Sydney Conservatorium of Music

Last updated

The Conservatorium of Music is of State Heritage Significance because the former Government House Stables is a notable example of Old Colonial Gothick architecture. It is a rare surviving example of the work of noted ex-convict architect Francis Greenway in the Old Colonial Gothick style. Greenway was instrumental in Macquarie accomplishing Macquarie's aim to transforming the fledgling colony into an orderly, well mannered society and environment. It is the only example of a gothic building designed by Greenway still standing. The cost and apparent extravagance was one of the reasons Macquarie was recalled to Britain.

The conservatorium building also has strong associations with Macquarie's wife, Elizabeth, an influential figure in moulding the colony into a more ordered and stylish place under her husband and with the assistance of Greenway.

Since the building was converted for use as a conservatorium in 1916, it has been the core music education institution in NSW and has strong associations with numerous important musicians.

Statement of significance, New South Wales State Heritage Register.

Origins of the conservatorium

Sydney Conservatorium of Music
Sydney Conservatorium of Music, Conservatorium Road, Sydney, New South Wales (2011-03-09).jpg
Sydney Conservatorium of Music, as viewed from the Royal Botanic Gardens
Other name
The Con
Former name
New South Wales State Conservatorium of Music
Type Public university college
Established1915;107 years ago (1915)
Founders
Parent institution
University of Sydney
Academic affiliation
Head of School and DeanAnna Reid
Students750
Location, ,
Australia

33°51′48″S151°12′52″E / 33.863455°S 151.214353°E / -33.863455; 151.214353 Coordinates: 33°51′48″S151°12′52″E / 33.863455°S 151.214353°E / -33.863455; 151.214353
Website sydney.edu.au/music
Conlogo.png
Building details
1 Conservatorium a.JPG
The facade of the Greenway-designed building
OSM central Sydney.png
Red pog.svg
Sydney Conservatorium of Music
Former namesStables for the First Government House
General information
StatusCompleted
Architectural style Gothic Picturesque
Construction started9 August 1817 (1817-08-09)
Completed1820
Client Colonial Governor
Design and construction
Architect
Renovating team
Architect Chris Johnson anor
Renovating firm NSW Government Architect with Daryl Jackson, Robin Dyke and Robert Tanner
References
[1] [2]

In 1915 the NSW Government under William Holmanallocated £22,000 to the redevelopment of the stables into a music school. The NSW State Conservatorium of Music opened on 6 March 1916 under the directorship of the Belgian conductor and violinist Henri Verbrugghen, who was the only salaried staff member.[ citation needed ] The institution's stated aims were "providing tuition of a standard at least equal to that of the leading European Conservatoriums" and to "protect amateurs against the frequent waste of time and money arising from unsystematic tuition".[ citation needed ] The reference to European standards and the appointment of a European director was not uncontroversial at the time, but criticism soon subsided. By all accounts, Verbrugghen was hugely energetic: Joseph Post, later himself to be director, described him as "a regular dynamo, and the sort of man of whom you had to take notice the moment he entered the room".[ citation needed ] Enrolments in the first year were healthy with 320 "single-study" students and a small contingent of full-time students, the first diploma graduations occurring four years later. A specialist high school, the Conservatorium High School was established in 1918, establishing a model for music education across the secondary, tertiary, and community sectors which has survived to this day.[ citation needed ]

Verbrugghen's impact was incisive but briefer than had been hoped. When he put a request to the NSW Government that he be paid separate salaries for his artistic work as conductor of the orchestra (by then the NSW State Orchestra) and educational work as director of the conservatorium, the government withdrew its subsidies for both the orchestra and the string quartet that Verbrugghen had installed. He resigned in 1921 after taking the Conservatorium Orchestra to Melbourne and to New Zealand.

