Syriac language

Last updated
Syriac
ܠܫܢܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ, ܠܸܫܵ݁ܢܵܐ ܣܘܼܪܝܵܝܵܐ or ܠܶܫܳ݁ܢܳܐ ܣܽܘܪܝܳܝܳܐLeššānā Suryāyā
Syriac - Estrangelo Nisibin Calligraphy.png
Leššānā Suryāyā in written Syriac (Esṭrangelā script)
Pronunciation lɛʃʃɑːnɑː surjɑːjɑː
Region Mesopotamia (ancient Iraq), northeastern Syria, southeastern Turkey, northwestern Iran, [1] [2] Eastern Arabia, Fertile Crescent [3] [4]
Era1st century AD; Dramatically declined as a vernacular language after the 14th century; Developed into Northeastern Neo-Aramaic and Central Neo-Aramaic languages after the 12th century. [5]
Syriac abjad
Official status
Recognised minority
language in
Flag of Iraq.svg  Iraq (Recognized language and a constitutional right to educate in the mother tongue language) [6] [7]
Flag of Kurdistan.svg  Kurdistan Region (Recognized educational language of a national minority) [8]
Language codes
ISO 639-2 syc Classical Syriac
ISO 639-3 syc Classical Syriac
Glottolog clas1252 [9]
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.
Syriac Aramaic alphabet Aramaic alphabet.jpg
Syriac Aramaic alphabet

Syriac ( /ˈsɪriæk/ ; ܠܫܢܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ, ܠܸܫܵ݁ܢܵܐ ܣܘܼܪܝܵܝܵܐ or ܠܶܫܳ݁ܢܳܐ ܣܽܘܪܝܳܝܳܐLeššānā Suryāyā), also known as Syrian/Syriac Aramaic, Syro-Aramaic or Classical Syriac, [9] [10] [11] is a dialect of Middle Aramaic of the Northwest Semitic languages of the Afroasiatic family that is written in the Syriac alphabet, a derivation of the Aramaic alphabet. Having first appeared in the early first century CE in Edessa, [12] classical Syriac became a major literary language throughout the Middle East from the 4th to the 8th centuries, [13] preserved in a large body of Syriac literature. Indeed, Syriac literature comprises roughly 90% of the extant Aramaic literature. [14] Syriac was once spoken across much of the Near East as well as Anatolia and Eastern Arabia. [3] [4] [15] Syriac originated in Mesopotamia and eventually spread west of Iraq in which it became the lingua franca of the region during the Mesopotamian Neo-Assyrian period. [16] [17]

Contents

The Old Aramaic language was adopted by the Neo-Assyrian Empire (911–609 BC) when the Assyrians conquered the various Syro-Hittite states to its west. The Achaemenid Empire (546-332 BC), which rose after the fall of the Assyrian Empire, also retained Old Aramaic as its official language, and Old Aramaic remained the lingua franca of the region. During the course of the third and fourth centuries AD, the inhabitants of the region began to embrace Christianity. Because of theological differences, Syriac-speaking Christians bifurcated during the 5th century into the Church of the East, or East Syrians under Sasanian rule, and the Syriac Orthodox, or West Syrians under the Byzantine empire. [18] [19] After this separation, the two groups developed distinct dialects differing primarily in the pronunciation and written symbolisation of vowels. [20] The modern, and vastly spoken, Syriac varieties today include Assyrian Neo-Aramaic, Chaldean Neo-Aramaic and Turoyo, among others, which, in turn, have their own subdialects as well. [21] [22]

Along with Latin and Greek, Syriac became one of "the three most important Christian languages in the early centuries" of the Common Era. [23] From the 1st century AD, Syriac became the vehicle of Syriac Christianity and culture, and the liturgical language of the Syriac Orthodox Church, the Maronite Church, and the Church of the East, along with its descendants: the Chaldean Catholic Church, the Assyrian Church of the East, the Ancient Church of the East, the Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church, the Syro-Malabar Catholic Church, [24] the Syro-Malankara Catholic Church, the Syriac Catholic Church, and the Assyrian Pentecostal Church.

Syriac Christianity and language spread throughout Asia as far as the Indian Malabar Coast [24] and Eastern China, [25] and was the medium of communication and cultural dissemination for the later Arabs and, to a lesser extent, the Parthian Empire and Sasanian Empire. Primarily a Christian medium of expression, Syriac had a fundamental cultural and literary influence on the development of Arabic, [26] which largely replaced it towards the 14th century. [5] Syriac remains the sacred language of Syriac Christianity to this day.

