Sweyn Forkbeard

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Sweyn Forkbeard
Sweyn Forkbeard.jpg
Sweyn (Suanus rex) invading England in 1013 (detail of a 13th-century miniature). Cambridge University Library.
King of Denmark
Reign986–1014
Predecessor Harald Bluetooth
Successor Harald II
King of Norway
Reign
  • 986–995
  • 1000–1014
Predecessor
Successor Olaf II
King of England
Reign1013–1014
Predecessor Æthelred
Successor Æthelred
Bornc. 960
Denmark
Died3 February 1014
Gainsborough, Lincolnshire
Burial
Spouse Świętosława / Sigrid/ Gunhild (detail)
Issue
among others...
House House of Denmark
Father Harald Bluetooth
MotherGunhild or Tove

Sweyn Forkbeard ( /swn/ ; Old Norse: Sveinn Haraldsson tjúguskegg; [1] Danish: Svend Tveskæg; 960 – 3 February 1014) was king of Denmark from 986 to 1014. He was the father of King Harald II of Denmark, King Cnut the Great and Queen Estrid Svendsdatter.

Old Norse North Germanic language

Old Norse was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and their overseas settlements from about the 9th to the 13th centuries.

Danish language North Germanic language spoken in Denmark

Danish is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark and in the region of Southern Schleswig in northern Germany, where it has minority language status. Also, minor Danish-speaking communities are found in Norway, Sweden, Spain, the United States, Canada, Brazil, and Argentina. Due to immigration and language shift in urban areas, around 15–20% of the population of Greenland speak Danish as their first language.

Harald II of Denmark King of Denmark

Harald II of Denmark was King of Denmark from 1014 until his death in 1018. He was the youngest son of Sweyn Forkbeard and Gunhild of Wenden, and was regent while his father was fighting Ethelred the Unready in England. He inherited the Danish throne in 1014, and held it while his brother, the later king Cnut the Great conquered England. After his death in 1018, he was succeeded by Cnut the Great. Little detail is known about Harald II.

Contents

In the mid-980s, Sweyn revolted against his father, Harald Bluetooth, and seized the throne. Harald was driven into exile and died shortly afterwards in November 986 or 987. [2] In 1000, with the allegiance of Trondejarl, Eric of Lade, Sweyn ruled most of Norway. In 1013, shortly before his death, he became the first Danish king of England after a long effort.

Harald Bluetooth King of Denmark and Norway

Harald "Bluetooth" Gormsson was a king of Denmark and Norway.

Biography

A coin of Sweyn Forkbeard, minted in 995; this is the earliest known coin with a Latin inscription minted in Scandinavia, based on Anglo-Saxon models and made by an English moneyer (obv.: ZVEN REX AD DENER "Sven, king of [or among] the Danes", rev.: GOD-WINE M-AN D-NER "Godwine, moneyer among the Danes"). Sweyn Forkbeard coin.jpg
A coin of Sweyn Forkbeard, minted in 995; this is the earliest known coin with a Latin inscription minted in Scandinavia, based on Anglo-Saxon models and made by an English moneyer (obv.: ZVEN REX AD DENER "Sven, king of [or among] the Danes", rev.: GOD-WINE M-AN D-NER "Godwine, moneyer among the Danes").

Historiographical sources on Sweyn's life include the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (where his name is rendered as Swegen), [4] Adam of Bremen's 12th-century Deeds of the Bishops of Hamburg , and Snorri Sturluson's 13th-century Heimskringla . [5] Conflicting accounts of Sweyn's later life also appear in the Encomium Emmae Reginae , an 11th-century Latin encomium in honour of his son king Cnut's queen Emma of Normandy, along with Chronicon ex chronicis by Florence of Worcester, another 11th-century author.

<i>Anglo-Saxon Chronicle</i> Set of related medieval English chronicles

The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle is a collection of annals in Old English chronicling the history of the Anglo-Saxons. The original manuscript of the Chronicle was created late in the 9th century, probably in Wessex, during the reign of Alfred the Great. Multiple copies were made of that one original and then distributed to monasteries across England, where they were independently updated. In one case, the Chronicle was still being actively updated in 1154.