The conservatorium was home to Australia's first full-time orchestra, composed of both professional musicians and conservatorium students. The orchestra remained Sydney's main orchestra for much of the 1920s, accompanying many artists brought to Australia by producer J. C. Williamson, including the violinist Jascha Heifetz, who donated money to the Conservatorium library for orchestral parts. However, during the later part of the stewardship of Verbrugghen's successor, W. Arundel Orchard (director 1923–34), there were tensions with another emerging professional body, the ABC Symphony Orchestra, later to become the Sydney Symphony Orchestra, driven by the young, ambitious and energetic Bernard Heinze, Director-General of Music for the federal government's new Australian Broadcasting Commission.

Conservatorium of Music during Macquarie Night Lights from 23 November to 25 December 2006 Macquarie Night Lights 006.jpg
Conservatorium of Music during Macquarie Night Lights from 23 November to 25 December 2006

In 1935, under Edgar Bainton (director 1934–48), the Conservatorium Opera School was founded, later performing works such as Verdi's Falstaff and Otello , Wagner's Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg and Die Walküre , and Debussy's Pelléas et Mélisande , among others. Under Sir Eugene Goossens (Director 1948–55), opera at the conservatorium made a major contribution to what researcher Roger Covell has described as " the most seminal years in the history of locally produced opera...". Although the most prominent musician to have held the post of director, Goossens' tenure was not without controversy. Apart from the international scandal surrounding his departure in 1956, Goossens was said during his directorship to have channelled the best players in the Conservatorium Orchestra into the Sydney Symphony Orchestra (of which he was concurrently Chief Conductor),[ citation needed ] leaving only a student group for the Conservatorium. He disbanded the choir and several chamber ensembles and, some claimed, tended to ignore administrative matters.[ citation needed ] Richard Bonynge, however, who graduated in 1950, felt that it was Goossens who turned the Conservatorium into a world-class institution, lifting standards and exposing students to sophisticated 20th-century scores (particularly those of Debussy and Ravel).[ citation needed ]

Expansion and reforms

Verbrugghen Hall, named after the first director of the Conservatorium Verbrugghen Hall.jpg
Verbrugghen Hall, named after the first director of the Conservatorium

Under the direction of Rex Hobcroft (1972–82), the Conservatorium adopted the modern educational profile recognised today. Hobcroft's vision of a "Music University" was realised, in which specialised musical disciplines including both classical and jazz performance, music education, composition and musicology enriched each other.

In 1990, as part of the Dawkins Reforms, the Conservatorium amalgamated with the University of Sydney, and was renamed the Sydney Conservatorium of Music.

A 1994 review of the Sydney Conservatorium by the University of Sydney resulted in a recommendation that "negotiations with the NSW State Government about permanent suitable accommodation for the Conservatorium be pursued as a matter of urgency."

As in 1916, a wide range of sites were considered, many of them controversial. In May 1997, 180 years after Governor Macquarie laid the foundation stone for the Greenway Building, State Premier Bob Carr announced a major upgrade of the Conservatorium, with the ultimate goal of creating a music education facility equal to or better than any in the world. A team was assembled to work to that brief, resulting in a complex collaboration between various government departments (notably the Department of Education and Training and the Department of Public Works and Services), the Government Architect, US-based acoustic consultants Kirkegaard Associates, Daryl Jackson Robin Dyke Architects, the key users represented by the Principal and Dean of the Sydney Conservatorium of Music, and the Principal of the Conservatorium High School, the Royal Botanic Gardens and Domain Trust and many others. [1] [2]

Building description

The Conservatorium of Music is a large building designed in the Early Colonial Gothick Picturesque style. Located on the western edge of the Royal Botanic Gardens, the building was originally designed to be the stables for the new Government House that Governor Macquarie hoped to be the stables for the new Government House that Macquarie hoped but did not succeed in building. The stables were designed by Francis Greenway who was appointed as civil architect on 30 March 1816. Greenway may have taken some of his Gothic inspiration from his time working with John Nash in England, or from direction from Elizabeth Macquarie. Elizabeth's cousin had been an English pioneer of the Gothic Revival design and his work influenced her husband Governor Macquarie in his attempts to give the young colony some order and style. [1]

