "Shargarí,"* but in the Multán tongue "Rohrí." It is a ridge, a spur of the Sulaimán Mountains, about six or seven kos in length, situated on the banks of the Gumal. They entered into the service of Muhabbat Khán Súr, Dáúd Sáhú-khail, to whom Sultán Bahlol had given in jágír the parganas of Hariána and Bahkála, etc., in the Panjáb, and they settled in the pargana of Bajwára.— Abbas Khan Sarwani, 1580
The Suri tribe of the Afghans inhabited the mountains of Ghor east of Furrah and their principal cities were Ghore, Feruzi and Bamian.
Amir Suri was a Buddhistking from the ancient Ghorid dynasty in the 9th and 10th century. He was a descendant of the Ghorid king Amir Banji Baharan whose rule was legitimized by the Abbasid caliph Harun al-Rashid after a peace treaty. Amir Suri was defeated in war with the Saffarid ruler Ya'qub ibn al-Layth al-Saffar.
Muhammad ibn Suri, despite his name, was also a Buddhist king of the Ghorid dynasty from the 10th century to 1011. He fought against Mahmud of Ghazni. According to Minhaju-S Siraj, ibn Suri was defeated and captured by Mahmud of Ghazni, made prisoner along with his son Abu Ali and taken to Ghazni, where ibn Suri died by poisoning himself.
It was also the last stronghold of an ancient religion professed by the inhabitants when all their neighbors had become Muslim. In the 11th century AD Mahmud of Ghazni defeated the prince of Ghor Ibn –I-Suri, and made him prisoner in a severely-contested engagement in the valley of Ahingaran. Ibn-I-Suri is called a Hindu by the author, who has recorded his overthrow;
Ibn Suri's son Abu Ali ibn Muhammad (reigning from 1011 to 1035) later converted to Islam, and constructed mosques and Islamic schools in Ghor.
According to tradition, Surs are descended from the Ghori tribe. Several books by Islamic historians including Tarikh-I-Guzida of Hamdu-lla-Mustaufi, Towareekh Yumny, as well as Ferishta record that besides Muslim Surs there were also Non-Muslim Hindu and Buddhist, pagan Surs, who were attacked by Mahmud of Ghazni and converted to Islam by him.
Sultan Mahumud now went to fight with the Ghorians, who were infidels at that time. Suri, their chief, was killed in this war, and his son was taken prisoner; but he killed himself by sucking poison which he had kept under the stone of his ring. The country of Ghor was annexed to that of the Sultan, and the population thereof converted to Islam. He now attacked the fort of Bhim, where was a temple of the Hindus.
Ferishta states that the rulers of Ghor belonged to the Sur tribe, with Tarikh Yamini saying that Ghor was only converted after attacks of Mahmud while Tabaqat-i Nasiri claims they were converted even before him.
In the following year AH 401 (AD 1010), Mahmood led his army towards Ghoor. The native prince of the country, Mahomed, of the Afghan tribe of Soor (the same race which gave birth to the dynasty that eventually succeeded in subverting the family of Sebüktigin), occupied an entrinched camp with 10,000 men. Mahmood was repulsed in repeated assaults which he made from morning till noon. Finding that the troops of Ghoor defended their entrenchments with such obstinacy, he caused his army to retreat in apparent confusion, in order to allure the enemy out of his fortified position. The Ghoorians, deceived by the stratagem, pursued the army of Ghizny; when the king, facing about, attacked and defeated them with great slaughter. Mahommed Soor, being made prisoner was brought to the king, but having taken poison, which he always kept under his ring, he died in a few hours; his country was annexed to the dominions of Ghizny. The author of the Towareekh Yumny affirms, that neither the sovereigns of Ghoor nor its inhabitants were Mahomedans till after this victory; whilst the author of the Tubkat-Nasiry, and Fukhr-ood-Deen Moobarik Shah Lody, the latter of whom wrote a history of the Kings of Ghoor in verse, both affirm, that they were converted many years before, even so early as the time of Ally.