Adam of Bremen chronicler

Adam of Bremen was a German medieval chronicler. He lived and worked in the second half of the eleventh century. Adamus is most famous for his chronicle Gesta Hammaburgensis Ecclesiae Pontificum.

Snorri Sturluson Icelandic historian, poet and politician (1179–1241)

Snorri Sturluson was an Icelandic historian, poet, and politician. He was elected twice as lawspeaker to the Icelandic parliament, the Althing. He was the author of the Prose Edda or Younger Edda, which consists of Gylfaginning, a narrative of Norse mythology, the Skáldskaparmál, a book of poetic language, and the Háttatal, a list of verse forms. He was also the author of the Heimskringla, a history of the Norwegian kings that begins with legendary material in Ynglinga saga and moves through to early medieval Scandinavian history. For stylistic and methodological reasons, Snorri is often taken to be the author of Egil's saga.

Sweyn's father, Harald Bluetooth, was the first of the reigning Scandinavian kings to be baptised, in the early or mid-960s. According to Adam of Bremen, Harald's son Sweyn was baptised "Otto" (in honour of German king Otto I). [6] There are conflicting records as to the identity of his mother. [2] Adam of Bremen identifies her as "Gunhild", but some modern day scholars give her name as Tove from Western Wendland. [7] Sweyn married the widow of Erik, king of Sweden, named "Gunhild" in some sources, [7] or identified as an unnamed sister of Boleslav, ruler of Poland. [2]

Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor German king and first emperor of the Ottonian empire

Otto I, traditionally known as Otto the Great, was German king from 936 and Holy Roman Emperor from 962 until his death in 973. He was the oldest son of Henry I the Fowler and Matilda.

Tove of the Obotrites Slavic princess and a Danish Viking Age queen consort

Tove of the Obotrites, also called Tova, Tofa or Thora, was a Slavic princess and a Danish Viking Age queen consort, the spouse of King Harald Bluetooth.

Eric the Victorious Swedish king

Eric the Victorious was a Swedish monarch as of around 970. Since he is the first Swedish king in a consecutive regnal succession, who is attested in sources independent of each other, Sweden's list of rulers usually begins with him. His son Olof Skötkonung, however, is considered the first ruler documented to definitely have been accepted both by the original Swedes around Lake Mälaren and by the Geats around Lake Vättern, which peoples were fundamental in forming the nation of Sweden.

Revolt and possible exile

Sweyn and the Jomsvikings at the funeral ale of his father Harald Bluetooth. Painting by Lorenz Frolich, c. 1883-86, Frederiksborg Castle. Swen Widlobrody ubt.jpeg
Sweyn and the Jomsvikings at the funeral ale of his father Harald Bluetooth. Painting by Lorenz Frølich, c. 1883–86, Frederiksborg Castle.

In the mid-980s, Sweyn revolted against his father and seized the throne. Harald was driven into exile and died shortly afterwards in November 986 or 987. [2]

Adam of Bremen depicted Sweyn as a rebellious pagan who persecuted Christians, betrayed his father and expelled German bishops from Scania and Zealand. According to Adam, Sweyn was sent into exile by his father's German friends and deposed in favour of king Eric the Victorious of Sweden, whom Adam wrote ruled Denmark until his death in 994 or 995. Sørensen (2001) argues that Adam's depiction of Sweyn may be overly negative, as seen through an "unsympathetic and intolerant eye". [8] Adam's account is thus not seen as entirely reliable; the claimed 14-years' exile of Sweyn to Scotland does not seem to agree with Sweyn's building churches in Denmark throughout the same period, including the churches in Lund and Roskilde. [9] According to Adam, Sweyn was punished by God for leading the uprising which led to king Harald's death, and had to spend fourteen years abroad (i.e. 986–1000). The historicity of this exile, or its duration, is uncertain. Adam purports that Sweyn was shunned by all those with whom he sought refuge, but was finally allowed to live for a while in Scotland. Adam also suggests that Sweyn in his youth lived among heathens, and only achieved success as a ruler after accepting Christianity.

