Suramadu National Bridge
Jembatan Nasional Suramadu
|Locale||East Java (Surabaya-Bangkalan Regency)|
|Official name||Jembatan Nasional Surabaya–Madura|
|Design|| Cable stayed bridge |
Box girder bridge
|Total length||5,438 meters (17,841 ft)|
|Width||30 meters (98 ft)|
|Height||146 meters (479 ft)|
|Longest span||434 meters (1,424 ft)|
|Clearance below||35 m (114.8 ft)|
|Construction start||20 August 2003|
|Opened||10 June 2009|
|Daily traffic||26,737 (2018)|
The Suramadu Bridge (Indonesian : Jembatan Suramadu), also known as the Surabaya–Madura Bridge, is a cable-stayed bridge between Surabaya on the island of Java and the town of Bangkalan on the island of Madura in Indonesia. Opened in June 2009, the 5.4-km bridge is the longest in Indonesia and the second longest in southern hemisphere. It is the first bridge to cross the Madura Strait.
The cable-stayed portion has three spans with lengths 192 meters (630 ft), 434 meters (1,424 ft), and 192 meters (630 ft). The bridge has two lanes in each direction plus an emergency lane and a dedicated lane for motorcycles in each direction.
The idea of a bridge connecting Surabaya with Madura is said to have first been proposed in the early 1960s by the well-known Indonesian engineer Professor Sedyatmo from the Bandung Institute of Technology. Later, in the mid-1980s, there was renewed interest in the project when staff from the National Development Planning Bureau (Bappenas) met with Japanese aid donors to discuss construction of a bridge.A pre-feasibility study was prepared in early 1990 and in December 1990, President Suharto appointed a team of ministers and advisers to consider plans for the bridge. Later, a consortium consisting on the Indonesian state-owned firm PT Jasa Marga and other Indonesian firms along with Japanese firms (Mitsubishi Corporation, Itochu, Shimizu, and the Long Term Credit Bank) was established to proceed with the bridge.
In 1997-98, a range of problems arising from the Asian financial crisis in Indonesia led to suspension of activities. However within a few years the East Java Provincial Government took up a renewed interest in plans and in 2000 announced that further initiatives would be taken at the provincial level. These steps gained impetus when President Megawati issued a decree instructing ministers to take additional steps to support construction of the bridge and appointing PT Jasa Marga as the lead Indonesian firm for the project.
The bridge was built by a consortium of Indonesian companies PT Adhi Karya and PT Waskita Karya working with China Road and Bridge Corp. and China Harbor Engineering Co. Ltd. The total cost of the project, including connecting roads, has been estimated at Rp4.5 trillion (US$445 million).
Construction began in August 2003. In July 2004, a girder collapsed, killing one worker and injuring nine others. Work on the bridge halted at the end of 2004 due to lack of funds, but was restarted in November 2005. The main span of the bridge was connected on 31 March 2009and the bridge was opened to the public on 10 June 2009.
Within a week of the opening, it was discovered that nuts and bolts as well as maintenance lamps had been stolen and that there was evidence of vandalism of cables supporting the main span.
As is often the case with public sector infrastructure facilities in Indonesia, there has been pressure to keep the tariffs for use of the bridge low. Tolls were initially set at Rp30,000 (US$3 in 2009) for four-wheeled vehicles and Rp3,000 (US$0.30) for two-wheelers.However, in early 2016, it was announced that President Jokowi favored a 50% cut in the tolls to help promote the competitiveness of industries on the Madura side of the bridge.
No details were available as to how the cuts in the tolls would be funded.However, a spokesperson for the state-owned company PT Jasa Marga which operated the bridge said that the reductions in tariffs would not cause a problem for the operating firm itself because Jasa Marga was paid directly by the government to manage the bridge.
Starting October 27, 2018, toll tariffs were abolished for all types of vehicles.
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