Suvorov Monument, Suvorov Square
|Material|| Bronze (statue)|
|Height||3.37 metres (11.1 ft) (statue)|
4.05 metres (13.3 ft) (pedestal)
|Dedicated to||Alexander Suvorov|
The Suvorov Monument (Russian : Памятник Суворову) is a bronze sculpture of Generalissimo Alexander Suvorov located in Saint Petersburg. It is at the centre of Suvorov Square, opposite the Field of Mars and the Trinity Bridge, and between the Marble Palace and the Saltykov Mansion.
Russian is an East Slavic language, which is an official language in the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely used throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia. It was the de facto language of the Soviet Union until its dissolution on 25 December 1991. Although nearly three decades have passed since the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russian is used in official capacity or in public life in all the post-Soviet nation-states, as well as in Israel and Mongolia.
Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12–12.5% tin and often with the addition of other metals and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or silicon. These additions produce a range of alloys that may be harder than copper alone, or have other useful properties, such as stiffness, ductility, or machinability.
Generalissimo is a military rank of the highest degree, superior to field marshal and other five-star ranks in the states where they are used.
Commissioned in 1799 by Emperor Paul I to commemorate Suvorov's Italian expedition that year, the execution was entrusted to sculptor Mikhail Kozlovsky. His design was approved in early 1800, and depicted Suvorov in the allegorical guise of the god Mars. The sculpture was cast in bronze, but neither Paul nor Suvorov lived to see its unveiling, which took place in May 1801. The monument marked a number of firsts, it was the first monument in Russia to someone other than a member of the Imperial family, and the first time that a monument had been ordered during the subject's lifetime. It was also first major monument created entirely by Russian craftsmen.
Paul I reigned as Emperor of Russia between 1796 and 1801. Officially, he was the only son of Peter III and Catherine the Great, though Catherine hinted that he was fathered by her lover Sergei Saltykov.
The Italian and Swiss expeditions of 1799 and 1800 were undertaken by a combined Austro-Russian army under overall command of the Russian General Alexander Suvorov against French forces in Piedmont, Lombardy and Switzerland as part of the Italian campaigns of the French Revolutionary Wars in general and the War of the Second Coalition in particular.
Mikhail Ivanovich Kozlovsky was a Russian Neoclassical sculptor active during the Age of Enlightenment.
The monument was originally planned to be located in Gatchina, though the site was changed to the Tsaritsyn Meadows, later the Field of Mars. It was unveiled in the presence of Emperor Alexander I, many of his generals, and Suvorov's son Arkadi. The monument was moved to its present location in 1818 as part of a general reconstruction of the area by architect Carlo Rossi. It now stands at the centre of Suvorov Square. Its pedestal was replaced in the 1830s, and it survived the siege of Leningrad undamaged.
Gatchina is a town and the administrative center of Gatchinsky District in Leningrad Oblast, Russia. It lies 45 kilometers (28 mi) south of St. Petersburg, along the E95 highway leading to Pskov. Population: 92,937 (2010 Census); 88,420 (2002 Census); 79,714 (1989 Census).
Alexander I was the Emperor of Russia (Tsar) between 1801 and 1825. He was the eldest son of Paul I and Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg. Alexander was the first king of Congress Poland, reigning from 1815 to 1825, as well as the first Russian Grand Duke of Finland, reigning from 1809 to 1825.
Arkadi Alexandrovich Suvorov, Count Rymniksky, was a Russian general. A son of Alexander Suvorov, he rose to the rank of lieutenant general.
The monument was developed by order of Emperor Paul I, to commemorate Suvorov's 1799 Italian expedition, for which he received the victory title of "Prince of Italy".The granite pedestal bears the inscription: "The Prince of Italy, Count Suvorov-Rymniki. 1801."
A victory title is an honorific title adopted by a successful military commander to commemorate his defeat of an enemy nation. The practice was first used by Ancient Rome and is still most commonly associated with the Romans, but it was also adopted as a practice by many later empires, especially the French, British and Russian Empires.
The figure of Suvorov was sculpted in bronze by Mikhail Kozlovsky between 1799 to 1801, with his proposed design being approved in January 1800.Suvorov is depicted in the allegorical guise of the god Mars, with a raised sword in his right hand and with a shield in his left, in classical armour and helmet. The face of the figure does not exactly resemble Suvorov, but is intended to be symbolic of a "heroic" figure. The figure stands beside an altar with reliefs of Faith, Hope and Love, on which the papal tiara and crowns of Austria and the Kingdom of Sardinia are placed, protected by the figure's shield, which bears the Russian coat of arms. The cartouche on the pedestal is supported by figures representing the genius of Glory.
In ancient Roman religion and myth, Mars was the god of war and also an agricultural guardian, a combination characteristic of early Rome. He was second in importance only to Jupiter and he was the most prominent of the military gods in the religion of the Roman army. Most of his festivals were held in March, the month named for him, and in October, which began the season for military campaigning and ended the season for farming.
