Susan Glaspell

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Susan Glaspell
Susan Glaspell graduation portrait, 1894.
BornSusan Keating Glaspell
(1876-07-01)July 1, 1876
Davenport, Iowa
DiedJuly 28, 1948(1948-07-28) (aged 72)
Provincetown, Massachusetts
EducationDavenport High School
Alma mater Drake University
University of Chicago
Notable works Alison's House
Trifles (" A Jury of Her Peers ")
Notable awards Pulitzer Prize for Drama (1931)
Spouse George Cram Cook (1913–24†)
companion, Norman Matson (1924–32)

Signature SGlaspellsig.png

Susan Keating Glaspell (July 1, 1876 – July 28, 1948) was an American playwright, novelist, journalist and actress. With her husband George Cram Cook, she founded the Provincetown Players, [1] the first modern American theatre company. [2]

George Cram Cook playwright, author, poet

George Cram Cook or Jig Cook was an American theatre producer, director, playwright, novelist, poet, and university professor. Believing it was his personal mission to inspire others, Cook led the founding of the Provincetown Players on Cape Cod in 1915; their "creative collective" was considered the first modern American theatre company. During his seven-year tenure with the group, Cook oversaw the production of nearly one-hundred new plays by fifty American playwrights. He is particularly remembered for producing the first plays of Eugene O'Neill, along with those of Cook's wife Susan Glaspell, and several other noted writers.

Provincetown Players

The Provincetown Players was an influential collective of artists, writers, intellectuals, and amateur theater enthusiasts. Under the leadership of the husband and wife team of George Cram “Jig” Cook and Susan Glaspell from Iowa, the Players produced two seasons in Provincetown, Massachusetts and six seasons in New York City, between 1916 and 1923. The company's founding has been called "the most important innovative moment in American theatre." Its productions helped launch the careers of Eugene O'Neill and Susan Glaspell, and ushered American theatre into the Modern era.


First known for her short stories (fifty were published), Glaspell is known also to have written nine novels, fifteen plays, and a biography. [3] Often set in her native Midwest, these semi-autobiographical tales typically explore contemporary social issues, such as gender, ethics, and dissent, while featuring deep, sympathetic characters who make principled stands. Her 1930 play Alison's House earned her the Pulitzer Prize for Drama. [4]

Midwestern United States region that includes parts of Canada and the United States

The Midwestern United States, also referred to as the American Midwest, Middle West, or simply the Midwest, is one of four census regions of the United States Census Bureau. It occupies the northern central part of the United States. It was officially named the North Central Region by the Census Bureau until 1984. It is located between the Northeastern United States and the Western United States, with Canada to its north and the Southern United States to its south.

<i>Alisons House</i> play written by Susan Glaspell

Alison's House is a drama in three acts by American playwright Susan Glaspell.

Pulitzer Prize for Drama award

The Pulitzer Prize for Drama is one of the seven American Pulitzer Prizes that are annually awarded for Letters, Drama, and Music. It is one of the original Pulitzers, for the program was inaugurated in 1917 with seven prizes, four of which were awarded that year. It recognizes a theatrical work staged in the U.S. during the preceding calendar year.

After her husband's death in Greece, she returned to the United States with their children. During the Great Depression, Glaspell worked in Chicago for the Works Progress Administration, where she was Midwest Bureau Director of the Federal Theater Project. Although a best-selling author in her own time, after her death Glaspell attracted less interest and her books went out of print. She was also noted for discovering playwright Eugene O'Neill.

Great Depression 20th-century worldwide economic depression

The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States. The timing of the Great Depression varied across nations; in most countries it started in 1929 and lasted until the late 1930s. It was the longest, deepest, and most widespread depression of the 20th century. In the 21st century, the Great Depression is commonly used as an example of how intensely the world's economy can decline.

Works Progress Administration largest and most ambitious United States federal government New Deal agency

The Works Progress Administration was an American New Deal agency, employing millions of job-seekers to carry out public works projects, including the construction of public buildings and roads. It was established on May 6, 1935, by Executive Order 7034. In a much smaller project, Federal Project Number One, the WPA employed musicians, artists, writers, actors and directors in large arts, drama, media, and literacy projects. The four projects dedicated to these were: the Federal Writers’ Project (FWP), the Historical Records Survey (HRS), the Federal Theatre Project (FTP), the Federal Music Project (FMP), and the Federal Art Project (FAP). In the Historical Records Survey, for instance, many former slaves in the South were interviewed; these documents are of great importance for American history. Theater and music groups toured throughout America, and gave more than 225,000 performances. Archaeological investigations under the WPA were influential in the rediscovery of pre-Columbian Native American cultures, and the development of professional archaeology in the US.

