Swan Canal

Last updated
Swan Canal
Lebyazhy Canal 01.jpg
Native nameЛебяжья канавка
Location
Country Russia
Physical characteristics
Source 
  location Moyka River
  coordinates 59°56′29″N30°20′10″E / 59.94139°N 30.33611°E / 59.94139; 30.33611
Mouth  
  location
Neva River
  coordinates
59°56′49″N30°19′56″E / 59.94694°N 30.33222°E / 59.94694; 30.33222
Length0.648 km (0.403 mi)

The Swan Canal (Russian : Лебяжья канавка) is a waterway located in Saint Petersburg. Dating from the early years of the foundation of the city, it connects the Moyka and Neva Rivers.

Russian language East Slavic language

Russian is an East Slavic language, which is official in the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely used throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia. It was the de facto language of the Soviet Union until its dissolution on 25 December 1991. Although nearly three decades have passed since the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russian is used in official capacity or in public life in all the post-Soviet nation-states, as well as in Israel and Mongolia.

Saint Petersburg Federal city in the Northwestern federal district, Russia

Saint Petersburg is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015). An important Russian port on the Baltic Sea, it has a status of a federal subject.

Moyka River river in Russia

The Moyka River is a small river in Russia that encircles the central portion of Saint Petersburg, effectively making it an island. The river, originally known as Mya, derives its name from the Ingrian word for "slush" or "mire". It is 5 kilometres (3 mi) long and 40 metres (130 ft) wide.

Contents

Originally built as part of a system of drainage channels and canals, the Swan Canal replaced a shallow river that flowed between the Summer Garden and the area that became known as the Field of Mars. The canal was dug between 1711 and 1719, and was known as the Summer Canal or Summer Garden Canal. In later years it became a popular habitat for swans, from which it eventually took its name. The canal has undergone repairs and reconstruction over its existence, deepening the channel, and replacing wooden banks with granite. Today it is used by small pleasure boats, and is crossed by two bridges, one of which, the Upper Swan Bridge, is one of the oldest stone bridges in the city.

Summer Garden park

The Summer Garden occupies an island between the Fontanka, Moika, and the Swan Canal in Saint Petersburg, Russia and shares its name with the adjacent Summer Palace of Peter the Great.

Field of Mars (Saint Petersburg) Square in Saint Petersburg, Russia

The Field of Mars is a large square in the centre of Saint Petersburg. Over its long history it has been alternately a meadow, park, pleasure garden, military parade ground, revolutionary pantheon and public meeting place.

Upper Swan Bridge Bridge in Saint Petersburg

Upper Swan Bridge is a single-span stone bridge in Saint Petersburg. It is one of the oldest stone bridges in the city and carries Palace Embankment across the Swan Canal.

Location and characteristics

The Swan Canal is in Dvortsovy Municipal Okrug, part of the Tsentralny District of the city. It connects the Moyka River to the south, carrying water north to the Neva River, into which it empties. It divides the Summer Garden to the east from the Field of Mars to the west. It is 648 m (2,126 ft) long, 8 m (26 ft) wide and 1 m (3.3 ft) deep. [1] [2] Two bridges span the canal, the Upper Swan Bridge, at the northern end of the canal at its confluence with the Neva, and the Lower Swan Bridge at the southern end, where it branches from the Moyka. [1] [2] Today it is one of the oldest canals in the city, and is used by small pleasure boats. [3] [4]

Dvortsovy Municipal Okrug human settlement in Russia

Dvortsovy Municipal Okrug is a municipal okrug of Tsentralny District of the federal city of St. Petersburg, Russia. Population: 6,426 (2010 Census); 10,491 (2002 Census).

Tsentralny District, Saint Petersburg District in federal city of St. Petersburg, Russia

Tsentralny District is a district of the federal city of St. Petersburg, Russia. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 214,625; down from 236,856 recorded in the 2002 Census.