The papal tiara is a crown that was worn by popes of the Catholic Church from as early as the 8th century to the mid-20th. It was last used by Pope Paul VI in 1963 and only at the beginning of his reign.
Habsburg Monarchy is an umbrella term used by historians for the lands and kingdoms of the House of Habsburg, especially for those of the Austrian branch. Although from 1438 until 1806 the head of the House of Habsburg was also Holy Roman Emperor, the empire itself is not considered a part of the Habsburg Monarchy.
The monument was cast in bronze by Vasily Ekimov in the foundry workshop of the Imperial Academy of Arts, with the bronze bas-relief on the pedestal sculpted by Fyodor Gordeyev. 3.37 metres (11.1 ft), with the pedestal 4.05 metres (13.3 ft) high. It was officially unveiled on 17 May [ O.S. 5 May] 1801. It was the first monument in Russia to someone other than a member of the Imperial family or its earlier predecessors, and the first time that a monument had been ordered during the subject's lifetime. It was also first major monument created entirely by Russian craftsmen. In the event, neither Suvorov nor Paul lived to see its completion. Suvorov died in May 1800, while Paul was killed during a palace coup in March 1801. Instead the new emperor, Paul's son, Alexander I, attended the unveiling, along with many of his generals, and Suvorov's son Arkadi.In the agreement with Ekimov signed on 12 October 1800, it was arranged that the statue would be cast and polished by 1 April 1801. The foundry however was experiencing a particularly heavy workload, with the gates for the Mikhailovsky Castle, and statues, bowls and vases for the Grand Cascade at the Peterhof Palace being cast there, resulting in some delays for the monument. The pedestal was made of marble to the design of Andrey Voronikhin, using materials left over from the construction of Saint Isaac's Cathedral. Kozlovsky made several complaints against the contractors building the pedestal, accusing them of poor workmanship. As completed, the statue stands
Vasily Petrovich Ekimov was a Russian master founder. His surname is sometimes spelled Yekimov (Еки́мов) or Yakimov (Якимов).
The Russian Academy of Arts in Saint Petersburg, informally known as the Saint Petersburg Academy of Arts, was founded in 1757 by the founder of the Imperial Moscow University Ivan Shuvalov under the name Academy of the Three Noblest Arts. Catherine the Great renamed it the Imperial Academy of Arts and commissioned a new building, completed 25 years later in 1789 by the Neva River. The academy promoted the neoclassical style and technique, and sent its promising students to European capitals for further study. Training at the academy was virtually required for artists to make successful careers.
Fyodor Gordeyevich Gordeyev was a Russian sculptor.
The monument was initially to be placed in Gatchina, until Emperor Paul designated a new site so as to be close to his new residence at the Mikhailovsky Castle.The monument was originally located in the southern part of the Tsaritsyn Meadows, now the Field of Mars, close to the Moyka River. In 1818 the area around the Mikhailovsky Castle was redeveloped by architect Carlo Rossi, who suggested moving the monument to a newly-created square facing the River Neva. Emperor Alexander I approved the suggestion, and the square became known as Suvorov Square. At some point between 1801 and 1818 a chain fence supported by cannon balls was erected around the monument. In 1834 the original marble pedestal was found to be suffering from cracking, and was replaced with a pink granite pedestal of the same design between 1836 and 1838.
During the siege of Leningrad plans were made to hide the monument in the cellar of a nearby house, but the window opening was too small and the plan to hide the monument was never carried out.A story arose that one of the numerous bombs dropped on the city narrowly missed the monument and instead struck the cellar of the house. The monument was the subject of a 1941 poem by Vsevolod Rozhdestvensky, "Suvorov Monument", with its opening lines
"Among the Baltic sunny spaces,
Over the wide open Neva,
As the god of war, rose bronze Suvorov
A vision of Russian battle glory."
The monument survived the siege of Leningrad undamaged.
Preliminary models of the monument are displayed in Moscow's Tretyakov Gallery and Saint Petersburg's Russian Museum.
The Field of Mars is a large square in the centre of Saint Petersburg. Over its long history it has been alternately a meadow, park, pleasure garden, military parade ground, revolutionary pantheon and public meeting place.
The Rumyantsev Obelisk is a granite obelisk located in Saint Petersburg. It is at the centre of Rumyantsev Square, on Vasilyevsky Island, between the Menshikov Palace and the Saint Petersburg Institute for Painting, Sculpture and Architecture. The obelisk commemorates the victories of Count Pyotr Rumyantsev during the Russo-Turkish War between 1768 and 1774, and his service in the Russo-Turkish War of 1787–1792.
The Monument to Nicholas I is a bronze equestrian monument of Nicholas I of Russia on St Isaac's Square in Saint Petersburg, Russia. Created by French sculptor Auguste de Montferrand and unveiled on July 7 [O.S. June 25] , 1859, the six-meter statue was considered a technical wonder at the time of its creation. It is one of only a few bronze statues with only two support points. Another example is the 1852 equestrian statue of U.S. President Andrew Jackson.
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