The stables were designed as a castellated fort. As part of Macquarie's scheme was to transform Sydney into an attractive city, the stables were intended as part of a picturesque landscape suitable for a gentleman's residence that Macquarie envisaged around the Government House he wished to build. The construction is of masonry with a sandstone base below rendered walls. Squat towers mark the corners of the complex and divide the main elevation to mark the main entries to the building. The external walls are parapeted with battlement parapets. The parapets to the towers have stylised machicolations below the cornice. [1]

Entries are through wide pointed arch openings on the north and south sides. Ground floor windows are pairs of three pane casement sashes below a topflight. Label moulds frame the top of the ground floor window openings. The first floor has smaller single sash windows, most directly below the cornice mouldings. Small single sash windows are in the towers. Some windows, probably the original and reconstructed windows have sandstone reveals and margins. Others have rendered reveals and margins. Some original sandstone reveals survive, primarily on the east side. The main entries to the former stables have pointed arch openings. [1]

The two storey ranges of rooms were arranged around a central courtyard. A few weals on the courtyard side of these ranges survive notably on the south side where they are left unrendered. The central courtyard was infilled and roofed over in 1913-1915 to house an auditorium as part of the conversion for the Sydney Conservatorium of Music. The new infill is a largely independent structure from the stables with rendered masonry walls supporting a hipped roof with ventilation gables at the east and west ends and topped by copper clad lanterns. Copper gutters are used with copper rainwater heads marked with the date 1914. Internally the building retains the general plan of the original with an outer ring of rooms around a corridor. The Verbruggen Hall is at the centre of the plan. [1]

Basement level additions in 2001 provide a landscaped court on the east and north sides of the building. A new entry structure to the south of the former stables building connects the original stables to the basement additions. [1]

Archaeological evidence of the roadway that led from First Government House to the stables has been conserved in the 2001 entry structure to the south of the original building. A water storage cistern dating from the 1790s remains in situ and the foundations of a c.1800 mill and bakery owned by John Palmer remain under the floor of the Verbrugghen Hall. A collection of artefacts unearthed during the restoration works is housed in the conservatorium. The collection and in situ archaeology constitute part of this listing. [1]

Condition

Although converted into a Conservatorium, a good deal of original fabric remains in a fair to good condition. Archaeological investigations that accompanied recent additions were extensive and included deep excavation around the building. Although subject to alteration to fit it out as a Conservatorium, a good deal of the original fabric remains extant and it is still perfectly legible as an Old Colonial Gothic building. Internally some of the original surfaces remain visible, though most have been covered to fit it out as a Conservatorium. [1]

Modifications and dates

Further information

Although altered through conversion to a Conservatorium a good deal of original fabric remains and it is still perfectly legible as an Old Colonial Gothick building. Internally some of the original surfaces remain visible, though most have been covered to fit it out for its use as a Conservatorium. [1]

Centenary commissions

To mark the centenary of the Conservatorium in 2015, it commissioned 101 new works, the spread designed to represent those who have shaped music over the past 100 years. The first work in the series was John Corigliano's Mr Tambourine Man, based on the poetry of Bob Dylan, which was presented on 11 September 2009. [29]

Heads of the Conservatorium

The past directors, principals and deans were: [30]

NameTitleTerm startTerm endTime in officeNotes
Henri Verbrugghen Director19161921
W. Arundel Orchard 19231934
Edgar Bainton 19341948
Sir Eugene Goossens 19481955
Sir Bernard Heinze 19571966
Joseph Post 19661971
Rex Hobcroft 19721982
John Painter 19821985
John Hopkins 19861991
Ronald SmartPrincipal19921994
Ros Pesman Acting Principal19941995
Sharman PrettyPrincipal and Dean19952003
Professor Kim Walker Dean & Principal20042011
Karl Kramer20122015
Professor Anna ReidHead of School and Dean2015incumbent

Notable alumni

Notable teachers

Heritage listing

As at 15 July 2009, the Conservatorium of Music is of State Heritage significance because the former Government House Stables is a notable example of Old Colonial Gothick architecture. It is a rare surviving example of the work of noted ex-convict architect Francis Greenway in the Old Colonial Gothick style. Greenway was instrumental in Macquarie accomplishing Macquarie's aim to transforming the fledgling colony into an orderly, well-mannered society and environment. It is the only example of a gothic building designed by Greenway still standing. The cost and apparent extravagance was one of the reasons Macquarie was recalled to Britain. [1]

