Sylvanus Thayer

Last updated
Sylvanus Thayer
SylvanusThayer.jpg
Sylvanus Thayer, painting by Robert Weir
Nickname(s)"Father of West Point"
Born(1785-06-09)June 9, 1785
Braintree, Massachusetts
DiedSeptember 7, 1872(1872-09-07) (aged 87)
Braintree, Massachusetts
Resting Place
West Point Cemetery, West Point, NY [1]
Allegiance United States of America
Service/branch United States Army
Union Army
Years of service1808 – 1863
Rank Union Army colonel rank insignia.png Colonel
Union Army brigadier general rank insignia.svg Brevet Brigadier General
Commands held Superintendent of the United States Military Academy
Battles/wars War of 1812

Colonel and Brevet Brigadier General Sylvanus Thayer (June 9, 1785 – September 7, 1872) also known as "the Father of West Point" was an early superintendent of the United States Military Academy at West Point and an early advocate of engineering education in the United States.

Contents

Early life and education

Sylvanus Thayer (9 June 1785-7 Sept. 1872) was born in Braintree, Massachusetts, the son of Nathaniel Thayer, a gentleman farmer, and his wife Dorcas Faxon. [2] In 1793, at the age of 8, Thayer was sent to live with his uncle Azariah Faxon and attend school in Washington, New Hampshire. There he met General Benjamin Pierce, who, like Faxon, was a veteran of the Revolutionary War. In 1803 Thayer matriculated at Dartmouth College, graduating in 1807 as valedictorian of his class. However, he never gave the valedictory address at Dartmouth, having been granted an appointment to West Point by President Thomas Jefferson at the behest of General Pierce. Thayer graduated from the United States Military Academy after a single year and received his commission as a second lieutenant in 1808. His first assignment was to supervise the construction of Fort Warren (later renamed Fort Winthrop) in Boston Harbor, foreshadowing the bulk of his later career. [3]

During the War of 1812, Thayer directed the fortification and defense of Norfolk, Virginia, and was promoted to major. In 1815, he was provided $5,000 to travel to Europe, where he studied for two years at the French École Polytechnique. While traveling in Europe he amassed a collection of science and especially mathematics texts that now form a valuable collection for historians of mathematics. [4]

Superintendent of West Point

In 1817, President James Monroe ordered Thayer to West Point to become superintendent of the Military Academy following the resignation of Captain Alden Partridge. Under his stewardship, the Academy became the nation's first college of engineering. [5] [6]

While at West Point Thayer established numerous traditions and policies which are still in use at West Point. These include the values of honor and responsibility, strict mental and physical discipline, the demerit system, summer encampment, high academic standards and the requirement that cadets maintain outstanding military bearing and appearance at all times.

One of Thayer's reforms was to establish a standard four year curriculum with the cadets organized into four classes. Starting with the Class of 1823, July 1 was the date each year when the graduating class was commissioned and the entering class was sworn in. The graduation date was moved up to June 15 starting in 1861.

Many of the cadets who attended West Point during Thayer's tenure held key leadership positions during the Mexican War and American Civil War.

Statue and Memorial to Sylvanus Thayer Thayer Statue West Point.JPG
Statue and Memorial to Sylvanus Thayer

Later career

Colonel Thayer's time at West Point ended with his resignation in 1833, after a disagreement with President Andrew Jackson. He was elected an Associate Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1834. [7]

Thayer returned to duty with the Army Corps of Engineers. Thayer spent the great majority of the next 30 years as the chief engineer for the Boston area. During this time he oversaw the construction of both Fort Warren and Fort Independence to defend Boston Harbor. Thayer's great engineering ability can be observed in both of the above-mentioned forts. He was elected as a member of the American Philosophical Society in 1838. [8]

Thayer was a member of the Board of Engineers for Coast Defenses, April 2, 1833 to December 21, 1857, and was President of the Board from Dec. 7, 1838. He temporarily commanded of the Corps of Engineers from December 21, 1857 to December 22, 1858, while its commander, Colonel Joseph G. Totten, was on a leave of absence. In December 1858 Thayer was placed on an extended sick leave of absence. He did not play an active role in the American Civil War.

In August 1861, Fort Thayer, an earthwork fort part of the Civil War Defenses of Washington, DC, was built and named in his honor. [9]

Thayer retired from the Army on June 1, 1863 with the rank of colonel in the Corps of Engineers. He was retired under the first act regulating the retirement of Army officers which required the retirement of any officer with more than 45 years of service.

Death and legacy

Sylvanus Thayer in old age Sylvanus Thayer in old age.jpg
Sylvanus Thayer in old age

In 1869, as a result of Thayer's enduring legacy at the United States Military Academy, a meeting took place in Braintree between Thayer and the West Point graduate and Civil War hero Brigadier General Robert Anderson. An outcome of Anderson's 1869 meeting with Thayer was the establishment of the Military Academy's Association of Graduates (AoG).