Neva River River in Russia

The Neva ) is a river in northwestern Russia flowing from Lake Ladoga through the western part of Leningrad Oblast to the Neva Bay of the Gulf of Finland. Despite its modest length of 74 kilometres (46 mi), it is the fourth largest river in Europe in terms of average discharge.

History

The view south along the Swan Canal, towards the Mikhailovsky Castle, 1880s, by Alexey Bogolyubov Bogolubov Michael's Castle from Lebiazhy Canal 1880s.jpg
The view south along the Swan Canal, towards the Mikhailovsky Castle, 1880s, by Alexey Bogolyubov

The site of the canal was previously occupied by a shallow swampy river, the Lebedinka (Russian : Лебединка), flowing between the Moyka and the Neva Rivers. Between 1711 and 1719, as part of measures to drain the land now occupied by the Field of Mars, it was cleaned, deepened and renamed the Summer Canal (Russian : Летний канал) or the Summer Garden Canal (Russian : канал Летнего сада), after the Summer Garden, which lies alongside the canal's eastern bank. [1] [2] The Red Canal was dug to the west of the Field of Mars, also with the purpose of draining the land. [5] [6] The sides of the canal were reinforced with wooden piles, and possibly also lined with wooden railings about this time, as a 1761 document refers to their repair. [4]

Red Canal Former canal in Saint Petersburg

Red Canal was an eighteenth-century waterway in Saint Petersburg. Built between 1711 and 1719, it was part of a series of canals dug to improve the drainage of the marshy areas of the city. The canal was one of two connecting the Moyka River and the Neva River in the area of what is now the Field of Mars. Opened in the presence of Peter the Great and Tsarina Catherine in 1719, the canal became a popular site for the nobility to construct large townhouses. By the 1770s the canal was no longer required for its original purpose, and with the expansion of buildings across the Neva embankment, the canal was filled in. A stone bridge built over the canal in 1768 was transferred to the Winter Canal, and survives today as the First Winter Bridge.

Sometime after this, the Summer Canal was settled and became a habitat for swans from the nearby Summer Garden, and the canal became known as the Swan Canal. [2] [4] By the 1730s the canal was crossed by at least four wooden bridges, and in 1733 its banks were reinforced with wood. In 1799 the eastern bank, alongside the Summer Garden, was strengthened with a stone terrace to the design of Grigory Pilnikov  [ ru ], and a pier was also constructed, decorated with iron vases by architect Carlo Rossi. [1] [3] [4]

Carlo Rossi (architect) Italian-born Russian architect

Carlo di Giovanni Rossi was an Italian architect who worked in Imperial Russia. He was the author of many classical buildings and architectural ensembles in Saint Petersburg and its environments.

The view north towards the Upper Swan Bridge and the junction with the Neva, 1839, by Ivan Belonogov [ru
] Lebiazh'ia kanavka Belonogov.jpg
The view north towards the Upper Swan Bridge and the junction with the Neva, 1839, by Ivan Belonogov  [ ru ]

In 1823, as part of the redevelopment of the land around the Field of Mars and the Mikhailovsky Palace, Sadovaya Street was extended up to the eastern edge of the Field of Mars, joining the pathway running parallel to the Swan Canal, and connecting with Millionnaya Street, which crossed the field's northern boundary. [7] In 1824 the terrace was destroyed in a flood, and had to be restored, with stone balusters replaced with a cast-iron openwork grille. [4]

Mikhailovsky Palace Palace in Saint Petersburg, Russia

The Mikhailovsky Palace is a grand ducal palace in Saint Petersburg, Russia. It is located on Arts Square and is an example of Empire style neoclassicism. The palace currently houses the main building of the Russian Museum and displays its collections of early, folk, eighteenth, and nineteenth century art.

Sadovaya Street or Garden Street is a major thoroughfare in Saint Petersburg, Russia, passing through the historic city center.

