Alliluyeva in 1970
Svetlana Iosifovna Stalina
28 February 1926
|Died||22 November 2011 85) (aged|
|Other names||Lana Peters|
|Occupation||Writer and Lecturer|
Svetlana Iosifovna Alliluyeva (née Stalina) (Russian : Светла́на Ио́сифовна Аллилу́ева, Georgian :სვეტლანა იოსების ასული ალილუევა; Russian: Сталина;[ citation needed ] 28 February 1926 – 22 November 2011), later known as Lana Peters, was the youngest child and only daughter of Soviet leader Joseph Stalin and his second wife Nadezhda Alliluyeva. In 1967, she caused an international furor when she defected to, and in 1978 became a naturalized citizen of, the United States. From 1984 to 1986, she briefly returned to the Soviet Union and had her Soviet citizenship returned. She was Stalin's last surviving child.
Svetlana Alliluyeva was born on 28 February 1926.As her mother was interested in pursuing a professional career, a nanny, Alexandra Bychokova, was hired to look after Alliluyeva and her older brother Vasily (born 1921). Alliluyeva and Bychokova became quite close, and remained friends for 30 years, until Bychokova died in 1956.
On 9 November 1932, when she was 6, her mother, Nadezhda aged 31, committed suicide following a public spat with Stalin at a dinner party.
On 15 August 1942, Winston Churchill saw Alliluyeva in Stalin's private apartments at the Kremlin, describing her as "a handsome red-haired girl, who kissed her father dutifully". Churchill says Stalin "looked at me with a twinkle in his eye as if, so I thought, to convey 'You see, even we Bolsheviks have a family life.'"
At the age of sixteen, Alliluyeva fell in love with Aleksei Kapler, a Jewish Soviet filmmaker who was 38 years old. Her father vehemently disapproved of the relationship and Kapler was sentenced to five years of exile in 1943 to Vorkuta and was then sentenced again in 1948 to five years in labor camps near Inta.
When she was seventeen years old, Grigory Morozov (1921–2001), a fellow student at Moscow University, proposed to her. Her father grudgingly allowed the couple to marry, although he made a point of never meeting the groom. A son, Iosif, was born in 1945. The couple divorced in 1947, but remained close friends for decades afterwards.
Alliluyeva's second marriage was arranged for her to Yuri Zhdanov, the son of Stalin's right-hand man Andrei Zhdanov and himself one of Stalin's close associates. The couple married in 1949. In 1950, Alliluyeva gave birth to a daughter, Yekaterina. The marriage was dissolved soon afterwards.
In 1962, she married Ivan Svanidze, the nephew of Stalin through his first wife, Ekaterine "Kato" Svanidze. Her third marriage also proved to be short-lived, and ended in 1963.
From 1970 to 1973, she was married to American architect William Wesley Peters (an acolyte of Frank Lloyd Wright), with whom she had a daughter, Olga Peters (later known also as Chrese Evans).
After her father's death in 1953, Alliluyeva worked as a lecturer and translator in Moscow. Her training was in History and Political thought, a subject she was forced to study by her father, although her true passion was literature and writing.In a 2010 interview, she stated that his refusal to let her study arts and his treatment of Kapler were the two times that Stalin "broke my life", and that the latter loved her but was "a very simple man. Very rude. Very cruel." When asked at a New York conference about whether she agreed with her father's rule, she said that she was disapproving of a lot of his decisions but also noted that the responsibility for them also lay with the Communist regime in general.
In 1963, while in hospital for a tonsillectomy, Alliluyeva met Kunwar Brajesh Singh, an Indian Communist from the Kalakankar Rajput Zamindar family visiting Moscow. The two fell in love. Singh was mild-mannered and well-educated but gravely ill with bronchiectasis and emphysema. The romance grew deeper and stronger still while the couple were recuperating in Sochi near the Black Sea. Singh returned to Moscow in 1965 to work as a translator, but he and Alliluyeva were not allowed to marry. He died the following year, in 1966. She was allowed to travel to India to take his ashes to his family to pour into the Ganges river. In an interview on 26 April 1967, she referred to Singh as her husband but also stated that they were never allowed to marry officially.
On 9 March 1967, Alliluyeva approached the United States Embassy in New Delhi. After she stated her desire to defect in writing, the United States Ambassador Chester Bowles offered her political asylum and a new life in the United States.