Eugene ONeill American playwright, and Nobel laureate in Literature

Eugene Gladstone O'Neill was an American playwright and Nobel laureate in Literature. His poetically titled plays were among the first to introduce into U.S. drama techniques of realism earlier associated with Russian playwright Anton Chekhov, Norwegian playwright Henrik Ibsen, and Swedish playwright August Strindberg. The drama Long Day's Journey into Night is often numbered on the short list of the finest U.S. plays in the 20th century, alongside Tennessee Williams's A Streetcar Named Desire and Arthur Miller's Death of a Salesman.

Since the late 20th century, critical reassessment of women's contributions has led to renewed interest in her career and a revival of her reputation. [5] In the early 21st century Glaspell is today recognized as a pioneering feminist writer and America's first important modern female playwright. [6] Her one-act play Trifles (1916) is frequently cited as one of the greatest works of American theatre. [7] According to Britain's leading theatre critic, Michael Billington, she remains, "American drama's best-kept secret." [8]

Feminism is a range of social movements, political movements, and ideologies that share a common goal: to define, establish, and achieve the political, economic, personal, and social equality of the sexes. Feminism incorporates the position that societies prioritize the male point of view, and that women are treated unfairly within those societies. Efforts to change that include fighting gender stereotypes and seeking to establish educational and professional opportunities for women that are equal to those for men.

Michael Billington (critic) British author and arts critic

Michael Keith Billington OBE is a British author and arts critic. Drama critic of The Guardian since October 1971, he is "Britain's longest-serving theatre critic" and the author of biographical and critical studies relating to British theatre and the arts. He is the authorised biographer of the playwright Harold Pinter (1930–2008).


Early life and career

Susan Glaspell was born in Iowa in 1876 to Elmer Glaspell, a hay farmer, and his wife Alice Keating, a public school teacher. She had an older brother, Raymond, and a younger brother, Frank. [9] She was raised on a rural homestead just below the bluffs of the Mississippi River along the western edge of Davenport, Iowa. This property had been bought by her paternal great-grandfather James Glaspell from the federal government following its Black Hawk Purchase. [10] Having a fairly conservative upbringing, "Susie" was remembered as "a precocious child" who would often rescue stray animals. [11] As the family farm increasingly became surrounded by residential development, Glaspell's worldview was still shaped by the pioneer tales of her grandmother. She told of regular visits by Indians to the farm in the years before Iowa statehood. [12] Growing up directly across the river from Black Hawk's ancestral village, Glaspell was also influenced by the Sauk leader's autobiography; he wrote that Americans should be worthy inheritors of the land. [12] During the Panic of 1893, her father sold the farm, and the family moved into Davenport. [13]

Mississippi River largest river system in North America

The Mississippi River is the second-longest river and chief river of the second-largest drainage system on the North American continent, second only to the Hudson Bay drainage system. Its source is Lake Itasca in northern Minnesota and it flows generally south for 2,320 miles (3,730 km) to the Mississippi River Delta in the Gulf of Mexico. With its many tributaries, the Mississippi's watershed drains all or parts of 32 U.S. states and two Canadian provinces between the Rocky and Appalachian mountains. The main stem is entirely within the United States; the total drainage basin is 1,151,000 sq mi (2,980,000 km2), of which only about one percent is in Canada. The Mississippi ranks as the fourth-longest and fifteenth-largest river by discharge in the world. The river either borders or passes through the states of Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa, Illinois, Missouri, Kentucky, Tennessee, Arkansas, Mississippi, and Louisiana.