Geographic distribution

Although once a major language in the Fertile Crescent and Eastern Arabia, Syriac is now limited to the towns and villages in the Nineveh plains, Tur Abdin, the Khabur plains, in and around the cities of Mosul, Erbil and Kirkuk. Syriac Christianity.svg
Although once a major language in the Fertile Crescent and Eastern Arabia, Syriac is now limited to the towns and villages in the Nineveh plains, Tur Abdin, the Khabur plains, in and around the cities of Mosul, Erbil and Kirkuk.
An 11th-century Syriac manuscript. Syriac Serta book script.jpg
An 11th-century Syriac manuscript.

Syriac was the local accent of Aramaic in Edessa, and evolved under the influence of the Church of the East and the Syriac Orthodox Church into its current form. Before Arabic became the dominant language, Syriac was a major language among Christian communities in the Middle East, Central Asia and Kerala, [24] and remains so among the Syriac Christians to this day. It has been found as far afield as Hadrian's Wall in Great Britain, with inscriptions written by Assyrian and Aramean soldiers of the Roman Empire. [27]

History

Iso?, the Syriac pronunciation of the Hebrew and Aramaic name of Jesus, Yeshu' (ySHv`
) Eesho Aramaic name of Jesus.jpg
Īšoˁ, the Syriac pronunciation of the Hebrew and Aramaic name of Jesus, Yeshuʿ (ישוע)

The history of Syriac can be divided into three distinct periods:

The name "Syriac", when used with no qualification, generally refers to one specific dialect of Middle Aramaic but not to Old Aramaic or to the various present-day Eastern and Central Neo-Aramaic languages descended from it or from close relatives. The modern varieties are, therefore, not discussed in this article.

Origins and spread

In 132 BC, the kingdom of Osroene was founded in Edessa and Proto-Syriac evolved in that kingdom. Many Syriac-speakers still look to Edessa as the cradle of their language. [29] There are about eighty extant early Syriac inscriptions, dated to the first three centuries AD (the earliest example of Syriac, rather than Imperial Aramaic, is in an inscription dated to AD 6, and the earliest parchment is a deed of sale dated to AD 243). All of these early examples of the language are non-Christian. As an official language, Syriac was given a relatively coherent form, style and grammar that is lacking in other Old Eastern Aramaic dialects. The Syriac language split into a western variety used by the Syriac Orthodox Churches in upper Mesopotamia and western Syria, and an eastern dialect used in the Sasanian Empire controlled east used by the Church of the East. [30]

During the establishment of the Church of the East in central-southern Iraq, speakers of Syriac split into two; those who followed the Eastern Syriac Rite and those who followed Western Syriac Rite. Syriac was the lingua franca of the entire region of Mesopotamia and the native language of the peoples of Iraq and surrounding regions until it was spread further west of the country to the entire Fertile Crescent region, as well as in parts of Eastern Arabia, becoming the dominant language for centuries, before the spread and replacement with Arabic language as the lingua franca. [31] For this reason, Mesopotamian Iraqi Arabic being an Aramaic Syriac substratum, is said to be the most Aramaic Syriac influenced dialect of Arabic, [32] [33] [34] sharing significant similarities in language structure, as well as having evident and stark influences from other ancient Mesopotamian languages of Iraq, such as Akkadian, Sumerian and Babylonian. [32] [33]

Mesopotamian Arabic dialects developed by Iraqi Muslims, Iraqi Jews, as well as dialects by Iraqi Christians, most of whom are native ethnic Syriac speakers. Today, Syriac is the native spoken language of millions of Iraqi-Chaldo-Assyrians living in Iraq and the diaspora, and other Syriac-speaking people from Mesopotamia, such as the Mandaean people of Iraq. The dialects of Syriac spoken today include Assyrian Neo-Aramaic, Chaldean Neo-Aramaic, and Mandaic. [35] [36] [37]

Literary Syriac

The sixth beatitude (Matthew 5:8) from an East Syriac Peshitta.