Scania Place in Götaland, Sweden

Scania, also known as Skåne, is the southernmost province (landskap) of Sweden. Within Scania, there are 33 municipalities that are autonomous within the Scania Regional Council. Scania's largest city is Malmö, which is also the third largest in Sweden, as well as the fifth largest in Scandinavia.

Sweden constitutional monarchy in Northern Europe

Sweden, formal name: the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian Nordic country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, and is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund, a strait at the Swedish-Danish border. At 450,295 square kilometres (173,860 sq mi), Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area. Sweden has a total population of 10.2 million of which 2.5 million have a foreign background. It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre (57/sq mi). The highest concentration is in the southern half of the country.

Lund Place in Scania, Sweden

Lund is a city in the province of Scania, southern Sweden, across the Øresund from Copenhagen. The town had 91,940 inhabitants out of a municipal total of 121,510 as of 2018. It is the seat of Lund Municipality, Skåne County.

Battle of Svolder

Division of Norway after the Battle of Svolder according to Heimskringla: The red area was under direct Danish control, with Sweyn's ruling it as a Danish extension. Eirikr Hakonarson ruled the purple area as a fiefdom from Sweyn Forkbeard. The yellow area was under Sveinn Hakonarson, his half-brother, held as a fief of Olof Skotkonung, the Swedish king. Norway 1000 AD.png
Division of Norway after the Battle of Svolder according to Heimskringla : The red area was under direct Danish control, with Sweyn's ruling it as a Danish extension. Eiríkr Hákonarson ruled the purple area as a fiefdom from Sweyn Forkbeard. The yellow area was under Sveinn Hákonarson, his half-brother, held as a fief of Olof Skötkonung, the Swedish king.

Harald Bluetooth had already established a foothold in Norway, controlling Viken in c. 970. He may, however, have lost control over his Norwegian claims following his defeat against a German army in 974.

Sweyn built an alliance with Swedish king Olof Skötkonung and Eirik Hákonarson, Jarl of Lade, against Norwegian king Olaf Tryggvason. The Kings' sagas ascribe the causes of the alliance to Olaf Tryggvason's ill-fated marriage proposal to Sigrid the Haughty and his problematic marriage to Thyri, sister of Svein Forkbeard.

The allies attacked and defeated king Olaf in the western Baltic Sea when he was sailing home from an expedition, in the Battle of Svolder, fought in September of either 999 or 1000. The victors divided Norway among them. According to the account of the Heimskringla, Sweyn re-gained direct control of Viken district.

King Olaf of Sweden received four districts in Trondheim as well as Møre, Romsdal and Rånrike (the Fagrskinna , by contrast, says that the Swedish part consisted of Oppland and a part of Trondheim). He gave these to his son in law, Jarl Svein Hákonarson, to hold as a vassal. The rest of Norway was ruled by Eirik Hákonarson as King Svein's vassal.

The Jarls Eirik and Svein proved strong, competent rulers, and their reign was prosperous. Most sources say that they adopted Christianity but allowed the people religious freedom, leading to a backlash against Christianity which undid much of Olaf Tryggvason's missionary work. [10]

Religion

King Sweyn enlisted priests and bishops from England rather than from the Archbishopric of Bremen. This may have been a reason for Adam of Bremen's apparent hostility in his accounts. Numerous converted priests of Danish origin from the Danelaw lived in England, while Sweyn had few connections to Germany or its priests. By allowing English ecclesiastical influence in his kingdom, he was spurning the Hamburg-Bremen archbishop. Since German bishops were an integral part of the secular state, Sweyn's preference for the English church may have been a political move. He sought to pre-empt any threat against his independence posed by the German kings. [11]

Invasions of England

The "Chronicle of John of Wallingford" (c. 1225–1250) records Sweyn's involvement in raids against England during 1002–1005, 1006–1007, and 1009–1012 to avenge the St. Brice's Day massacre of England's Danish inhabitants in November 1002. According to Ashley (1998), Sweyn's invasion was partly motivated by the massacre of Danes in England ordered by Æthelred the Unready in 1002, in which his sister and brother-in-law are said to have been killed. [12] but Lund (2001) argues that the main motivation for the raids was more likely the prospect of revenue. [9]