Shah Hussain was descended from the younger branch of the Ghorian race, while Muhammad-i-Suri, said to be the great-great-grandfather of the Sultans Ghiyas-ud-Din and Muizz-ud-Din (Muhammad of Ghor) was descended from the elder branch, with whom sovereignty lay. Shah Hussain by one of his Afghan wives, had three sons, Ghalzi, Ibrahim surnamed Lodi, and Sarwani. The Afghan tribe of Sur was founded by Sur, son of Ismail, grandson of Lodi.
Another Sur king, Amir Banji Baharan, was appointed by the Abbasid caliph Harun al-Rashid as the king of Ghor after he signed a peace treaty.
The most famous Sur in history was Sher Shah Suri of Sasaram, Bihar,who ruled the Sur Empire which covered a large northern territory of the Indian subcontinent, with Delhi serving as its capital.
The Muslim conquests of Afghanistan began during the Muslim conquest of Persia as the Arab Muslims migrated eastwards to Khorasan, Sistan and Transoxiana. 15 years after the Battle of Nahāvand, they controlled all Sasanian domains except southern and eastern Afghanistan. Fuller Islamization wasn't achieved until the period between 10th and 12th centuries under Ghaznavid and Ghurid dynasty's rule who patronized Muslim religious institutions.
This index list around 14% of all Afghanistan-related articles on Wikipedia.
Ghazni is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in eastern Afghanistan. The province contains 19 districts, encompassing over a thousand villages and roughly 1.3 million people, making it the 5th most populous province. The city of Ghazni serves as the capital. It lies on the important Kabul–Kandahar Highway, and has historically functioned as an important trade center. The Ghazni Airport is located next to the city of Ghazni and provides limited domestic flights to Afghanistan's capital, Kabul.
Ghōr, also spelled Ghowr or Ghur, is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan. It is located in Hazarajat region in central Afghanistan, towards the north-west. The province contains ten districts, encompassing hundreds of villages, and approximately 657,200 settled people. Firuzkoh, serves as the capital of the province.
The Yūsufzai also spelled Yousafzai or Esapzai, are one of the largest tribes of the Pashtuns
Sher Shah Suri, born Farīd Khān, referred to as Sher Khan in the scholarly literature, popularly known also as Hazrat-i-Ala, was the founder of the Suri Empire in India, with its capital in Sasaram in modern-day Bihar. He introduced the currency of rupee.
The Tughlaq dynasty also referred to as Tughluq or Tughluk dynasty, was a Muslim dynasty of Turkic origin which ruled over the Delhi sultanate in medieval India. Its reign started in 1320 in Delhi when Ghazi Malik assumed the throne under the title of Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq. The dynasty ended in 1413.
The Ghiljī also spelled Khilji, Khalji, or Ghilzai or Ghilzay (غلزی), are one of the largest tribes of Pashtuns. Their traditional homeland stretches from Ghazni and Qalati Ghilji in Afghanistan eastwards into parts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Balochistan in Pakistan. They are also settled in other parts of Afghanistan. The modern nomadic Kochi people mostly belong to the Ghilji tribe.
The Sur Empire was established by an Afghan dynasty which ruled a large territory in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent for nearly 16 years, between 1540 and 1556, with Sasaram, in modern-day Bihar, serving as its capital.
The Ghurids or Ghorids were a dynasty of Iranian origin from the Ghor region of present-day central Afghanistan, but the exact ethnic origin is uncertain. The dynasty converted to Sunni Islam from Buddhism, after the conquest of Ghor by the Ghaznavid sultan Mahmud of Ghazni in 1011. The dynasty overthrew the Ghaznavid Empire in 1186 when Sultan Mu'izz ad-Din Muhammad of Ghor conquered the last Ghaznavid capital of Lahore.