.mw-parser-output .script-Syre{font-family:"Estrangelo Antioch","Estrangelo Edessa","Estrangelo Midyat","Estrangelo Nisibin","Estrangelo Quenneshrin","Estrangelo Talada","Estrangelo TurAbdin","Noto Sans Syriac","Noto Sans Syriac Estrangela","Segoe UI Historic"}.mw-parser-output .script-Syrj{font-family:"Serto Batnan","Serto Jerusalem","Serto Kharput","Serto Malankara","Serto Mardin","Serto Urhoy","Noto Sans Syriac","Noto Sans Syriac Western"}.mw-parser-output .script-Syrn{font-family:"East Syriac Adiabene","East Syriac Ctesiphon","Noto Sans Syriac","Noto Sans Syriac Eastern",FreeSans,Code2000}
twubayhwon l'aylEyn dad'kEyn blebhwon! dhen'won neHzwon l'alAhA',
Tubayhon l-`aylen da-dken b-lebbhon, d-hennon nehzon l-`alaha.
'Blessed are the pure in heart, for they shall see God.' 6thBeatitude.svg
The sixth beatitude (Matthew 5:8) from an East Syriac Peshitta.
ܛܘܼܒܲܝܗܘܿܢ ܠܐܲܝܠܹܝܢ ܕܲܕ݂ܟܹܝܢ ܒܠܸܒ̇ܗܘܿܢ܄ ܕܗܸܢ݂ܘܿܢ ܢܸܚܙܘܿܢ ܠܐܲܠܵܗܵܐ܂
Ṭūḇayhōn l-ʾaylên da-ḏḵên b-lebbhōn, d-hennōn neḥzōn l-ʾălāhā.
'Blessed are the pure in heart, for they shall see God.'

In the 3rd century, churches in Edessa began to use Syriac as the language of worship. There is evidence that the adoption of Syriac, the language of the Assyrian people, was to effect mission.[ clarification needed ] Much literary effort was put into the production of an authoritative translation of the Bible into Syriac, the Peshitta (ܦܫܝܛܬܐPšīṭtā). At the same time, Ephrem the Syrian was producing the most treasured collection of poetry and theology in the Syriac language.

In 489, many Syriac-speaking Christians living in the eastern reaches of the Roman Empire fled to the Sasanian Empire to escape persecution and growing animosity with Greek-speaking Christians.[ citation needed ] The Christological differences with the Church of the East led to the bitter Nestorian Schism in the Syriac-speaking world. As a result, Syriac developed distinctive western and eastern varieties. Although remaining a single language with a high level of comprehension between the varieties, the two employ distinctive variations in pronunciation and writing system, and, to a lesser degree, in vocabulary.

Western Syriac is the official language of the West Syriac Rite, practised by the Syriac Orthodox Church, the Syriac Catholic Church, the Maronite Catholic Church, the Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church, the Malabar Independent Syrian Church, the Mar Thoma Syrian Church and the Syro-Malankara Catholic Church.

Eastern Syriac is the liturgical language of the East Syriac Rite, practised in modern times by the ethnic Assyrian followers of the Assyrian Church of the East, the Assyrian Pentecostal Church, the Ancient Church of the East, the Assyrian-Chaldean Catholic Church, as well as the Syro-Malabar Catholic Church in India.

Syriac literature is by far the most prodigious of the various Aramaic languages. Its corpus covers poetry, prose, theology, liturgy, hymnody, history, philosophy, science, medicine and natural history. Much of this wealth remains unavailable in critical editions or modern translation.

From the 7th century onwards, Syriac gradually gave way to Arabic as the spoken language of much of the region, excepting northern Iraq. The Mongol invasions and conquests of the 13th century, and the religiously motivated massacres of Syriac Christians by Timur further contributed to the rapid decline of the language. In many places outside of Upper Mesopotamia, even in liturgy, it was replaced by Arabic.

Current status

A warning sign in Mardin, Turkey: setqa, b-ba'u (shtq' bb`w
, 'Silence, please') in Syriac and Lutfen! Sessiz olalim! ('Please! Let's be quiet!') in Turkish. Tabelayeke bi suryani Dera Zehferane 2008.jpg
A warning sign in Mardin, Turkey: šeṯqā, b-ḇāʿū (ܫܬܩܐ ܒܒܥܘ, 'Silence, please') in Syriac and Lütfen! Sessiz olalım! ('Please! Let's be quiet!') in Turkish.