The Conservatorium building also has strong associations with Macquarie's wife, Elizabeth, an influential figure in moulding the colony into a more ordered and stylish place under her husband and with the assistance of Greenway. [1]

Since the building was converted for use as a Conservatorium in 1916, it has been the core music education institution in NSW and has strong associations with numerous important musicians. [1]

Sydney Conservatorium of Music was listed on the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 14 January 2011 having satisfied the following criterion: [1]

The Conservatorium of Music is of historic significance at a State level because when it was designed and built the building was a key element in Governor Lachlan Macquarie's grand vision to make Sydney into an attractive, well designed city. The design was a result of Macquarie's ideas with input from his wife Elizabeth and was executed by ex convict architect Frances Greenway. Greenway had a key role in implementing landmark elements of Macquarie's designs for churches and public buildings. The Stables was the first stage of Macquarie's plan for a New Government House and although this was not built, the Stables influenced the new Government House that was eventually built. After the building's conversion to the Conservatorium of Music it has been the principal music education institution in the State from 1916 onwards and continues to fulfil its role in the building originally modified for this purpose. [1]

The place has a strong or special association with a person, or group of persons, of importance of cultural or natural history of New South Wales's history.

The Conservatorium of Music is of State heritage significance through its association with Governor Lachlan Macquarie who commissioned the work, his wife Elizabeth who strongly influenced the design and ex convict architect Francis Greenway who designed the building. On 30 March 1816 Greenway was appointed as the colony's first "Civil Architect", the forerunning position to the Government Architect. In its role as the principal music education institution in NSW for many years it has strong and significant association with noted musicians and administrators such as Henry Verbrugghen and Eugene Goossens who were Directors of the Conservatorium. [1]

The place is important in demonstrating aesthetic characteristics and/or a high degree of creative or technical achievement in New South Wales.

The Conservatorium building is of aesthetic significance at a State level as it is a notable exemplar of the Old Colonial Gothick Picturesque style of architecture in Australia. In addition it is the only surviving example of this style of architecture designed by Francis Greenway. Its strong symmetry, battlemented parapet walls, squat towers, pointed arch and square headed openings, label moulded over windows make the building an aesthetically distinctive example of Old Colonial Gothick Picturesque style. [1]

The substantial size of the building for a stable, the use of the picturesque style and its location on the edge of the Governor's Domain demonstrate the ambition of Governor Macquarie in creating order and style in the town of Sydney. Once complete and lacking its accompanying new Government House, it was a landmark "folly" in a managed landscape inspiring young artists and adding a touch of romance to a colony seen by British eyes as devoid of legend and antiquity. [1]

The Conservatorium of Music continues to feature as a prominent landmark in the townscape and the Royal Botanic Gardens. It features as a focal point at the entry leading to Government House. [1]

The place has a strong or special association with a particular community or cultural group in New South Wales for social, cultural or spiritual reasons.

The Conservatorium of Music is of State heritage significance for its association with generations of noted Australian musicians. It was and continues to be a focus for musical activity attracting visiting performers to perform in the auditorium [1]

The place has potential to yield information that will contribute to an understanding of the cultural or natural history of New South Wales.

The Conservatorium is of State heritage significance as its potential archaeological resource has not been exhausted despite extensive investigation. The results of archaeological investigations to date have revealed much about the early history and activity of the colony and many artefacts uncovered are displayed and interpreted in the new building. [1]

The place possesses uncommon, rare or endangered aspects of the cultural or natural history of New South Wales.

Being the only surviving example of Francis Greenways design in the Old Colonial Gothic Picturesque style makes the Conservatorium of Music an rarity. It also appears to be the only extant stable block in the Sydney CBD which survives from the Macquarie period. [1]

The place is important in demonstrating the principal characteristics of a class of cultural or natural places/environments in New South Wales.