Davenport, Iowa City in Iowa, United States

Davenport is the county seat of Scott County in Iowa and is located along the Mississippi River on the eastern border of the state. It is the largest of the Quad Cities, a metropolitan area with a population estimate of 382,630 and a CSA population of 474,226; it is the 90th largest CSA in the nation. Davenport was founded on May 14, 1836 by Antoine Le Claire and was named for his friend George Davenport, a former English sailor who served in the U.S. Army during the War of 1812, served as a supplier Fort Armstrong, worked as a fur trader with the American Fur Company, and was appointed a quartermaster with the rank of colonel during the Black Hawk War. According to the 2010 census, the city had a population of 99,685. The city appealed this figure, arguing that the Census Bureau missed a section of residents, and that its total population was more than 100,000. The Census Bureau estimated Davenport's 2018 population to be 102,085.

Black Hawk Purchase

The Black Hawk Purchase, which can sometimes be called the Forty-Mile Strip or Scott's Purchase, extended along the West side of the Mississippi River from the north boundary of Missouri North to the Upper Iowa River in the northeast corner of Iowa. It was fifty miles wide at the ends, and forty in the middle, and is sometimes called the "Forty-Mile Strip". The land, originally owned by the Sauk, Meskwaki (Fox), and Ho-Chunk (Winnebago) Native American people, was acquired by treaty following their defeat by the United States in the Black Hawk War. After being defeated the Sauk and Mesquakie were forced to relinquish another 2.5 million hectares or and give up their rights to plant, hunt, or fish on the land. The purchase was made for $640,000 on September 21, 1832 and was named for the chief Black Hawk, who was held prisoner at the time the purchase was completed. The Black Hawk Purchase contained an area of 6 million acres (24,000 km²), and the price was equivalent to 11 cents/acre. The region is bounded on the East by the Mississippi River and includes Dubuque, Fort Madison, and present-day Davenport.

Glaspell, circa 1883. Sgchild1883.jpg
Glaspell, circa 1883.

Glaspell was an accomplished student in the city's public schools, taking an advanced course of study and giving a commencement speech at her 1894 graduation. [11] By age eighteen she was earning a regular salary as a journalist for a local newspaper. [6] By twenty, she wrote a weekly 'Society' column that lampooned Davenport's upper class. [14]

At twenty-one Glaspell enrolled at Drake University, against the local belief that college made women unfit for marriage. [15] A philosophy major, she excelled in male-dominated debate competitions, winning the right to represent Drake at the state debate tournament her senior year. [16] A Des Moines Daily News article on her graduation ceremony cited Glaspell as "a leader in the social and intellectual life of the university." [17]

The day after graduation, Glaspell began working full-time for the Des Moines paper as a reporter, a rare position for a woman, particularly as she was assigned to cover the state legislature and murder cases. [18] After covering the conviction of a woman accused of murdering her abusive husband, Glaspell abruptly resigned at age twenty-four.

She moved back to Davenport to focus on writing fiction. [19] Unlike many new writers, she readily had her stories accepted and was published by the most widely read periodicals, [20] including Harper's , Munsey's , Ladies' Home Journal , and Woman's Home Companion . It was a golden age of short stories. She used a large cash prize from a short story magazine to finance her move to Chicago, where she wrote her first novel, The Glory of the Conquered , published in 1909. It was a best-seller, and The New York Times declared,

"Unless Susan Glaspell is an assumed name covering that of some already well-known author—and the book has qualities so out of the ordinary in American fiction and so individual that this does not seem likely—The Glory of the Conquered brings forward a new author of fine and notable gifts." [21]

Glaspell published her second novel, The Visioning , in 1911. The New York Times said of the book, "it does prove Miss Glaspell's staying power, her possession of abilities that put her high among the ranks of American storytellers." [22] Her third novel, Fidelity , was published in 1915. The New York Times described it as "a big and real contribution to American novels." [23]


Glaspell and husband George Cram Cook in 1917 George Cram Cook and Susan Glaspell.jpg
Glaspell and husband George Cram Cook in 1917

While in Davenport, Glaspell associated with other local writers to form the Davenport group. Among them was George Cram Cook, who was teaching English literature at the University of Iowa. He was from a wealthy family and also was a gentleman farmer. Though he was already in his second, troubled marriage, Glaspell fell in love with him. He divorced and they wed in 1913.

To escape Davenport's disapproving gossip and seek a larger artistic world, Glaspell and Cook moved to New York City's Greenwich Village. There they became key participants in America's first avant-garde artistic movement, and associated with many of the era's most well-known social reformers and activists, including Upton Sinclair, Emma Goldman, and John Reed. Glaspell became a leading member of Heterodoxy, an early feminist debating group composed of the premier women's rights crusaders. After a series of miscarriages, she underwent surgery to remove a fibroid tumor.