At about nine o’clock p.m. in India, eleven in the morning Washington time, I said, "I have a person here who states she's Stalin's daughter, and we believe she's genuine; unless you instruct me to the contrary, I’m putting her on the one a.m. plane for Rome where we can stop and think the thing through. I’m not giving her any commitment that she can come to the States. I’m only enabling her to leave India, and we will see her to some part of the world—the U.S. or somewhere else—where she can settle in peace. If you disagree with this, let me know before midnight." No comment ever came from Washington. This is one advantage that non-career Ambassadors have; they can go ahead and do unorthodox things without anybody objecting, where a Foreign Service officer might not dare do it. We talked to her and said, "Point number one—are you really sure that you want to leave home? You’ve got a daughter and a son there, and this is a big step to take. Have you really thought it through? You could go back to the Russian embassy right now (she was staying there in their dormitory) and simply go to sleep and forget it, and get up Wednesday morning and on to Moscow, as your schedule calls for." She immediately said, "If this is your decision, I shall go to the press tonight; and announce that (a) democratic India will not take me (they had turned her down prior to her coming) and (b), now democratic America refuses to take me." Well, she didn't need to do it; I was just trying it on for size to be sure she had thought it through. But she was very quick on this.
Alliluyeva accepted. The Indian government feared condemnation by the Soviet Union, so she was immediately sent from India to Rome. When the Qantas flight arrived in Rome,Alliluyeva immediately travelled farther to Geneva, Switzerland, where the government arranged her a tourist visa and accommodation for six weeks. She travelled to the United States, leaving her adult children in the USSR. Upon her arrival in New York City in April 1967, she gave a press conference denouncing her father's legacy and the Soviet government.
After living for several months in Mill Neck, Long Island under Secret Service protection, Alliluyeva moved to Princeton, New Jersey, where she lectured and wrote, later moving to Pennington.
In a 2010 interview, she described herself as "quite happy here [Wisconsin]". [ when? ] While Western sources saw a KGB hand behind this, [ page needed ] her children claimed that this is because of her complex character. In 1983, after the Soviet government had stopped blocking Alliluyeva's attempts to communicate with her USSR-based children, her son Iosif began to call her regularly and planned to visit her in England, but was refused permission to travel by the Soviet authorities.Her children who were left behind in the Soviet Union did not maintain contact with her.
She did experiment with various religions. [ who? ] claim she had money problems, others[ who? ] argue that her financial situation was good, because of her great popularity. For example, her first book, Twenty Letters to a Friend, caused a worldwide sensation and brought her, some estimate, about $2,500,000. Alliluyeva herself stated that she gave away much of her book proceeds to charity and by around 1986 had become impoverished, facing debt and failed investments.While some
In 1970, Alliluyeva answered an invitation from Frank Lloyd Wright's widow, Olgivanna Lloyd Wright, to visit Wright's winter studio, Taliesin West, in Scottsdale, Arizona.In 1978, Alliluyeva became a US citizen, and in 1982, she moved with her daughter to Cambridge in England, where they shared an apartment near the Cambridge University Botanic Garden.
In 1984, during a time where Stalin's legacy saw partial rehabilitation in the Soviet Union, she moved back together with her daughter Olga, and both were given Soviet citizenship.In 1986, she again moved to the U.S. with Olga, and after her return denied anti-Western comments she had made while back in the USSR (including that she had not enjoyed "one single day" of freedom in the West and had been a pet of the CIA).
Alliluyeva, for the most part, lived the last two years of her life in southern Wisconsin, either in Richland Center or in Spring Green, the location of Wright's summer studio "Taliesin". She died on 22 November 2011 from complications arising from colon cancer in Richland Center,where she had spent time while visiting from Cambridge.
At the time of Alliluyeva's death, her youngest daughter, Olga, went by the name Chrese Evans and ran a fashion boutique in Portland, Oregon. Yekaterina, a geologist, was living in Siberia's Kamchatka Peninsula studying a volcano. Her son Iosif, a cardiologist, had died in Russia in 2008.
Alliluyeva was baptized into the Russian Orthodox Church on 20 March 1963. During her years of exile, she flirted with various religions. She then turned to the Orthodox Church and is also reported to have thought of becoming a nun.