The Durrānī formerly known as Abdālī (ابدالي), are one of the largest tribes of Pashtuns. Their traditional homeland is in southern Afghanistan, straddling into Toba Achakzai in Balochistan, Pakistan, but they are also settled in other parts of Afghanistan and parts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
Mohammadzai, also spelled Moḥammadzay, is a sub-tribe or clan of the Barakzai which is part of the Durrani confederacy of tribes. They are primarily centered on Kandahar, Kabul and Ghazni in Afghanistan. The Mohammadzai ruled Afghanistan from 1823 to 1978, for a total 152 years. The monarchy ended under Mohammad Zahir Shah when his brother in law Sardar Daoud Khan took power via a coup.
Qais Abdur Rashīd or Qais Abdul Rasheed is said to be, in post-Islamic lore, the legendary founding father of the Pashtuns. There are doubts about the historicity and existence of such a figure: as the Pashtun ethnicity began taking shape in the Bronze Age and Islam spread through Afghanistan over a period time as opposed to people changing faith in a single day. It is likely the conception of such a figure was promoted to bring harmony between religious identity and ethnic identity.
Pashto literature and poetry refers to literature and poetry in Pashto language.
The Pathans of Punjab (Punjabi: پنجابی پٹھان; Pashto: د پنجاب پښتانه; also called Punjabi Pathans are originally Pashtun people who have settled in the Punjab region of Pakistan. Most of these Pashtun communities are scattered throughout the Punjab and have over time assimilated into the Punjabi society and culture.
Alakozai is the name of a Pashtun tribe in Afghanistan. Spelling variations include Alakoozi, Alekozai, Alekuzei, Alikozai, Alokozay, Alokozay, Alkozai, Alokzai, Hulakozai, Alecozay, Alikusi, and Alakuzei.
The Khalaj are classified as a Turkic tribe. Medieval Muslim scholars considered the tribe to be one of the earliest to cross the Amu Darya from Central Asia into present-day Afghanistan. The Khalaj were described as sheep-grazing nomads in Ghazni, Qalati Ghilji, and the surrounding districts, who had a habit of wandering through seasonal pastures.
Amīr Krōṛ Sūrī, also known as Jahan Pahlawan, is a legendary character in Pashtun national history and is claimed to have become the King of Mandesh in Ghor. Amir Kror Suri is considered to be the first poet of Pashto language. He is not to be confused with Amir Suri, the buddhist king of Ghor in the 9th-10th century.
Mandesh is the historical name by which the mountain region of Ghor was called.
Muhammad ibn Suri was the king of the Ghurid dynasty from the 10th-century to 1011. During his reign, he was defeated by the Ghaznavid emperor Mahmud of Ghazni and his domains were conquered. According to Minhaj-us-Siraj, Muhammad was captured by Mahmud of Ghazni, made prisoner along with his son, and taken to Ghazni, where Muhammad died by poisoning himself. Subsequently, the whole population of Ghuristan was taught the precepts of Islam and converted from Mahayana Buddhism to Islam. Mu'izz ad-Din Muhammad of Ghor later overthrew the Ghaznavid Empire in 1186 and conquered their last capital at Lahore.
It is said that Muhammad was a great king and most of the territories of Ghor were in his possession. But as many of the inhabitants of Ghor of High and low degree had not yet embraced Islam, there was constant strife among them. The Saffarids came from Nimruz to Bust and Dawar, Ya'qub al-Saffar overpowered Lak-Lak, who was the chief of Takinabad, in the country of Rukhaj. The Ghorians sought the safety in Sara-sang and dwelt there in security but even among them hostilities constantly prevailed between the Muslims and the infidels. One castle was at war with another castle, and their feuds were unceasing; but owing to the inaccessibility of the mountains of Rasiat, which are in Ghor no foreigner was able to overcome them, and Muhammad was the head of all the Mandeshis.
... there is no evidence for assuming that the inhabitants of Ghūr were originally Pashto-speaking (cf. Dames, in E I1). If we are to believe the Paṭa Khazāna (see below, iii), the legendary Amīr Karōṝ, grandson of Shansab, (8th century) was a Pashto poet, but this for various reasons is very improbable ...