Along with many others of their artistic circles, Glaspell and Cook went to Provincetown, Massachusetts, on Cape Cod, for the summer of 1915, where they rented a cottage. Although still weak from surgery, Glaspell worked with Cook and friends to start an experimental theatre company, a "creative collective". They produced their first plays in a refurbished fishing wharf arranged for by another member of their group. What became known as the Provincetown Playhouse would be devoted to creating and producing artistic plays to reflect contemporary American issues. The Players rejected the more commercial and escapist melodramas produced on Broadway.

Despite the successes of her earlier fiction, Glaspell would be most remembered for the twelve groundbreaking plays she submitted to the company over the next seven years. Her first play, Trifles (1916), was based on the murder trial she had covered as a young reporter in Des Moines. Today considered an early feminist masterpiece, it was an instant success, riveting audiences with its daring views of justice and morality. It has since become one of the most anthologized works in American theatre history. In 1921 she completed Inheritors; following three generations of a pioneer family, it is perhaps America's first modern historical drama. This same year she also finished The Verge, one of the earliest American works of expressionist art.

Believing an amateur staff would lead to increased innovation, the Provincetown playwrights often participated directly in the production of their own plays. Though untrained, Glaspell received further acclaim as an actress. William Zorach, an early member of the group, reported "she had only to be on the stage and the play and the audience came alive." Jacques Copeau, a legendary French theatre director and critic, was moved to tears by a Glaspell performance. He described her as "a truly great actress." [24]

The original Provincetown Theater Provincetown Theatre - Van Vechten.jpg
The original Provincetown Theater

While considering new plays to produce, Glaspell discovered Eugene O'Neill, who would eventually be recognized as one of the greatest playwrights in American history. Other notables associated with the group include Edna St. Vincent Millay, Theodore Dreiser, and Floyd Dell, Glaspell's friend from the Davenport group.

After their first two seasons in Provincetown, the Players moved their theater to New York City. As the company became more successful, playwrights began to view it as a means to get picked up by other, more commercial theatre venues, a violation of the group's original purpose.

Cook and Glaspell decided to leave the company they founded, which had become 'too successful'. Glaspell was by now at the height of her theatre career, with her most recent play, The Verge, bringing the most praise. In 1922 Glaspell and Cook moved to Delphi, Greece. Cook died there in 1924 of glanders, an infectious disease he caught from his dog.

From the onset, Glaspell's plays were also published in print form, receiving laudatory reviews by New York's most prestigious periodicals. By 1918 Glaspell was already considered one of America's most significant new playwrights. In 1920 her plays began to be printed in England by the highly reputable British publisher, Small & Maynard. She was even better received there. English critics hailed her as a genius and ranked her above O'Neill. They compared her favorably to Henrik Ibsen, whom they ranked as the most important playwright since Shakespeare. To satisfy demand for Glaspell's writing, a British version of her novel Fidelity was published, going through five editions in five weeks. When Inheritors was produced for England in 1925, every leading newspaper and literary magazine published an extensive review, most unanimous in their praise. One enthusiastic reviewer claimed, "this play will live when Liverpool is a rubbish heap."[ citation needed ]

However, the influence and critical success of Glaspell's plays did not translate into financial gain. In order to support herself and her husband during their years with the theater, Glaspell continued to submit short stories to top periodicals for publication. Literary scholars consider the stories from this period to be her finest. It was during her productive time as a playwright that Glaspell also established herself as "a central figure in the development of the modern American short story."[ citation needed ]

Later career

Poster for the 1938 WPA production of Alison's House, for which Glaspell won the Pulitzer Prize for Drama. Alison's House by Susan Glaspell 1938.jpg
Poster for the 1938 WPA production of Alison's House, for which Glaspell won the Pulitzer Prize for Drama.

Glaspell returned to Cape Cod after Cook's death, where she wrote a well-received biography and tribute to her late husband, The Road to the Temple (1927). During the late twenties, she was romantically involved with the younger writer Norman H. Matson. In this period she wrote three best-selling novels, which she considered personal favorites: Brook Evans (1928), Fugitive's Return (1929), and Ambrose Holt and Family (1931). She also wrote the play Alison's House (1930), for which she was awarded the Pulitzer Prize in 1931. In 1932 Glaspell's relationship with Matson ended after eight years. She fell into her first and only period of low productivity as she struggled with depression, alcoholism, and poor health.