In 1967, Alliluyeva found herself spending time with Roman Catholics in Switzerland and encountered many denominations during her time in the US. She received a letter from Father Garbolino, an Italian Catholic priest from Pennsylvania, inviting her to make a pilgrimage to Fátima, in Portugal, on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the famous apparitions there. In 1969, Garbolino, who was in New Jersey, came to visit Alliluyeva at Princeton. In California, she lived with a Catholic couple, Michael and Rose Ginciracusa, for two years (1976–78). She read books by authors such as Raissa Maritain. In Cambridge, in December 1982, on the feast of Santa Lucia, Advent, Alliluyeva converted to the Roman Catholic Church.
While in the Soviet Union, Alliluyeva had written a memoir in Russian in 1963. The manuscript was carried safely out of the country by Ambassador T. N. Kaul, who returned it to her in New Delhi. Alliluyeva handed her memoir over to the CIA agent Robert Rayle at the time of her own defection. Rayle made a copy of it. The book was titled Twenty Letters to a Friend ("Dvadtsat' pisem k drugu"). It was the only thing other than a few items of clothing taken by Alliluyeva on a secret passenger flight out of India.Raymond Pearson, in Russia and Eastern Europe, described Alliluyeva's book as a naïve attempt to shift the blame for Stalinist crimes onto Lavrentiy Beria, and whitewash her own father.
Alliluyeva was portrayed by Joanna Roth in the HBO's 1992 television film Stalinand Andrea Riseborough in the 2017 satirical film The Death of Stalin .
Alliluyeva is the subject of the 2019 novel The Red Daughter by American writer John Burnham Schwartz.
Nadezhda Sergeevna Alliluyeva was the second wife of Joseph Stalin. Born in Baku to a revolutionary and friend of Stalin, she was raised in Saint Petersburg. Having known Stalin from a young age, the two married when she was 18, and they had two children. Alliluyeva worked as a secretary for Bolshevik leaders, including both Vladimir Lenin and Stalin, before enrolling at the Industrial Academy in Moscow to study synthetic fibres and become an engineer. Alliluyeva had several health issues, which combined with her interest in pursuing an independent, professional career led to frequent arguments with Stalin, who wanted his wife to maintain a domestic role. On several occasions, Alliluyeva contemplated leaving Stalin, and after an argument shot herself the night of 9 November 1932.
William Wesley Peters was an American architect and engineer, apprentice to and protégé of Frank Lloyd Wright.
Polina Semyonovna Zhemchuzhina was a Soviet politician and the wife of the Soviet foreign minister Vyacheslav Molotov. Zhemchuzhina was the director of the Soviet national cosmetics trust from 1932 to 1936, Minister of Fisheries in 1939, and head of textiles production in the Ministry of Light Industry from 1939 to 1948.
Aleksei Yakovlevich Kapler was a prominent Soviet filmmaker, screenwriter, actor and writer. He was known as screenwriter of many Soviet movies, such as Lenin in 1918, Amphibian Man, The Blue Bird and Striped Trip, as well as one of the anchors and directors of TV program Kinopanorama. In 1941, Kapler was awarded the Stalin Prize.
Yakov Iosifovich Dzhugashvili was the eldest of Joseph Stalin's three children, the son of Stalin's first wife, Kato Svanidze, who died 9 months after his birth. His father, then a young revolutionary in his mid-20s, left the child to be raised by his late wife's family. In 1921, when Dzhugashvili had reached the age of fourteen, he was brought to Moscow, where his father had become a leading figure in the Bolshevik government who eventually became head of the Soviet Union. Disregarded by Stalin, Dzhugashvili was a shy, quiet child who appeared quite unhappy and tried to commit suicide several times as a youth. Married twice, Dzhugashvili had three children, two of whom reached adulthood.
Vasily Iosifovich Stalin was the son of Joseph Stalin by his second wife, Nadezhda Alliluyeva. Vasily's mother committed suicide when he was 11 years old, so he was mainly raised by his father. He joined the Air Force when Nazi Germany launched Operation Barbarossa, the invasion of the Soviet Union, in 1941. While he saw limited active service, he managed to rise to the rank of general. After the war he held a few command posts. After Joseph Stalin's death in 1953, Vasily lost his authority, developed a severe alcohol problem, and was ultimately arrested and sentenced to prison. He was later granted clemency, though he spent the remainder of his life between imprisonment and hospitalization until his death in 1962.