In 1867, Thayer donated $40,000 to the trustees of Dartmouth College to create the Thayer School of Engineering. Thayer personally located and recommended USMA graduate Lieutenant Robert Fletcher to Dartmouth president Asa Dodge Smith. Fletcher became the school's first—then only—professor and dean.

The Thayer School admitted its first three students to a graduate program in 1871. Also in 1871 at the bequest of his will Thayer Academy in Braintree, Massachusetts was conceived. It opened September 12, 1877.

Thayer died on September 7, 1872 at his home in Braintree. He was reinterred at West Point Cemetery in 1877. Thayer's obituary appeared in the New York Times on September 8, 1872. [2]

Works

Thayer's papers and manuscripts are divided between the U.S. Military Academy Library, West Point, New York, and the Dartmouth College Library, Hanover, New Hampshire. [2]

Honours, decorations, awards, and distinctions

In 1852 herpetologists Spencer Fullerton Baird and Charles Frédéric Girard of the Smithsonian Institution named a species of lizard in honor of Thayer, Sceloporus thayeri, which was later placed in the synonymy of Sceloporus undulatus hyacinthinus . [10]

On April 21, 1864, President Abraham Lincoln nominated Thayer for the award of the honorary grade of brevet brigadier general, United States Army (Regular Army), to rank from May 31, 1863, the day before he retired, [11] for long and faithful service. [12] The U.S. Senate confirmed the award on April 27, 1864. [11]

To honor his achievements, in 1958, the Sylvanus Thayer Award was created by the United States Military Academy. He has been honored by the United States Postal Service with a 9¢ Great Americans series postage stamp.

Thayer Street, in the Inwood, Manhattan section of New York City, is named after him. [13]

The house where Thayer was born in Braintree, Massachusetts is preserved and open to the public.

Bibliography [2]

See also

Notes

  1. "Sylvanus Thayer". Find a Grave . Retrieved October 17, 2010.
  2. 1 2 3 4 Herman Hattaway, Michael D. Smith. "Thayer, Sylvanus"; American National Biography Online Feb. 2000, accessed ; American Council of Learned Societies. Published by Oxford University Press.
  3. Fort Winthrop at FortWiki.com
  4. "Historical & Library Holdings". Archived from the original on 2004-11-24. Retrieved 2006-05-24.
  5. "Sylvanus Thayer: The Man Who Made West Point | AMERICAN HERITAGE". www.americanheritage.com. Retrieved 2020-04-22.
  6. "Who Was Sylvanus Thayer? | Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth". engineering.dartmouth.edu. Retrieved 2020-04-22.
  7. "Book of Members, 1780-2010: Chapter T" (PDF). American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved 22 April 2011.
  8. "APS Member History". search.amphilsoc.org. Retrieved 2021-04-09.
  9. 1862 Commission to Study the Defenses Report - Letter to the Secretary of War - Washington, December 24, 1862 - http://www.npshistory.com/publications/cwdw/hrs/appc.htm
  10. Beolens, Bo; Watkins, Michael; Grayson, Michael (2011). The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, xiii + 296 pp. ISBN   978-1-4214-0135-5. ("Thayer", p. 264).
  11. 1 2 Eicher, John H., and Eicher, David J., Civil War High Commands, p. 737. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2001. ISBN   0-8047-3641-3
  12. Hunt, Roger D. and Brown, Jack R. Brevet Brigadier Generals in Blue, p. 608. Gaithersburg, MD: Olde Soldier Books, Inc., 1990. ISBN   1-56013-002-4
  13. "Inwood Street Names". 14 November 2008.

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Robert Anderson (Civil War)</span> United States Army officer during the American Civil War

Robert Anderson was a United States Army officer during the American Civil War. He was the Union commander in the first battle of the American Civil War at Fort Sumter in April 1861 when the Confederates bombarded the fort and forced its surrender to start the war. Anderson was celebrated as a hero in the North and promoted to brigadier general and given command of Union forces in Kentucky. He was removed late in 1861 and reassigned to Rhode Island, before retiring from military service in 1863.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Thayer School of Engineering</span> Dartmouth College

Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth offers graduate and undergraduate education in engineering sciences at Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire, United States. The school was established in 1867 with funds from Colonel and Brevet Brigadier Sylvanus Thayer, a Dartmouth alumnus also known for his work in establishing an engineering curriculum at the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York. Located in a three-building complex along the Connecticut River on Dartmouth's campus, the school offers undergraduate, master's, and doctoral degrees, as well as dual-degree programs with institutions throughout the US.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Dennis Hart Mahan</span> American military academic and civil engineer (1802–1871)

Dennis Hart Mahan (Mă-hăn) [məˈhæn] was a noted American military theorist, civil engineer and professor at the United States Military Academy at West Point from 1824–1871. He was the father of American naval historian and theorist Rear Admiral Alfred Thayer Mahan.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">John C. Black</span> American politician

John Charles Black was a Democratic U.S. Congressman from Illinois. He received the Medal of Honor for his actions as a Union Army lieutenant colonel and regimental commander at the Battle of Prairie Grove during the American Civil War.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">West Point Cemetery</span> US Military Academy cemetery