The Conservatorium is of State heritage significance as a fine example of Old Colonial Gothic Picturesque and demonstrates the principal elements of this style in its strong symmetry, battlemented parapet walls, squat towers, pointed arch and square headed openings, label moulded over windows. [1]

See also

Related Research Articles

Macquarie Place Park Heritage-listed park in Sydney, Australia

The Macquarie Place Park, also known as the Macquarie Place Precinct, is a heritage-listed small triangular urban park located in the Sydney central business district in the City of Sydney local government area of New South Wales, Australia. The former town square and milestone and now memorial, public park and monument is situated on the corner of Bridge Street and Loftus Street. It is named in honour of Governor Lachlan Macquarie. The precinct includes The Obelisk or Macquarie Obelisk, the Sirius anchor and gun/cannon, the Statue of Thomas Sutcliffe Mort, the historic Underground Public Conveniences and the Christie Wright Memorial Fountain. The property was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 5 March 2010.

Windsor, New South Wales Suburb of City of Hawkesbury, New South Wales, Australia

Windsor is a historic town north-west of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. It is in the Hawkesbury local government area. The town sits on the Hawkesbury River, enveloped by farmland and Australian bush. Many of the oldest surviving European buildings in Australia are located at Windsor. It is 46 kilometres (29 mi) north-west of metropolitan Sydney, on the fringes of urban sprawl.

Francis Greenway Architect

Francis Howard Greenway was an English-born architect who was transported to Australia as a convict for the crime of forgery. In New South Wales he worked for the Governor, Lachlan Macquarie, as Australia's first government architect. He became widely known and admired for his work displayed in buildings such as St Matthew's Church in Windsor, New South Wales, St James' Church, Sydney and Hyde Park Barracks, Sydney.

Macquarie Street, Sydney Street in Sydney, Australia

Macquarie Street is a street in the central business district of Sydney in New South Wales, Australia. Macquarie Street extends from Hyde Park at its southern end to the Sydney Opera House at its northern end. Apart from connecting these two major landmarks, the key government institutions of the state of New South Wales are all located on this street.

Royal Botanic Garden, Sydney

The Royal Botanic Garden, Sydney is a heritage-listed major 30-hectare (74-acre) botanical garden, event venue and public recreation area located at Farm Cove on the eastern fringe of the Sydney central business district, in the City of Sydney local government area of New South Wales, Australia.

Supreme Court of New South Wales Superior court of New South Wales, Australia

The Supreme Court of New South Wales is the highest state court of the Australian State of New South Wales. It has unlimited jurisdiction within the state in civil matters, and hears the most serious criminal matters. Whilst the Supreme Court is the highest New South Wales court in the Australian court hierarchy, an appeal by special leave can be made to the High Court of Australia.

Sydney Mint Heritage-listed building in Sydney

The Sydney Mint in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia, is the oldest surviving public building in the Sydney central business district. Built between 1811 and 1816 as the southern wing of the Sydney Hospital, it was then known as the Rum Hospital. In 1854 a mint was established on the site with the hospital building used to house mint staff as well as providing a residence for the Deputy Mint Master. A coining factory was built at the rear. Both of these structures have exceptional heritage significance and have been associated with major events in the colonial history of New South Wales.

Conservatorium High School School in Australia

The Conservatorium High School is a public government-funded co-educational selective and secondary day school with speciality in musical education. It is on the western edge of the Royal Botanic Gardens, off Macquarie Street, in the CBD of Sydney, Australia.

New South Wales Government Architect

The New South Wales Government Architect, an appointed officer of the Government of New South Wales, serves as the General Manager of the Government Architect's Office (GAO), a multi-disciplinary consultancy operating on commercial principles providing architecture, design, and engineering services, that is an agency of the government within NSW Public Works.