Sweyn campaigned in Wessex and East Anglia in 1003–1004, but a famine forced him to return to Denmark in 1005. Further raids took place in 1006–1007, and in 1009–1012 Thorkell the Tall led a Viking invasion into England. Simon Keynes regards it as uncertain whether Sweyn supported these invasions, but "whatever the case, he was quick to exploit the disruption caused by the activities of Thorkell's army". [13] Sweyn acquired massive sums of Danegeld through the raids. In 1013, he is reported to have personally led his forces in a full-scale invasion of England. [14]

The contemporary Peterborough Chronicle (part of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle ) states:

before the month of August came king Sweyn with his fleet to Sandwich. He went very quickly about East Anglia into the Humber's mouth, and so upward along the Trent till he came to Gainsborough. Earl Uchtred and all Northumbria quickly bowed to him, as did all the people of the Kingdom of Lindsey, then the people of the Five Boroughs. He was given hostages from each shire. When he understood that all the people had submitted to him, he bade that his force should be provisioned and horsed; he went south with the main part of the invasion force, while some of the invasion force, as well as the hostages, were with his son Cnut. After he came over Watling Street, they went to Oxford, and the town-dwellers soon bowed to him, and gave hostages. From there they went to Winchester, and the people did the same, then eastward to London. [15]

But the Londoners put up a strong resistance, because King Æthelred and Thorkell the Tall, a Viking leader who had defected to Æthelred, personally held their ground against him in London itself. Sweyn then went west to Bath, where the western thanes submitted to him and gave hostages. The Londoners then followed suit, fearing Sweyn's revenge if they resisted any longer. King Æthelred sent his sons Edward and Alfred to Normandy, and himself retreated to the Isle of Wight, and then followed them into exile. [15] On Christmas Day 1013 Sweyn was declared King of England.

Based in Gainsborough, Lincolnshire, Sweyn began to organise his vast new kingdom, but he died there on 3 February 1014, having ruled England for only five weeks. His embalmed body was returned to Denmark for burial in the church he had built. Tradition locates this church in Roskilde, [13] but it is more plausible that it was actually located in Lund in Scania (now part of Sweden). [16] Sweyn's elder son, Harald II, succeeded him as King of Denmark, while his younger son, Cnut, was proclaimed King of England by the people of the Danelaw. However, the English nobility sent for Æthelred, who upon his return from exile in Normandy in the spring of 1014 managed to drive Cnut out of England. Cnut soon returned and became king of all England in 1016, following the deaths of Æthelred and his son Edmund Ironside; he succeeded his brother as King of Denmark in 1019 and eventually also ruled Norway, parts of Sweden, Pomerania, and Schleswig.

Cnut and his sons, Harold Harefoot and Harthacnut, ruled England over a combined 26-year period (1016–1042). After Harthacnut's death, the English throne reverted to the House of Wessex under Æthelred's younger son Edward the Confessor (reigned 1042–1066).

Sweyn's daughter, Estrid Svendsdatter, was the mother of King Sweyn II of Denmark. Her descendants continue to reign in Denmark to this day. One of them, Margaret of Denmark, married James III of Scotland in 1469, introducing Sweyn's bloodline into the Scottish royal house. After James VI of Scotland inherited the English throne in 1603, Sweyn's descendants became monarchs of England again.

Issue

Sweyn had eight children with Sigrid the Haughty and Gunhild of Wenden:

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References

  1. Svæinn Harallz sunr; Latinized forms of the name Sveinn are Suanus, Suenus, or Sveinus (Haraldi filius). The nickname tjúguskegg is a compound of tjúga "fork" and skegg "beard". Sweyn is so named in Fagrskinna chapters 27 and 41 (ed. Finnur Jónsson 1902–8, pp. 161, 206), in both cases in references to Astriðr dottor Svæins tiuguskægs .
  2. 1 2 3 4 Sawyer, P. H. (2004). "Swein (Sveinn Haraldsson, Sveinn Tjúguskegg, Swein Forkbeard) (d. 1014), king of England and of Denmark". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/26830 . Retrieved 27 February 2013.(subscription or UK public library membership required)
  3. Timothy Bolton, The Empire of Cnut the Great: Conquest and the Consolidation of Power in Northern Europe in the Early Eleventh Century (2009), p. 162. Nils Hybel, Bjorn Poulsen, The Danish Resources c. 1000–1550: Growth and Recession (2007), p. 86
  4. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. Manuscripts C, D, and E. Edited by Jebson, Tony. Accessed 18 August 2011.
  5. Howard, Ian (2003). Swein Forkbeard's Invasions and the Danish Conquest of England, 991– 1017. Woodbridge: Boydell Press. pp. 7–8. ISBN   0-85115-928-1.
  6. Adam of Bremen Gesta II.3. Ed. Schmeidler, trans. Tschan, pg. 56
  7. 1 2 "Svend 1. Tveskæg". Den Store Danske. Retrieved 27 February 2013.
  8. Sørensen, M.P. (2001). "Religions Old and New", The Oxford Illustrated History of the Vikings. Ed. P.H. Sawyer. Oxford University Press (2001), pg. 202
  9. 1 2 Lund, Niels (2001). "The Danish Empire and the End of the Viking Age", The Oxford Illustrated History of the Vikings. Ed. P. H. Sawyer. Oxford University Press, 2001, p. 167–181. ISBN   0-19-285434-8.
  10. This is according to Heimskringla and Fagrskinna, see Lee M. Hollander (trans.) (1991) Heimskringla, p. 244 and Finlay Finlay, Alison (editor and translator) (2004) Fagrskinna, p. 130. According to Historia Norwegie and Ágrip , the Jarls actively worked to uproot Christianity in Norway, see Driscoll, M.J. (editor) (1995). Ágrip af Nóregskonungasǫgum. Viking Society for Northern Research, p. 35 and Ekrem, Inger (editor), Lars Boje Mortensen (editor) and Peter Fisher (translator) (2003). Historia Norwegie (2003), p. 101.
  11. Lund, Niels (1986). "The armies of Swein Forkbeard and Cnut: leding or li(th)" Anglo-Saxon England 15 (1986), p. 39–40The Christianization of Scandinavia, Birgit Sawyer, et al., ed. Kungälv: Viktoria Bokforlag, p. 80. ISBN   91-86708-04-X.
  12. Mike Ashley, British Monarchs; A complete genealogy, gazetteer and biographical Encyclopaedia of the Kings and Queens of Britain, Robinson Publishing (1998) p.483: "Probably his [Æthelred's] worst decision was the St. Brice's day massacre on 13 November 1002...he ordered the killing of every Dane who lived in England, except the Anglo-Danes in the Danelaw. The massacre brought back to English shores the Danish commander Swein, whose sister and brother-in-law had been killed in the massacre".
  13. 1 2 Keynes, Simon (2001). "Swein Forkbeard". In Lapidge, Michael; Blair, John; Scragg, Donald (eds.). The Blackwell Encyclopaedia of Anglo-Saxon England. London: Blackwell Publishing. p. 437. ISBN   0-631-15565-1.CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link)
  14. Blair, Peter Hunter (2003). An Introduction to Anglo-Saxon England (3rd ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 98. ISBN   0-521-53777-0.
  15. 1 2 The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. Everyman Press: London, 1912. Translation by James Ingram (London, 1823) and J. A. Giles (London, 1847). Medieval and Classical Literature Library Release #17. Retrieved 12 October 2006.
  16. "Sweyn Forkbeard". Medieval Histories. 4 February 2014. Retrieved 9 March 2017.
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Harald Bluetooth
King of Denmark
c. 985–1014
Succeeded by
Harald II
King of Norway
c. 985–995
Succeeded by
Olaf I
Preceded by
Olaf I
King of Norway
1000–1014
Succeeded by
Olaf II
Preceded by
Æthelred the Unready
King of the English
1013–1014
Succeeded by
Æthelred the Unready