West Point Cemetery is a historic cemetery in the eastern United States, on the grounds of the U.S. Military Academy in West Point, New York. It overlooks the Hudson River, and served as a burial ground for Revolutionary War soldiers and early West Point inhabitants long before 1817, when it was officially designated as a military cemetery.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Aaron Fletcher Stevens</span> American politician

Aaron Fletcher Stevens was a Union Army officer during the American Civil War and a two-term U.S. Congressman.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">John G. Barnard</span> US Army general, engineer, scientist, historian, mathematician and author

John Gross Barnard was a career engineer officer in the U.S. Army, serving in the Mexican–American War, as the superintendent of the United States Military Academy and as a general in the Union Army during the American Civil War. He served as Chief Engineer of the Army of the Potomac, 1861 to 1862, Chief Engineer of the Department of Washington from 1861 to 1864, and as Chief Engineer of the armies in the field from 1864 to 1865. He also was a distinguished scientist, engineer, mathematician, historian and author.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">George Leonard Andrews</span>

George Leonard Andrews was an American professor, civil engineer, and soldier. He was a brigadier general in the Union Army during the American Civil War and was awarded the honorary grade of brevet major general.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">George Washington Cullum</span> Career United States Army officer

George Washington Cullum was an American soldier, engineer and writer. He worked as the supervising engineer on the building and repair of many fortifications across the country. Cullum served as a general in the Union Army during the American Civil War, primarily in the Western Theater and served as the 16th Superintendent of the United States Military Academy. Following his retirement from the Army, he became a prominent figure in New York society, serving in many societies, and as vice president of the American Geographical Society. The society named the Cullum Geographical Medal after him.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Samuel Miller Quincy</span>

Samuel Miller Quincy was the 28th mayor of New Orleans and a Union Army officer during the American Civil War.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Henry Brewerton</span> Union Army General

Henry Brewerton was a career engineering officer in the United States Army, serving as the superintendent of the United States Military Academy and then as a colonel in the Union Army during the American Civil War. He was nominated for appointment to the grade of brevet brigadier general in the Regular Army by President Andrew Johnson on December 11, 1866, to rank from March 13, 1865, and the United States Senate confirmed the appointment on February 23, 1867.

Francis Winthrop Palfrey (1831–1889) was an American historian and Civil War officer.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Thomas W. Hyde</span> American politician

Thomas Worcester Hyde was an American Union Army colonel, a state senator from Maine, and the founder of the Bath Iron Works, one of the major shipyards in the United States. He wrote two books about his experiences during the American Civil War and at the Battle of Gettysburg.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Charles Hamlin (general)</span> American general and politician

Charles Hamlin, from Bangor, Maine, was an attorney and a Union Army officer during the American Civil War, attaining the rank of major. He was nominated for appointment to the grade of brevet brigadier general of volunteers by President Andrew Johnson on January 13, 1866, to rank from March 13, 1865, and the United States Senate confirmed the appointment on March 12, 1866. He was one of the sons of Vice President Hannibal Hamlin and a brother to Cyrus Hamlin, a Union Army brigadier general.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Cyrus B. Comstock</span> United States Army general (1831–1910)

Cyrus Ballou Comstock was a career officer in the Regular Army of the United States. After graduating from the United States Military Academy at West Point in 1855, Comstock served with the Army Corps of Engineers. At the beginning of the American Civil War, he assisted with the fortification of Washington, D.C. In 1862, he was transferred to the field, eventually becoming chief engineer of the Army of the Potomac. In 1863 during the Siege of Vicksburg, he served as the chief engineer of the Army of the Tennessee.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">George H. Crosman</span>

George Hampden Crosman was a career officer in the Regular Army of the United States who served primarily with the Quartermaster Corps.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Nelson H. Davis</span> United States Army general

Nelson H. Davis was a general in the United States Army; serving in the Mexican–American War, the American Civil War and in actions against the Apache people in New Mexico.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Joseph A. Haskin</span> United States Army general (1818–1874)

Joseph Abel Haskin was a career officer in the United States Army. A veteran of the Mexican–American War and American Civil War, he attained the rank of brigadier general.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Albemarle Cady</span> United States Army officer 1807-1888

Albemarle Cady was a career United States Army officer who served in the Second Seminole War, Mexican–American War, First Sioux War and the American Civil War. During the Civil War, he was briefly lieutenant colonel of the 7th Infantry Regiment. He then served in administrative positions in the Department of the Pacific, including the District of Oregon. He received brevet appointments for his service in the Mexican–American War and the Civil War. He retired from the Regular Army as a colonel on May 18, 1864. On July 17, 1866, President Andrew Johnson nominated and on July 26, 1866, the United States Senate confirmed the appointment of Cady as a brevet brigadier general in the Regular Army, to rank from March 13, 1865.

References

Military offices
Preceded by Superintendents of the United States Military Academy
1817–1833
Succeeded by