Revivals of literary Syriac in recent times have led to some success with the creation of newspapers in written Syriac (ܟܬܒܢܝܐKṯāḇānāyā) similar to the use of Modern Standard Arabic has been employed since the early decades of the 20th century.[ clarification needed ] Modern literary Syriac has also been used not only in religious literature but also in secular genres often with Assyrian nationalistic themes. [38]

Syriac is spoken as the liturgical language of the Syriac Orthodox Church, as well as by some of its adherents. [39] Syriac has been recognised as an official minority language in Iraq. [40] It is also taught in some public schools in Iraq, the Democratic Federation of Northern Syria, Israel, Sweden, [41] [42] Augsburg (Germany) and Kerala (India).

In 2014, an Assyrian nursery school could finally be opened in Yeşilköy, Istanbul [43] after waging a lawsuit against the Ministry of National Education which had denied it permission, but was required to respect non-Muslim minority rights as specified in the Treaty of Lausanne. [44]

In August 2016, the Ourhi Centre was founded by the Assyrian community in the city of Qamishli, to educate teachers in order to make Syriac an additional language to be taught in public schools in the Jazira Region of the Democratic Federation of Northern Syria, [45] which then started with the 2016/17 academic year. [46]

Grammar

Many Syriac words, like those in other Semitic languages, belong to triconsonantal roots, collations of three Syriac consonants. New words are built from these three consonants with variable vowel and consonant sets. For example, the following words belong to the root ܫܩܠ (ŠQL), to which a basic meaning of taking can be assigned:

Nouns

Most Syriac nouns are built from triliteral roots. Nouns carry grammatical gender (masculine or feminine), they can be either singular or plural in number (a very few can be dual) and can exist in one of three grammatical states. These states should not be confused with grammatical cases in other languages.

However, very quickly in the development of Classical Syriac, the emphatic state became the ordinary form of the noun, and the absolute and construct states were relegated to certain stock phrases (for example, ܒܪ ܐܢܫܐ/ܒܪܢܫܐ, bar nāšā, "man, person", literally "son of man").

In Old and early Classical Syriac, most genitive noun relationships are built using the construct state, but contrary to the genitive case, it is the head-noun which is marked by the construct state. Thus, ܫܩ̈ܠܝ ܡܠܟܘܬܐ, šeqlay malkuṯā, means "the taxes of the kingdom". Quickly, the construct relationship was abandoned and replaced by the use of the relative particle ܕ, d-, da-. Thus, the same noun phrase becomes ܫܩ̈ܠܐ ܕܡܠܟܘܬܐ, šeqlē d-malkuṯā, where both nouns are in the emphatic state. Very closely related nouns can be drawn into a closer grammatical relationship by the addition of a pronominal suffix. Thus, the phrase can be written as ܫܩ̈ܠܝܗ ܕܡܠܟܘܬܐ, šeqlêh d-malkuṯā. In this case, both nouns continue to be in the emphatic state, but the first has the suffix that makes it literally read "her taxes" ("kingdom" is feminine), and thus is "her taxes, [those] of the kingdom".

Adjectives always agree in gender and number with the nouns they modify. Adjectives are in the absolute state if they are predicative, but agree with the state of their noun if attributive. Thus, ܒܝܫܝ̈ܢ ܫܩ̈ܠܐ, bišin šeqlē, means "the taxes are evil", whereas ܫܩ̈ܠܐ ܒܝ̈ܫܐ, šeqlē ḇišē, means "evil taxes".

Verbs

Most Syriac verbs are built on triliteral roots as well. Finite verbs carry person, gender (except in the first person) and number, as well as tense and conjugation. The non-finite verb forms are the infinitive and the active and passive participles.

Syriac has only two true morphological tenses: perfect and imperfect. Whereas these tenses were originally aspectual in Aramaic, they have become a truly temporal past and future tenses respectively. The present tense is usually marked with the participle followed by the subject pronoun. However, such pronouns are usually omitted in the case of the third person. This use of the participle to mark the present tense is the most common of a number of compound tenses that can be used to express varying senses of tense and aspect.