In 1936 Glaspell moved to Chicago after being appointed Midwest Bureau Director of the Federal Theater Project during the Great Depression. Over the next few years, she reconnected with siblings and regained control of her drinking and creativity. Glaspell returned to Cape Cod when her work for the Federal Theater Project was finished. Her years in the Midwest influenced her work. Her last three novels increasingly focused on the region, family life, and theistic questions. They included The Morning is Near Us (1939), Norma Ashe (1942), and Judd Rankin's Daughter (1945).

Susan Glaspell died of viral pneumonia in Provincetown on July 28, 1948.


Glaspell was highly regarded in her time, and was well known as a Pulitzer Prize-winning playwright. Her short stories were regularly printed in the era's top periodicals, and her New York Times obituary states that she was "one of the nation's most widely-read novelists."

In 1940 a new generation of influential Broadway-based critics began publishing derogatory reviews of her plays, having a sizable effect on her long-term standing. Exacerbating the issue was Glaspell's reluctance to seek publicity and her tendency to downplay her own accomplishments, perhaps a result of her modest Midwestern upbringing. In addition, Glaspell's idealistic novels of strong and independent female protagonists were less popular in the post-war era, which stressed female domesticity. Her novels fell out of print after her death. Accordingly, in the United States her work was seriously neglected for many years. Internationally, she received some attention by scholars, who were primarily interested in her more experimental work from the Provincetown years.

In the late 1970s feminist critics began to reevaluate Glaspell's career, [25] and interest in her work has grown steadily ever since. [26] In the early 21st century, Glaspell scholarship is a "burgeoning" field. [27] Several book-length biographies and analyses of her writing have been published by university presses since the late 20th century. After nearly a century of being out of print, a large portion of her work has been republished.

With major achievements in drama, novel, and short fiction, Glaspell is often cited as a "prime example" of an overlooked female writer deserving canonization. [28] Perhaps the originator of modern American theater, [28] Glaspell has been called "the First Lady of American Drama" [28] and "the Mother of American Drama."

In 2003 the International Susan Glaspell Society was founded, with the aim of promoting "the recognition of Susan Glaspell as a major American dramatist and fiction writer." Her plays are frequently performed by college and university theater departments, but she has become more widely known for her often-anthologized works: the one-act play Trifles, and its short-story adaptation, "A Jury of Her Peers". Since the late 20th century, these two pieces have become staples of theatre and Women's Studies curricula across the United States and the world.

Recent productions

In 1996 the Orange Tree Theatre in Richmond, London, began a long association with the plays of Susan Glaspell. Auriol Smith directed The Verge in 1996, one of the first of many plays by the American playwright to be performed at the theatre. The Mint Theater in New York City produced Alison's House in 1999 under the direction of Linda Ames Key. [29]

The Metropolitan Playhouse a New York resident theater dedicated to exploring and re-vitalizing American literature and culture, staged Inheritors in 2005; the production was directed by Yvonne Opffer Conybeare. [30]

In his 2008 programmed note for Inheritors, Orange Tree director Sam Walters wrote:

In 1996... I felt we had rediscovered a really important writer. Now, whenever I talk to American students, which I do quite often, I try my 'Glaspell test'. I simply ask them if they have heard of her, and almost always none of them have. Then I mention Trifles, and some realize they have heard of that much-anthologized short play. So even in her own country she is shamefully neglected. And when I type Glaspell on my computer it always wants to change it to Gaskell.

The Ontological Hysteric Incubator Arts project put on two plays by Glaspell, The Verge in 2009, directed by Alice Reagan; and Trifles in 2010, directed by Brooke O'Harra and Brendan Connelly.

As of 2013 the theater has produced three of Glaspell's one-act plays and five of her full-length plays, including the first ever production of Glaspell's unpublished final play, Springs Eternal.

