Suzanne Scotchmer (January 23, 1950 – January 30, 2014) was an American professor of law, economics and public policy at the University of California, Berkeley and also a noted author on many economic subjects. She earned her B.A. from University of Washington magna cum laude in 1970, her M.A. in statistics from UC Berkeley in 1979, and her PhD in economics from UC Berkeley in 1980.
Scotchmer was raised in Pelican, Alaska, where her grandparents homesteaded after failing as gold rushers.
Scotchmer held visiting and teaching positions at Harvard University, University of Auckland, Cergy-Pontoise University, Tel Aviv University, Pantheon-Sorbonne University, the University of Toronto Law School, University of Southern California, New School of Economics, Moscow, and the Stockholm School of Economics. She also has held research fellowships at Yale University and Stanford University. She also served on editorial boards of American Economic Review, Journal of Economic Literature, Journal of Economic Perspectives, Regional Science and Urban Economics, and the Journal of Public Economics. Scotchmer served on various committees of the National Research Council and was a member of the Board on Science, Technology, and Economic Policy. The Department of Justice used her as a consultant on antitrust.She was a fellow of the Econometrics Society.
She was most renowned for her contributions on economic literature on subjects ranging from intellectual property and innovation to game theory. She was considered one of the leading and most prominent experts on patent law and incentives for R&D and game theory. Her pieces were cited several times on work in the subject. She served as a scholar in residence at the US appellate court and has been called to testify as an expert in patent matters.
In 2017 The Econometric Society published a book recalling her life and work with a collection of 11 of her best-known papers.
Scotchmer died on January 30, 2014, one week after her 64th birthday, following a brief bout with intestinal cancer.
James Joseph Heckman is a Nobel Prize winning American economist who is currently at the University of Chicago, where he is The Henry Schultz Distinguished Service Professor in Economics and the College; Professor at the Harris Graduate School of Public Policy Studies; Director of the Center for the Economics of Human Development (CEHD); and Co-Director of Human Capital and Economic Opportunity (HCEO) Global Working Group. He is also Professor of Law at the Law School, a senior research fellow at the American Bar Foundation, and a research associate at the National Bureau of Economic Research. In 2000, Heckman shared the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences with Daniel McFadden, for his pioneering work in econometrics and microeconomics. As of February 2019, he is the next most influential economist in the world.
A patent is a form of intellectual property that gives its owner the legal right to exclude others from making, using, selling and importing an invention for a limited period of years, in exchange for publishing an enabling public disclosure of the invention. In most countries patent rights fall under civil law and the patent holder needs to sue someone infringing the patent in order to enforce his or her rights. In some industries patents are an essential form of competitive advantage; in others they are irrelevant.
Hirsh Zvi Griliches was an economist at Harvard University. The works by Zvi Griliches mostly concerned the economics of technological change, including empirical studies of diffusion of innovations and the role of R & D, patents, and education.
Pamela Samuelson is the Richard M. Sherman '74 Distinguished Professor of Law and Information Management at the University of California, Berkeley with a joint appointment in the UC Berkeley School of Information and Boalt Hall, the School of Law..
James Packard "Jamie" Love is the director of Knowledge Ecology International, formerly known as the Consumer Project on Technology, a non-governmental organization with offices in Washington, D.C. and Geneva, that works mainly on matters concerning knowledge management and governance, including intellectual property policy and practice and innovation policy, particularly as they relate to health care and access to knowledge.
David John Teece, CNZM, is a US-based organizational theorist and the Professor in Global Business and director of the Tusher Center for the Management of Intellectual Capital at the Walter A. Haas School of Business at the University of California, Berkeley.
The Max Planck Institute for Innovation and Competition is a Munich, Germany, based research institute, which is part of the Max Planck Society for the Advancement of Science, which manages 84 institutes and research institutions. The institute was formerly known as Max Planck Institute for Intellectual Property and Competition Law and the name was changed to Max Planck Institute for Innovation and Competition in view of the broader focus of the institute and its interdisciplinary character. The major research areas of the institute are intellectual property, innovation and competition. Apart from providing research support for scholars from across the world, the institute also publishes the International Review of Intellectual Property and Competition Law (IIC).
A patent thicket is a concept with negative connotations that has been described as "a dense web of overlapping intellectual property rights that a company must hack its way through in order to actually commercialize new technology," or, in other words, "an overlapping set of patent rights” which requires innovators to reach licensing deals for multiple patents from multiple sources."
Frederic Michael Scherer is an American economist and expert on industrial organization. Since 2006, he continues as a Professor of Economics at the JFK School of Government at Harvard University.
