The Earl Buxton
|2nd Governor-General of South Africa|
|Prime Minister||South African:|
H. H. Asquith
David Lloyd George
|Preceded by||The Viscount Gladstone|
|Succeeded by||Prince Arthur of Connaught|
|President of the Board of Trade|
14 February 1910 –11 February 1914
|Monarch|| Edward VII |
|Prime Minister||H. H. Asquith|
|Preceded by||Winston Churchill|
|Succeeded by||John Burns|
|Preceded by||The Lord Stanley|
|Succeeded by||Herbert Samuel|
|Born||25 October 1853|
London, England, UK
|Died||15 October 1934 80) (aged|
Newtimber, West Sussex, England, UK
|Spouse(s)||Constance Mary Lubbock (1882–1892; her death); 3 children|
Mildred Anne Smith (1896–1934; his death); 3 children
|Alma mater||Trinity College, Cambridge|
|Profession||Member of Parliament|
Sydney Charles Buxton, 1st Earl Buxton,(25 October 1853 – 15 October 1934) was a radical British Liberal politician of the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Buxton was the son of Charles Buxtonand grandson of social reformer Sir Thomas Fowell Buxton, 1st Baronet. His mother was Emily Mary, daughter of the physician and traveller Sir Henry Holland, 1st Baronet. He was born in London and educated at Clifton College and Trinity College, Cambridge, and was a member of the London School Board from 1876 to 1882.
In 1880, Buxton became prominent in political circles by the publication of his Handbook to the Political Questions of the Day, a work which eventually went through 11 editions. That same year, he ran for Parliament for Boston, but lost. However, he became an MP in 1883 by winning a by-election in Peterborough. He was defeated in the 1885 general election, but returned to Parliament the very next year, representing Poplar. He would represent this constituency in Parliament until 1914.
From 1892–95, Buxton served as Under-Secretary of State for the Colonies. In 1905, he earned his first Cabinet post, that of Postmaster-General. In this capacity he introduced such services as penny postage to the United States, the Canadian magazine post, and cheap postage for the blind. In 1910, Buxton was named President of the Board of Trade; in this position he oversaw the passage or amendment of many trade and commerce laws. Upon the sinking of the RMS Titanic in 1912, he asked Lord Loreburn, the Lord Chancellor, to appoint a commission of inquiry into the disaster. This commission eventually came to be headed by Lord Mersey.
In February 1914, Buxton was appointed Governor-General of South Africa, and on 11 May of that year he was raised to the peerage as Viscount Buxton, of Newtimber in the County of Sussex. [ citation needed ]A revolt by the South African populace on the outbreak of the First World War temporarily threatened his safety, but the country's Prime Minister, General Louis Botha, immediately attached South Africa to Britain. Thereafter, Buxton and Botha formed an effective partnership, planning and executing South African actions in the war, including the invasion of the neighbouring German colony of South West Africa. Buxton travelled widely throughout South Africa, and endeared himself to the people. Upon his retirement in 1920, the people demonstrated their affection for him. He continued his interest in South African affairs after returning to England, serving as president of the African Society from 1920–33.
He was created Earl Buxton on 8 November 1920,and continued to be a member of the Liberal Party, often supporting his close friend and colleague Sir Edward Grey. In his later years, he had to undergo amputation of his leg due to a knee injury sustained earlier in his life.
He died at Newtimber on 15 October 1934.
Buxton was twice married, firstly in 1882 to Constance Mary Lubbock (died 1892), second daughter of Lord Avebury, and secondly in 1896 to Mildred Anne Smith, elder daughter of Hugh Colin Smith, Governor of the Bank of England, of Mount Clare, Roehampton, a sister of the banker Vivian Smith and of Aubrey Smith, RN, who later became an admiral.
By his first wife, he had two sons and one daughter, of whom the sons both died in his lifetime. By his second wife, he had one son and two daughters, of whom the son and the elder daughter died in his lifetime.
By his first wife, Constance Mary Lubbock (d. 3 November 1892):
By his second wife, Mildred Anne Smith(1866–1955):
Since all his sons died unmarried in his lifetime, his titles became extinct at his death. Earl Buxton was survived by his second wife Mildred (died 1955) and his youngest daughter Lady Althea Eliot (died 2004), and by eight grandchildren including the future Duke of Grafton (1919–2011).
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Hugh Colin Smith was an English banker who was Governor of the Bank of England from 1897–99.
|Parliament of the United Kingdom|
| Member of Parliament for Peterborough |
With: Hon. John Wentworth-FitzWilliam
| Member of Parliament for Poplar |
Baron Henry de Worms
| Under-Secretary of State for the Colonies |
The Earl of Selborne
| Postmaster General |
| President of the Board of Trade |
The Viscount Gladstone
| Governor-General of South Africa |
Prince Arthur of Connaught
|Peerage of the United Kingdom|
|New creation|| Earl Buxton |
|New creation|| Viscount Buxton |