Syriac also employs derived verb stems such as are present in other Semitic languages. These are regular modifications of the verb's root to express other changes in meaning. The first stem is the ground state, or Pəʿal (this name models the shape of the root) form of the verb, which carries the usual meaning of the word. The next is the intensive stem, or Paʿʿel, form of the verb, which usually carries an intensified meaning. The third is the extensive stem, or ʾAp̄ʿel, form of the verb, which is often causative in meaning. Each of these stems has its parallel passive conjugation: the ʾEṯpəʿel, ʾEṯpaʿʿal and ʾEttap̄ʿal respectively. To these six cardinal stems are added a few irregular stems, like the Šap̄ʿel and ʾEštap̄ʿal, which generally have an extensive meaning.

Phonology

Phonologically, like the other Northwest Semitic languages, Syriac has 22 consonants. The consonantal phonemes are:

transliteration ʾ b g d h w z y k l m n s ʿ p q r š t
letterܐܒܓܕܗܘܙܚܛܝܟܠܡܢܣܥܦܨܩܪܫܬ
pronunciation[ ʔ ][ b ], [ v ][ g ], [ ɣ ][ d ], [ ð ][ h ][ w ][ z ][ ħ ][ ][ j ][ k ], [ x ][ l ][ m ][ n ][ s ][ ʕ ][ p ], [ f ][ ][ q ][ r ][ ʃ ][ t ], [ θ ]

Phonetically, there is some variation in the pronunciation of Syriac in its various forms. The various Modern Eastern Aramaic vernaculars have quite different pronunciations, and these sometimes influence how the classical language is pronounced, for example, in public prayer. Classical Syriac has two major streams of pronunciation: western and eastern.

Consonants

Syriac shares with Aramaic a set of lightly-contrasted stop/fricative pairs. In different variations of a certain lexical root, a root consonant might exist in stop form in one variation and fricative form in another. In the Syriac alphabet, a single letter is used for each pair. Sometimes a dot is placed above the letter (quššāyā "strengthening"; equivalent to a dagesh in Hebrew) to mark that the stop pronunciation is required, and a dot is placed below the letter (rukkāḵā "softening") to mark that the fricative pronunciation is required. The pairs are:

As with some Semitic languages, Syriac has a set of three emphatic consonants. These are consonants that have a coarticulation in the pharynx or slightly higher. The set consists of:

There are two pharyngeal fricatives, another class of consonants typically found in Semitic languages.

Syriac also has a rich array of sibilants:

Table of Syriac consonants
Bilabial Labio-
dental
Dental Alveolar Post-
alveolar
Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyn-
geal
Glottal
plain emphatic
Nasal m n
Stop p b t d k ɡ q ʔ
Fricative f v θ ð s z ʃ x ɣ ħ ʕ h
Approximant w l j
Trill r

Vowels

As with most Semitic languages, the vowels of Syriac are mostly subordinated to consonants. Especially in the presence of an emphatic consonant, vowels tend to become mid-centralised.

Classical Syriac had the following set of distinguishable vowels:

In the western dialect, /ɑ/ has become /o/, and the original /o/ has merged with /u/. In eastern dialects there is more fluidity in the pronunciation of front vowels, with some speakers distinguishing five qualities of such vowels, and others only distinguishing three. Vowel length is generally not important: close vowels tend to be longer than open vowels.

The open vowels form diphthongs with the approximants /j/ and /w/. In almost all dialects, the full sets of possible diphthongs collapses into two or three actual pronunciations:

See also

Notes

  1. "Mesopotamian Languages — Department of Archaeology".
  2. "BBC - History - Ancient History in depth: Mesopotamia".
  3. 1 2 Holes, Clive (2001). Dialect, Culture, and Society in Eastern Arabia: Glossary. pp. XXIV–XXVI. ISBN   978-9004107632.
  4. 1 2 Cameron, Averil (1993). The Mediterranean World in Late Antiquity. p. 185. ISBN   9781134980819.
  5. 1 2 Angold 2006, pp. 391
  6. https://www.constituteproject.org/constitution/Iraq_2005.pdf?lang=en
  7. http://www.turkmen.nl/1A_Others/minority-Iraq.pdf
  8. "Kurdistan: Constitution of the Iraqi Kurdistan Region" . Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  9. 1 2 Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Classical Syriac". Glottolog 3.0 . Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  10. "Documentation for ISO 639 identifier: syc". ISO 639-2 Registration Authority - Library of Congress. Retrieved 2017-07-03. Name: Classical Syriac
  11. "Documentation for ISO 639 identifier: syc". ISO 639-3 Registration Authority - SIL International. Retrieved 2017-07-03. Name: Classical Syriac
  12. Cameron, Averil; Garnsey, Peter (1998). The Cambridge Ancient History. 13. p. 708. ISBN   9780521302005.
  13. Beyer, Klaus (1986). The Aramaic Language: its distribution and subdivisions. John F. Healey (trans.). Göttingen: Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht. p. 44. ISBN   978-3-525-53573-8.
  14. Tannous, Jack (2010). Syria Between Byzantium and Islam (phd). Princeton University. p. 1.
  15. Smart, J R (2013). Tradition and Modernity in Arabic Language and Literature. p. 253. ISBN   9781136788123.
  16. Studies in Neo-Aramaic. Heinrichs, Wolfhart. Atlanta, Ga.: Scholars Press. 1990. ISBN   978-1555404307. OCLC   20670754.CS1 maint: others (link)
  17. The semitic languages : an international handbook. Weninger, Stefan., Khan, Geoffrey., Streck, Michael P., Watson, Janet C. E. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. 2011. p. 652. ISBN   9783110251586. OCLC   772845156.CS1 maint: others (link)
  18. Beyer, Klaus; John F. Healey (trans.) (1986). The Aramaic Language: its distribution and subdivisions. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht. p. 44. ISBN   3-525-53573-2.
  19. Bae, C. Aramaic as a Lingua Franca During the Persian Empire (538-333 BCE). Journal of Universal Language. March 2004, 1-20.
  20. Maclean, Arthur John (1895). Grammar of the dialects of vernacular Syriac: as spoken by the Eastern Syrians of Kurdistan, north-west Persia, and the Plain of Mosul: with notices of the vernacular of the Jews of Azerbaijan and of Zakhu near Mosul. Cambridge University Press, London.
  21. Avenery, Iddo, The Aramaic Dialect of the Jews of Zakho. The Israel academy of Science and Humanities 1988.
  22. Heinrichs, Wolfhart (ed.) (1990). Studies in Neo-Aramaic. Scholars Press: Atlanta, Georgia. ISBN   1-55540-430-8.
  23. Wilken, Robert Louis (2012-11-27). The First Thousand Years: A Global History of Christianity. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. p. 26. ISBN   978-0-300-11884-1.
  24. 1 2 3 "City Youth Learn Dying Language, Preserve It". The New Indian Express . May 9, 2016. Retrieved May 9, 2016.
  25. Ji, Jingyi (2007). Encounters Between Chinese Culture and Christianity: A Hermeneutical Perspective. LIT Verlag Münster. p. 41. ISBN   978-3-8258-0709-2.
  26. Beeston, Alfred Felix Landon (1983). Arabic literature to the end of the Umayyad period. Cambridge University Press. p. 497. ISBN   978-0-521-24015-4.
  27. Higgins, Charlotte (13 October 2009). "When Syrians, Algerians and Iraqis patrolled Hadrian's Wall". The Guardian.
  28. 1 2 Lipiński, Edward Lipiński (2001). Semitic Languages: Outline of a Comparative Grammar. Peeters Publishers. p. 70. ISBN   978-90-429-0815-4.
  29. Drijvers, H. J. W. (1980). Cults and beliefs at Edessa. Brill Archive. p. 1. ISBN   978-90-04-06050-0.
  30. Stefan Weninger (2011). The Semitic Languages: An International Handbook. p. 652. ISBN   9783110251586.
  31. Humanism, Culture, and Language in the Near East : Studies in Honor of Georg Krotkoff. Krotkoff, Georg., Afsaruddin, Asma, 1958-, Zahniser, A. H. Mathias, 1938-. Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns. 1997. ISBN   9781575065083. OCLC   747412055.CS1 maint: others (link)
  32. 1 2 "LANGUAGES OF IRAQ: ANCIENT AND MODERN p. 95" (PDF).
  33. 1 2 Sanchez, Francisco del Rio. ""Influences of Aramaic on dialectal Arabic", in: Archaism and Innovation in the Semitic Languages. Selected papers".Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  34. Smart, J. R.; Smart, J. R. (2013-12-16). Tradition and modernity in Arabic language and literature. Smart, J. R., Shaban Memorial Conference (2nd : 1994 : University of Exeter). Richmond, Surrey, U.K. ISBN   9781136788123. OCLC   865579151.
  35. Donabed, Sargon (2015-02-01). Reforging a Forgotten History: Iraq and the Assyrians in the Twentieth Century. Edinburgh University Press. ISBN   9780748686056.
  36. Muller-Kessler, Christa (July 2003). "Aramaic k, lyk and Iraqi Arabic aku, maku: The Mesopotamian Particles of Existence". Journal of the American Oriental Society. 123 (3): 641–646. doi:10.2307/3217756. JSTOR   3217756.
  37. "Minorities of IRAQ: EU Research Service" (PDF).
  38. Kiraz, George. "Kthobonoyo Syriac: Some Observations and Remarks". Hugoye: Journal of Syriac Studies. Beth Mardutho: The Syriac Institute and Institute of Christian Oriental Research at The Catholic University of America. Archived from the original on 30 November 2011. Retrieved 30 September 2011.
  39. Concise Encyclopedia of Languages of the World. Elsevier. 6 April 2010. pp. 58–. ISBN   978-0-08-087775-4.
  40. Anbori, Abbas. "The Comprehensive Policy to Manage the Ethnic Languages in Iraq" (PDF): 4–5.Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  41. Dorit, Shilo (1 April 2010). "The Ben Yehudas of Aramaic". Haaretz . Retrieved 30 September 2011.
  42. "Syriac... a language struggling to survive". Voices of Iraq. 28 December 2007. Archived from the original on 30 March 2012. Retrieved 30 September 2011.
  43. Assyrian School Welcomes Students in Istanbul, Marking a New Beginning
  44. Turkey Denies Request to Open Assyrian-Language Kindergarten Archived 2014-11-04 at the Wayback Machine
  45. "Syriac Christians revive ancient language despite war". ARA News. 2016-08-19. Retrieved 2016-08-19.
  46. "Hassakeh: Syriac Language to Be Taught in PYD-controlled Schools". The Syrian Observer. 3 October 2016. Retrieved 2016-10-05.