Millionnaya Street thoroughfare in Saint Petersburg, Russia

Millionnaya Street is a street in the Central District of St. Petersburg. It runs parallel to the Palace Quay from the Swan Canal to the Palace Square. Significant buildings include the New Hermitage Museum, the Chief Pharmacy, the Marble Palace, and the New Michael Palace.

Expansion across the meadow's Neva frontage continued in the 1780s with the construction of the service wing of the Marble Palace, and the Betskoy  [ ru ] and the Saltykov Mansions. [5] The Betskoy Mansion, now the home of the Saint-Petersburg State University of Culture and Arts, was built between 1784 and 1787 by Jean-Baptiste Vallin de la Mothe, stands on the west bank of the canal, close to the Upper Swan Bridge. [3] The canal's banks were reinforced in 1934, though a similar strengthening project planned for 1941 had to be cancelled after the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union. [4] Further work on the structure of the canal was carried out between 1953 and 1956, involving deepening it, facing the banks with granite, and landscaping the slopes with earth. [1] In 1997 the walkway beside the canal embankment was repaired, trees planted, and new fences installed. [4]

Bridges

The Upper Swan Bridge and the confluence of the Swan Canal and the Neva Verkhny Lebyazhy Bridge.jpg
The Upper Swan Bridge and the confluence of the Swan Canal and the Neva

The Upper Swan Bridge began as a wooden bridge across the Lebedinka at the point it enters the Neva. It was built between 1711 and 1715, and was named the Swan Bridge. It was replaced in 1768 by a single-span stone bridge designed by Yury Felten. It underwent repairs between 1927 and 1928, and again in 1931 and in 2003. [8] The Upper Swan Bridge is one of the oldest stone bridges in the city. [3] A wooden drawbridge to the design of engineer Harmen van Bol'es was built between 1720 and 1733 at the confluence with the Moyka river, and named the First Tsaritsyn Bridge, after the Tsaritsyn Meadow, now the Field of Mars. It was replaced by a single-span stone bridge built between 1835 and 1837, named the Lower Swan Bridge, as part of the redevelopment of the area around the Mikhailovsky Castle. It was repaired in 1849, and further reconstructed between 1925 and 1926. [1]

Related Research Articles

Fontanka River left branch of the river Neva in Saint Petersburg, Russia

The Fontanka, a left branch of the river Neva, flows through the whole of Central Saint Petersburg, Russia - from the Summer Garden to Gutuyevsky Island. It is 6.7 kilometres (4.2 mi) long; its width is up to 70 metres (230 ft), and its depth is up to 3.5 metres (11 ft). The Moyka River forms a branch of the Fontanka. The Fontanka Embankment is lined with the former private residences of Russian nobility.

Griboyedov Canal canal

The Griboyedov Canal or Kanal Griboyedova is a canal in Saint Petersburg, constructed in 1739 along the existing Krivusha river. In 1764–90, the canal was deepened and the banks were reinforced and covered with granite.

Rumyantsev Obelisk Monument in Saint Petersburg

The Rumyantsev Obelisk is a granite obelisk located in Saint Petersburg. It is at the centre of Rumyantsev Square, on Vasilyevsky Island, between the Menshikov Palace and the Saint Petersburg Institute for Painting, Sculpture and Architecture. The obelisk commemorates the victories of Count Pyotr Rumyantsev during the Russo-Turkish War between 1768 and 1774, and his service in the Russo-Turkish War of 1787–1792.

Kolomna Municipal Okrug municipal okrug of Saint Petersburg

Kolomna Municipal Okrug is a municipal okrug of Admiralteysky District of the federal city of St. Petersburg, Russia. Population: 39,164 (2010 Census); 37,642 (2002 Census).

Hermitage Bridge bridge in Russia

The Hermitage Bridge is a bridge across the Winter Canal along Palace Embankment in Saint Petersburg, Russia. The bridge constitutes part of the Hermitage and Winter Palace ensemble.