Government House, Sydney Official residence of the governor of New South Wales

The Government House is the heritage-listed vice-regal residence of the governor of New South Wales, Australia, located on Conservatorium Road in the Sydney central business district adjacent to the Royal Botanic Garden, overlooking Sydney Harbour, just south of the Sydney Opera House. Constructed between 1837 and 1843, the property has been the vice-regal residence of the Governor since Sir George Gipps, except for two brief periods; the first between 1901 and 1914, when the property was leased to the Commonwealth of Australia as the residence of the Governor-General of Australia, and the second from 1996 to 2011.

Architecture of Sydney Overview of the architecture in Sydney

The architecture of Sydney, Australia’s oldest city, is not characterised by any one architectural style, but by an extensive juxtaposition of old and new architecture over the city's 200-year history, from its modest beginnings with local materials and lack of international funding to its present-day modernity with an expansive skyline of high rises and skyscrapers, dotted at street level with remnants of a Victorian era of prosperity.

Parliament House, Sydney House of parliament for State of New South Wales, Australia

The Parliament House in Sydney is a heritage-listed complex of buildings housing the Parliament of the state of New South Wales, Australia. The building is located on the east side of Macquarie Street in Sydney, the state capital. The façade consists of a two-storey Georgian building, the oldest public building in the City of Sydney, flanked by two Neo-gothic additions containing the parliamentary chambers. These buildings are linked to a 1970s 12-storey block at the rear, facing onto the Domain. It is also known as Parliament of New South Wales, Parliamentary Precincts and the Rum Hospital.

Dawes Point Battery

The Dawes Point Battery remains is a heritage-listed former artillery fortification and now visitor attraction located adjacent to the southern pylon of the Sydney Harbour Bridge at Hickson Road in inner city Sydney, on the boundary between Dawes Point and The Rocks in the City of Sydney local government area of New South Wales, Australia. It was built and modified from 1791 to 1925 by Lieutenant William Dawes, Robert Ross, Francis Greenway, and George Barney. The property is owned by Property NSW, an agency of the Government of New South Wales. It was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 10 May 2002.

Bridge Street, Sydney Street in Sydney, Australia

Bridge Street is a street in the central business district of Sydney in New South Wales, Australia. Bridge Street runs for 500 metres (1,600 ft) in a west–east direction with traffic flowing in both directions. It is situated in the northern portion of the central business district. The western terminus of Bridge Street is at George Street, with the eastern terminus at Macquarie Street, adjacent to the Chief Secretary's Building. From west to east, Bridge Street crosses Pitt and Phillip streets.

St Johns Cathedral, Parramatta Church in New South Wales, Australia

St John's Cathedral is a heritage-listed, Anglican cathedral in Parramatta, City of Parramatta, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. St John's was given the status of provisional cathedral of the Anglican Diocese of Sydney in 1969, and designated a Regional Cathedral in 2011 for the Western Region. It was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 5 March 2010.

First Government House, Sydney Heritage-listed site in Sydney, Australia

The First Government House was the first residence for the Governors of New South Wales located at 41 Bridge Street, in the Sydney central business district in the City of Sydney local government area of New South Wales, Australia. It was built from 1788 to 1789 and used until 1845, after which it was demolished in 1846. Some of the site is now occupied by the Museum of Sydney. Its construction was attributed to James Bloodsworth. It is also known as First Government House Site, Museum of Sydney and A Rum Rebellion Site. It was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 10 December 1999; and on 19 August 2005 the site was listed on the National Heritage List.

Treasury Building, Sydney Heritage-listed building in Sydney, Australia

The Treasury Building, or the Colonial Treasury Building, The Old Treasury Building, or the Treasury Building & Premier's Office, is a heritage-listed former government administration building and now hotel located at the junction of Macquarie and Bridge streets in the central business district of Sydney in New South Wales, Australia. Commenced in 1849 and completed in stages in 1851, 1853, 1900 and 1919 in the Victorian Neo-Classical and Italian Palazzo styles by NSW Colonial and Government architects Mortimer Lewis, Edmund Blacket, Walter Liberty Vernon, and George McRae, the building has been used variously by the NSW Treasury, the Audit Office, the Premier's Department, the Police Department, and the Ministry of Transport. In 1981 the building was sold to the InterContinental Hotel group, with a major hotel complex built on part of the site and much of the heritage building restored.