Related Research Articles

Aramaic is a language or group of languages belonging to the Semitic subfamily of the Afroasiatic language family. More specifically, it is part of the Northwest Semitic group, which also includes the Canaanite languages such as Hebrew and Phoenician. The Aramaic alphabet was widely adopted for other languages and is ancestral to the Hebrew, Syriac and Arabic alphabets. During its approximately 3,100 years of written history, Aramaic has served variously as a language of administration of empires, as a language of divine worship and religious study, and as the spoken tongue of a number of Semitic peoples from the Near East.

Semitic languages a branch of the Afroasiatic language family native to the Middle East

The Semitic languages, previously also named Syro-Arabian languages, are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East that are spoken by more than 330 million people across much of Western Asia, North Africa and the Horn of Africa, as well as in often large immigrant and expatriate communities in North America, Europe and Australasia. The terminology was first used in the 1780s by members of the Göttingen School of History, who derived the name from Shem, one of the three sons of Noah in the Book of Genesis.

Akkadian language extinct Semitic language

Akkadian is an extinct East Semitic language that was spoken in ancient Mesopotamia from the third millennium BC until its gradual replacement by Akkadian-influenced Old Aramaic among Mesopotamians by the eighth century BC.

Arameans Northwest Semitic semi-nomadic and pastoralist people who originated in what is now modern Syria

The Arameans, were an ancient Northwest Semitic Aramaic-speaking tribal confederation who emerged from the region known as Aram in the Late Bronze Age. They established a patchwork of independent Aramaic kingdoms in the Levant and seized tracts of Anatolia as well as briefly conquering Babylonia.

Syriac alphabet Writing system

The Syriac alphabet is a writing system primarily used to write the Syriac language since the 1st century AD. It is one of the Semitic abjads descending from the Aramaic alphabet through the Palmyrene alphabet, and shares similarities with the Phoenician, Hebrew, Arabic and the traditional Mongolian scripts.

Mizrahi Hebrew, or Eastern Hebrew, refers to any of the pronunciation systems for Biblical Hebrew used liturgically by Mizrahi Jews: Jews from Arab countries or east of them and with a background of Arabic, Persian or other languages of the Middle East and Asia. As such, Mizrahi Hebrew is actually a blanket term for many dialects.