Rosemary Sullivan is a Canadian poet, biographer, and anthologist.
Nikolai Sidorovich Vlasik was a ranking Soviet state security officer, Lieutenant-General, best known as head of Joseph Stalin's personal security from 1931 to 1952.
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Olgivanna Lloyd Wright was the third and final wife of architect Frank Lloyd Wright, whom she met in November 1924. The two married in 1928, founded Wright's architectural apprentice program, the Taliesin Fellowship, in 1932, and, the Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation in 1940. Olgivanna became the President of the Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation upon her husband's death in 1959 and remained president until a month before her own death in 1985.
Born and raised in Moscow, Svetlana "Lana" Parshina moved to the United States at 21. With multiple academic degrees, Lana Parshina initially worked as a Russian/English/German interpreter who had worked on projects with Library of Congress, a freelance journalist, and a public relations consultant/crisis manager in New York City. But, filmmaking was her passion and she left a vibrant career in crisis management to embrace her dream. She turned to New York University Tisch School of the Arts to learn filmmaking. In several years, she had produced a number of independent films. Svetlana about Svetlana, a documentary on Joseph Stalin's daughter – Svetlana Alliluyeva – was her directorial debut. Svetlana about Svetlana is used by many Ivy League Universities, such as Princeton, Yale, Stanford, as an audio-visual supplement to teaching 20th Century history classes. It is distributed in the US/Canada by Icarus Films. In 2010, Parshina directed "360 Around the World" documentary about a Swiss pilot Riccardo Mortara breaking the world record in circumnavigating the globe aboard a 30-year-old Sabreliner 65. In 2016, she directed "Singer who Fell" about a 105-year-old student of Konstantin Stanislavski, who still taught vocals in her Moscow apartment.
Svetlana about Svetlana is a 2008 film that explores the life and literary works of Svetlana Alliluyeva, Joseph Stalin's daughter. It is the story of Lana Parshina and her attempt to find Svetlana Alliluyeva and, ultimately, to find some answers to the questions about Alliluyeva's autobiographical book Twenty Letters to a Friend that Lana read when she was ten.
Stalin is a 1992 television film, produced for HBO, starring Robert Duvall portraying Soviet leader Joseph Stalin. The film won three Golden Globe Awards among various awards including cinematography awards for Vilmos Zsigmond as well as best actor for Robert Duvall. Filming was done in Budapest and Moscow, with extraordinary access to Kremlin buildings in the weeks surrounding the Dissolution of the Soviet Union.
Iosif Grigor'evich Alliluyev was a Russian cardiologist and a grandson of Joseph Stalin.
Stanislav Frantsevich Redens was a Soviet NKVD official, one of those responsible for conducting mass repressions under Joseph Stalin. Redens was himself executed in 1940, after being arrested at the end of the Great Purge in 1938.
Brajesh Singh was an Indian politician belonging to the Communist Party of India. He hailed from the royal family of Kalakankar near Allahabad and his nephew Dinesh Singh was a minister in the Indian cabinet.
Yuri Andreyevich Zhdanov was a Russian chemistry professor and rector of the University of Rostov. He was the son of Soviet politician Andrei Zhdanov and a former husband of Joseph Stalin's daughter, Svetlana Alliluyeva.
Ekaterine Giorgis asuli Geladze, commonly known as "Keke", was the mother of Joseph Stalin.
Ivan "Dzhonrid" Alexandrovich Svanidze, was a Soviet academic who specialized in agriculture and African Studies. He was the nephew of Joseph Stalin through his first wife, Ketevan Svanidze, and the third husband of Stalin's youngest daughter, Svetlana Alliluyeva.
The Inta Corrective Labor Camp (Intalag) was a forced labor camp of the Gulag, which existed between 1941 and 1948 near the town of Inta in the Komi Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. Prisoners at the camp were mainly engaged in the mining of local coal deposits.
At her birth, on Feb. 28, 1926, she was named Svetlana Stalina, the only daughter and last surviving child of the brutal Soviet tyrant Joseph Stalin. ... Mrs. Peters died of colon cancer on November 22 in Richland County, Wis., the county's corporation counsel, Benjamin Southwick, said on Monday...
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