Greenway Wing (Supreme Court of New South Wales) Heritage-listed courthouse in Sydney, Australia

The Greenway Wing of the Supreme Court of New South Wales is a heritage-listed courthouse located at the junction of King and Elizabeth Streets, in the Sydney central business district, in the City of Sydney local government area of New South Wales, Australia. It was designed by Francis Greenway, Standish Lawrence Harris, and James Barnet and built from 1820 to 1828. It is also known as Sydney Supreme Court House and Old Court House. The property is owned by the Department of Justice and Attorney General, departments of the Government of New South Wales. It was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999.

St Matthews Anglican Church, Windsor Church in New South Wales, Australia

St Matthew's Anglican Church is a heritage-listed Anglican church building located at Moses Street, Windsor, City of Hawkesbury, New South Wales, Australia. It was designed by Francis Greenway and built from 1817 by convict labour. The property is owned by the Anglican Church Property Trust. It was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999.

St Stephens Uniting Church Church in Australia, Australia

St Stephen's Uniting Church is a heritage-listed Uniting Church located at 197 Macquarie Street, in the Sydney central business district, in the City of Sydney local government area of New South Wales, Australia. Developed initially as St Stephen's Presbyterian Church, it was designed by Finlay Munro Jnr and John Reid and built from 1935 to 1937 by Kell & Rigby. It was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 3 September 2004.

References

Citations

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 "Conservatorium of Music". New South Wales State Heritage Register . Office of Environment and Heritage. H01849. Retrieved 14 October 2018.
  2. 1 2 "Conservatorium of Music Including Interior and Grounds". New South Wales Heritage Database. Office of Environment and Heritage . Retrieved 7 October 2017.
  3. HRA, 1, 9, p 70-71
  4. HRA, 1,9, p 205
  5. BT 27 p 6499
  6. HRA, 1, 9. p718-719
  7. HRA 1, 10, p813
  8. Ritchie, 1971, vol 2, p 130, 132-133
  9. Kerr and Broadbent, 1980, 941
  10. BT 27 p 6306-6307
  11. HRA, 1,10, p97
  12. BT 19, p2966-2969
  13. BT 19, p 2966-2969
  14. ML VI/PUB/GOVS/1 120, 1820
  15. Ritchie 1971, vol 2, p 141
  16. Kerr and Broadbent, 1980, p 40
  17. HRA, 1, 11, p 617
  18. HRA, 1, 12, p 9
  19. HRA, 1, 16, p539-540
  20. HRA 1, 16, p 786
  21. Casey and Lowe Vol. 1. 2002. pp 83–84
  22. Casey and Lowe, Vol. 1 pp 85–86
  23. Karskens, 1989, pp. 128-130.
  24. Karskens, 1989 p144
  25. Casel and Lowe Vol 1, 2002, p 96
  26. NSWGG, 2 Nov 1917, 0 5994
  27. Casey and Lowe, Vol2, 2002, p 98
  28. http://www.music,usyd.edu.au/friends/visit.shtml [ dead link ]
  29. Limelight, August 2009, p. 9
  30. History of the Con
  31. Moignard, Kathy (1993). "Ackland, Essie Adele (1896–1975)". Australian Dictionary of Biography . Vol. 13. Melbourne University Press. ISSN   1833-7538 via National Centre of Biography, Australian National University.
  32. "Richard Bonynge AC CBE". Melba Recordings. 2012. Retrieved 2 February 2012.
  33. "Living the dream". The University of Sydney. Retrieved 19 June 2019.
  34. 1 2 3 4 5 ADB:Alexander Sverjensky
  35. Gustafson, Barry (1986). The First 50 Years : A History of the New Zealand National Party. Auckland: Reed Methuen. p. 348. ISBN   0-474-00177-6.
  36. "Truman, Ernest Edwin Philip (1869–1948)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. National Centre of Biography, Australian National University.
  37. "Truman, Ernest | the Dictionary of Sydney".

Sources

Attribution