Petrogradsky Island island

Petrogradsky Island is the third largest island in the Neva River delta in Saint Petersburg, Russia. Along with Zayachy Island, Aptekarsky Island, and Petrovsky Island, it constitutes the Petrogradskaya Side (Russian: Петроградская сторона). It is the administrative center of the Petrogradsky District and hosts a number of universities and research centers, as well as cultural, historical, and recreational facilities.

Summer Palace of Peter the Great palace

The Summer Palace of Peter the Great was built between 1710–1714 in the northeast corner of the Summer Garden, located on an island formed by the Fontanka river, Moyka river, and the Swan Canal. Its northern perimeter runs along the left bank of the Neva river across from the Cabin of Peter the Great and Peter and Paul Fortress and was the first palace built in Saint Petersburg, the second largest city in Russia. It was the first palace built in Saint Petersburg and the city's first building which had piped water.

Suvorov Square (Saint Petersburg)

Suvorov Square is a city square in Tsentralny District, Saint Petersburg. It is located between Palace Embankment and the junction of Sadovaya Street and Millionnaya Street, at the southern end of the Trinity Bridge and the northern end of the Field of Mars. It is bordered to the east by the Saltykov Mansion and to the west by the service wing of the Marble Palace.

Monument to the Fighters of the Revolution Memorial in Saint Petersburg

The Monument to the Fighters of the Revolution is a memorial on the Field of Mars in Saint Petersburg. It marks the burial places of some of those who died during the February and October Revolutions in 1917, and casualties who died between 1917 and 1933 in the Russian Civil War or otherwise in the establishment of Soviet power. It contains the first eternal flame in Russia.

Lower Swan Bridge Bridge in Saint Petersburg

Lower Swan Bridge is a single-span stone bridge in Saint Petersburg crossing the Swan Canal at its junction with the Moyka River.

First Winter Bridge Bridge in Saint Petersburg

First Winter Bridge is a single-span stone bridge in Saint Petersburg, carrying Millionnaya Street across the Winter Canal. The current bridge was originally built in 1768 to cross a different watercourse, and was rebuilt and opened in its present location in 1784.

Mikhailovsky Garden

The Mikhailovsky Garden is a large area of parkland and landscape garden in the centre of Saint Petersburg.

Rossi Bridge

The Rossi Bridge is a cast-iron bridge in the Mikhailovsky Garden in Saint Petersburg. It was designed by architect Carlo Rossi during his redevelopment of the garden in the early 1820s, and built in 1825.

Rossi Pavilion

The Rossi Pavilion is a pavilion on the bank of the Moyka River in the Mikhailovsky Garden in Saint Petersburg. It was designed by architect Carlo Rossi in the early 1820s and built in 1825 during his redevelopment of the garden.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 "Нижний Лебяжий мост". citywalls.ru (in Russian). Archived from the original on 2 July 2019. Retrieved 2 July 2019.
  2. 1 2 3 4 Seliverstov, Yu. P. "Лебяжий канал". encspb.ru (in Russian). Archived from the original on 2 July 2019. Retrieved 2 July 2019.
  3. 1 2 3 4 "Lebyazhya Kanavka (Swan Canal)". saint-petersburg.com. Archived from the original on 2 July 2019. Retrieved 2 July 2019.
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 "Набережная Лебяжьей канавки". mostotrest-spb.ru (in Russian). Archived from the original on 2 July 2019. Retrieved 2 July 2019.
  5. 1 2 Boglachev, S. V. "Марсово поле, ансамбль". encspb.ru (in Russian). Archived from the original on 30 December 2018. Retrieved 18 June 2019.
  6. "Царицын луг - Марсово поле". citywalls.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 19 June 2019.
  7. "Марсово поле". walkspb.ru (in Russian). Archived from the original on 30 June 2019. Retrieved 12 June 2019.
  8. "Верхний Лебяжий мост". citywalls.ru (in Russian). Archived from the original on 2 July 2019. Retrieved 2 July 2019.