Legal scholars, economists, activists, policymakers, industries, and trade organizations have held differing views on patents and engaged in contentious debates on the subject. Critical perspectives emerged in the nineteenth century that were especially based on the principles of free trade. Contemporary criticisms have echoed those arguments, claiming that patents block innovation and waste resources that could otherwise be used productively, and also block access to an increasingly important "commons" of enabling technologies, apply a "one size fits all" model to industries with differing needs, that is especially unproductive for industries other than chemicals and pharmaceuticals and especially unproductive for the software industry. Enforcement by patent trolls of poor quality patents has led to criticism of the patent office as well as the system itself. Patents on pharmaceuticals have also been a particular focus of criticism, as the high prices they enable puts life-saving drugs out of reach of many people. Alternatives to patents have been proposed, such Joseph Stiglitz's suggestion of providing "prize money" as a substitute for the lost profits associated with abstaining from the monopoly given by a patent.
The Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) is an international legal agreement between all the member nations of the World Trade Organization (WTO). It sets down minimum standards for the regulation by national governments of many forms of intellectual property (IP) as applied to nationals of other WTO member nations. TRIPS was negotiated at the end of the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) between 1989 and 1990 and is administered by the WTO.
Aaron S. Edlin is a noted expert in law and economics, specializing in antitrust. In 1997–1998, he served in the Clinton White House as Senior Economist within the Council of Economic Advisers focusing on the areas of industrial organization, regulation and antitrust. In 1999, he co-founded the Berkeley Electronic Press, an electronic publishing company that assists with scholarly communication.
Adam B. Jaffe is a freelance economist working in Boston, Massachusetts. He was previously Director of Motu Economic and Public Policy Research, in Wellington, New Zealand, and a professor of Economics at Brandeis University. His areas of expertise include Industrial Organization, technological change and innovation, law and economics, and environmental economics. The overarching theme of his work is focused on the process of technological change and innovation.
Oriana Bandiera, FBA is an Italian economist and academic, specialising in development economics. She has been Professor of Economics at the London School of Economics since 2009. She is currently the Sir Anthony Atkinson Professor of Economics at the London School of Economics, Director of the Suntory and Toyota International Centres for Economics and Related Disciplines since 2012, Director of State Capabilities at the International Growth Centre, and Co-Director of the Development Research Program at the CEPR.
Richard J. Gilbert is an American economist who served as Deputy Assistant General in the Antitrust Division of the U.S. Department of Justice in the White House from 1993 to 1995, and author of Innovation Matters: Competition Policy for the Knowledge Economy, published by M.I.T. Press. While at the U.S. Justice Department, Richard Gilbert led the development of Joint Department of Justice and Federal Trade Commission Antitrust Guidelines for the Licensing of Intellectual Property. Emeritus Professor of Economics at the University of California at Berkeley, Richard Gilbert was president of the Industrial Organization Society and from 2002 to 2005 the Chair of the department. Professor Gilbert has taken special interest in innovation and energy economics. Richard J. Gilbert now works as Emeritus from the University, as a consultant for Compass Lexicon and was on the Board of the East Bay College Fund Oakland Promise Association.
Rochelle Cooper Dreyfuss is an American attorney who is the Pauline Newman Professor of Law and Co-Director of the Engelberg Center on Innovation Law & Policy at New York University Law School.
Daniel Lee Rubinfeld is an American economist specializing in public economics and law and economics. He is a professor of law at the New York University School of Law, as well as the Robert L. Bridges Professor Emeritus of Law and Professor Emeritus of Economics at the University of California, Berkeley. He is the author of two textbooks: Microeconomics and Econometric Models and Economic Forecasts.
Jean Olson "Jenny" Lanjouw was an American economist, economics professor at Yale University and associated professor at the University of California, Berkeley's Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics. She undertook empirical work on poverty and economic development, developed statistical tools to project poverty and inequalities at the local level, and a policy system to provide access to drugs for developing countries without violating drug manufacturers' patents.
Nancy T. Gallini is an economist, professor emeritus, researcher, and author. She is a professor emeritus at the Vancouver School of Economics based in the University of British Columbia. She has served on multiple editorial boards such as American Economic Review, International Journal of Industrial Organization, Journal of Economic Literature and the Journal of Industrial Economics. In 2008, Dr. Gallini was appointed as a member to the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada. From 2011-2014 Dr. Gallini served on the executive council for the Canadian Economic Association. Her research "focuses on the economics of intellectual property, competition policy, strategic alliances, licensing, and optimal patent policy". She is the co-author of Competition Policy and Intellectual Property Rights in the Knowledge-Based Economy. She has won numerous awards and a fellowship throughout her career. She has received 8 research grants from the Social Science and Humanities Research Council. These grants are one SSHRC Leave Fellowship, one SSHRC Post-Doctoral Fellowship and six SSHRC Research Grants.
Rebecca Sue Eisenberg is an American lawyer and professor. She is a Robert and Barbara Luciano Professor at the University of Michigan Law School.