In September 2015, celebrating the centenary of Provincetown Players, American Bard Theater Company presented a 12-hour celebration, featuring performances of 10 of Glaspell's plays in a single day. [31]

As of 2018, The San Diego State University school of theatre, television, and film opened this fall with The Glaspell Project. This project consisted of two one-act plays by Susan Glaspell: Trifles written in 1916 and Women Horror written in 1918. The plays were directed by faculty member Randy Reinholz and sold out immediately. Ticket charge was $20 and $17 for students. The production ran Friday September 28 through Sunday October 7 in the SDSU’s experimental theatre. This school aspires to gender equality and has pledged that half of each season's productions will be written by female playwrights. Reinholz said:

"It’s important to recognize that women, or any group, are not a group of homogenous people. I am very familiar with working as a very close ally and advocate, but also as an outsider, facilitating the original authentic voice on stage." [32]






Further reading


Critical articles

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  1. Ben-Zvi, Linda. "Preface." Preface. Susan Glaspell: Her Life and Times. Oxford University Press, 2005. Ix.
  2. Sarlós, Robert K. (1984). "The Provincetown Players' Genesis or Non-Commercial Theatre on Commercial Streets", Journal of American Culture, Vol. 7, Issue 3 (Fall 1984), pp. 65–70
  3. Ben-Zvi, Linda. "Preface." Preface. Susan Glaspell: Her Life and Times, Oxford University Press, 2005. X.
  4. Alison's House at the Internet Broadway Database
  5. Smith, Dinitia. "Rediscovering a Playwright Lost to Time.", New York Times, June 30, 2005. Theater page. Print.
  6. 1 2 Ben-Zvi, Linda (2005). Susan Glaspell: Her Life and Times. Oxford University Press, second cover
  7. Carpentier, Martha C. (2008). "Susan Glaspell: New Directions in Critical Inquiry." Cambridge Scholars Publishing, pp. 3
  8. Billington, Michael. "Alison's House", The Guardian , Sunday 11 October 2009. Theatre page.
  9. 1900 United States Federal Census
  10. Ben-Zvi, Linda (2005). Susan Glaspell: Her Life and Times. Oxford University Press, pp. 13
  11. 1 2 Ben-Zvi, p. 25.
  12. 1 2 Ben-Zvi, p. 5.
  13. Ben-Zvi, p. 17.
  14. Ben-Zvi, p. 30.
  15. Ben-Zvi, p. 35.
  16. Ben-Zvi, p. 37.
  17. Ben-Zvi, p. 28.
  18. Ben-Zvi, p. 38.
  19. Ben-Zvi, p. 47.
  20. Ben-Zvi, p. 51.
  21. Ben-Zvi, p. 98.
  22. Ben-Zvi, p. 113.
  23. Ben-Zvi, p. 159.
  24. Helen Deutsch and Stella Hanau, The Provincetown: A Story of the Theatre (New York: Farrar & Rinehart, 1931), pp. 24-25.
  25. Bach, Gerhard and Harris, Claudia (Mar., 1992). "Susan Glaspell: Rediscovering an American Playwright", Theatre Journal, Vol. 44, No. 1, pp. 94
  26. Patricia L. Bryan and Martha C. Carpentier, ed. (2010). Her America: "A Jury of Her Peers" and Other Stories by Susan Glaspell, University of Iowa Press, pp 3.
  27. Black, Cheryl (2000, Spring/Fall). ["Review of the book 'Susan Glaspell: A Critical Biography'"], by Barbara Ozieblo, The Eugene O'Neill Review, Vol. 24, No. 1/2, pp. 139-141
  28. 1 2 3 Ozieblo-Rajkowska, Barbara (1989). "The First Lady of American Drama: Susan Glaspell." BELLS: Barcelona English Language and Literature Studies. 1, pp. 149-159.
  29. "Springs Eternal | Whats On | Orange Tree Theatre". Retrieved 2018-12-04.
  30. "Inheritors at the Metropolitan Playhouse 2005 | The International Susan Glaspell Society". Retrieved 2018-12-04.
  31. Desk, BWW News. "American Bard Theater Company to Pay Tribute to Susan Glaspell with HOUR BY HOUR, 9/12". Retrieved 2018-12-04.
  32. "NewsCenter | SDSU". Retrieved 2018-12-04.
  33. 1 2 3 Susan Glaspell (2010). Susan Glaspell: The Complete Plays (Paperback). United States: McFarland Co Inc. ISBN   978-0786434329.