Turoyo, also referred to as Surayt, is a Central Neo-Aramaic language traditionally spoken in southeastern Turkey and northern Syria by Arameans. Most speakers use the Classical Syriac language for literature and worship.

Syriac Christianity

Syriac Christianity is the form of Eastern Christianity whose formative theological writings and traditional liturgy are expressed in the Syriac language. Syriac Christianity consists of two liturgical rites, the East Syriac Rite and the West Syriac Rite. The main Anaphora of the East Syriac tradition is the Holy Qurbana of Saints Addai and Mari, while that of the West Syriac tradition is the Divine Liturgy of Saint James. Along with Latin and Greek, Syriac became one of "the three most important Christian languages in the early centuries" of the Common Era.

Chaldean Neo-Aramaic Northeastern Neo-Aramaic dialect spoken on the plain of Mosul in northern Iraq

Chaldean Neo-Aramaic, or simply Chaldean, is a Northeastern Neo-Aramaic language spoken throughout a large region stretching from the Nineveh plains, in northern Iraq, together with parts of southeastern Turkey.

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic or simply Assyrian, also known as Syriac, Eastern Syriac and Neo-Syriac, is an Aramaic language within the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family that is spoken by the Assyrian people. The various Assyrian dialects descend from Old Aramaic, the lingua franca in the later phase of the Assyrian Empire, which slowly displaced the East Semitic Akkadian language beginning around the 10th century BC. They have been further heavily influenced by Classical Syriac, the Middle Aramaic dialect of Edessa, after its adoption as an official liturgical language of the Syriac churches.

The Senaya language is a modern Eastern Syriac-Aramaic language. It is the language of Assyrians originally from Sanandaj in Iranian Kurdistan. Most Senaya speakers now live in California, United States and few families still live in Tehran, Iran. They are mostly members of the Chaldean Catholic Church. Since the speakers are ethnically Assyrian, the language would be, at times, considered a dialect of Assyrian Neo-Aramaic.

Lishanid Noshan is a modern Jewish-Aramaic language, often called Neo-Aramaic or Judeo-Aramaic. It was originally spoken in northeastern Iraq, in the region of Arbil. Most speakers now live in Israel.

Mesopotamian Arabic language and variant of Arabic spoken in Mesopotamia

Mesopotamian Arabic, or Iraqi Arabic, is a continuum of mutually-intelligible varieties of Arabic native to the Mesopotamian basin of Iraq as well as spanning into Syria, Iran, southeastern Turkey, and spoken in Iraqi diaspora communities.

The Hértevin language is a modern Eastern Aramaic or Syriac language. It was originally spoken in a cluster of villages in Siirt Province in southeastern Turkey. Speakers of Hértevin Aramaic have emigrated mostly to the West, and are now scattered and isolated from one another. A few speakers remain in Turkey.

The Neo-Aramaic or Modern Aramaic languages are varieties of Aramaic, that are spoken vernaculars from the medieval to modern era that evolved out of Imperial Aramaic via Middle Aramaic dialects, around AD 1200.

Northeastern Neo-Aramaic

Northeastern Neo-Aramaic is a variety of Modern Aramaic languages once spoken in a large region stretching from the plain of Urmia, in northwestern Iran, to the plain of Mosul, in northern Iraq, as well as bordering regions in south east Turkey and north east Syria.

Eastern Aramaic languages have developed from the varieties of Aramaic that developed in and around Mesopotamia, as opposed to western varieties of the Levant. Most speakers are ethnic Assyrians, although there are a minority of Jews and Mandaeans, who also speak varieties of Eastern Aramaic.

Tyari

Ṭyārē or Tyari is an Assyrian tribe of ancient origins and a historical district within Hakkari, Turkey. The area was traditionally divided into Upper and Lower Tyare--each consisting of several Assyrian villages. Today, the district mostly sits in around the town of Çukurca. Historically, the largest village of the region was known as Ashitha.

Assyrian continuity is the claim by modern Assyrians and supporting academics that they are at root the direct descendants of the Semitic inhabitants who spoke originally Akkadian and later Imperial Aramaic of ancient Assyria, Babylonia and their immediate surrounds. Modern Assyrians are accepted to be an indigenous ethnic minority of modern Iraq, southeast Turkey, northeastern Syria and border areas of northwest Iran, a region that is roughly what was once ancient Assyria.

References