Systema Naturae

Last updated
Systema Naturæ
Linnaeus1758-title-page.jpg
Title page of the 1758 edition of Linnaeus's Systema Naturæ. [1]
Author Carl Linnaeus
(Carl von Linné)
CountrySweden
Subject Taxonomy
GenreBiological classification
Publication date
1735 (1735)
LC Class QH43 .S21

Systema Naturae (originally in Latin written Systema Naturæ with the ligature æ) is one of the major works of the Swedish botanist, zoologist and physician Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778) and introduced the Linnaean taxonomy. Although the system, now known as binomial nomenclature, was partially developed by the Bauhin brothers, Gaspard and Johann, 200 years earlier, [2] Linnaeus was first to use it consistently throughout his book. The first edition was published in 1735. The full title of the 10th edition (1758), which was the most important one, was Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis or translated: "System of nature through the three kingdoms of nature, according to classes, orders, genera and species, with characters, differences, synonyms, places".

Contents

The tenth edition of this book (1758) is considered the starting point of zoological nomenclature. [3] In 1766–1768 Linnaeus published the much enhanced 12th edition, the last under his authorship. Another again enhanced work in the same style and titled "Systema Naturae" was published by Johann Friedrich Gmelin between 1788 and 1793. Since at least the early 1900s zoologists commonly recognized this as the last edition belonging to this series. [4] [5] It was also officially regarded by the ICZN in Opinion 296 (26 Oct 1954) as the 13th edition of Systema Naturae. [6]

Overview

Linnaeus (later known as "Carl von Linné", after his ennoblement in 1761) [7] published the first edition of Systema Naturae in the year 1735, during his stay in the Netherlands. As was customary for the scientific literature of its day, the book was published in Latin. In it, he outlined his ideas for the hierarchical classification of the natural world, dividing it into the animal kingdom (regnum animale), the plant kingdom (regnum vegetabile), and the "mineral kingdom" (regnum lapideum).

Linnaeus's Systema Naturae lists only about 10,000 species of organisms, of which about 6,000 are plants and 4,236 are animals. [8] According to the historian of botany William T. Stearn, "Even in 1753 he believed that the number of species of plants in the whole world would hardly reach 10,000; in his whole career he named about 7,700 species of flowering plants." [8]

Linnaeus developed his classification of the plant kingdom in an attempt to describe and understand the natural world as a reflection of the logic of God's creation. [9] His sexual system, where species with the same number of stamens were treated in the same group, was convenient but in his view artificial. [9] Linnaeus believed in God's creation, and that there were no deeper relationships to be expressed. He is frequently quoted to have said: "God created, Linnaeus organized" (Latin: Deus creavit, Linnaeus disposuit). [10] The classification of animals was more natural. For instance, humans were for the first time placed together with other primates, as Anthropomorpha.

As a result of the popularity of the work, and the number of new specimens sent to him from around the world, Linnaeus kept publishing new and ever-expanding editions of his work. [11] It grew from eleven very large pages in the first edition (1735) to 2,400 pages in the 12th edition (1766–1768). [12] Also, as the work progressed, he made changes: in the first edition, whales were classified as fishes, following the work of Linnaeus' friend and "father of ichthyology" Peter Artedi; in the 10th edition, published in 1758, whales were moved into the mammal class. In this same edition, he introduced two-part names (see binomen) for animal species, something that he had done for plant species (see binary name) in the 1753 publication of Species Plantarum . The system eventually developed into modern Linnaean taxonomy, a hierarchically organized biological classification.

After Linnaeus' health declined in the early 1770s, publication of editions of Systema Naturae went in two directions. Another Swedish scientist, Johan Andreas Murray issued the Regnum Vegetabile section separately in 1774 as the Systema Vegetabilium , rather confusingly labelled the 13th edition. [13] Meanwhile, a 13th edition of the entire Systema appeared in parts between 1788 and 1793. It was as the Systema Vegetabilium that Linnaeus' work became widely known in England following translation from the Latin by the Lichfield Botanical Society, as A System of Vegetables (1783–1785). [14]

Taxonomy

In his Imperium Naturæ, Linnaeus established three kingdoms, namely Regnum Animale, Regnum Vegetabile and Regnum Lapideum. This approach, the Animal, Vegetable and Mineral Kingdoms, survives until today in the popular mind, notably in the form of parlour games: "Is it animal, vegetable or mineral?" The classification was based on five levels: kingdom, class, order, genus, and species. While species and genus was seen as God-given (or "natural"), the three higher levels were seen by Linnaeus as constructs. The concept behind the set ranks being applied to all groups was to make a system that was easy to remember and navigate, a task which most say he succeeded in.

The 1735 classification of animals Linnaeus - Regnum Animale (1735).png
The 1735 classification of animals

Linnaeus's work had a huge impact on science; it was indispensable as a foundation for biological nomenclature, now regulated by the Nomenclature Codes. Two of his works, the first edition of the Species Plantarum (1753) for plants and the 10th edition of the Systema Naturæ (1758), are accepted to be among the starting points of nomenclature. Most of his names for species and genera were published at very early dates, and thus take priority over those of other, later authors. In zoology there is one exception, which is a monograph on Swedish spiders, Svenska Spindlar , [15] published by Carl Clerck in 1757, so the names established there take priority over the Linnean names. [16] However, his impact on science was not because of the value of his taxonomy. His talent for attracting skillful young students and sending them abroad to collect specimens made his work far more influential than that of his contemporaries. [17] At the close of the 18th century, his system had effectively become the standard system for biological classification.

Animal Kingdom

Only in the Animal Kingdom is the higher taxonomy of Linnaeus still more or less recognizable and some of these names are still in use, but usually not quite for the same groups as used by Linnaeus. He divided the Animal Kingdom into six classes; in the tenth edition (1758), these were:

  1. Mammalia comprised the mammals. In the first edition, whales and the West Indian manatee were classified among the fishes.
  2. Aves comprised the birds. Linnaeus was the first to remove bats from the birds and classify them under mammals.
  3. Amphibia comprised amphibians, reptiles, and assorted fishes that are not of Osteichthyes.
  4. Pisces comprised the bony fishes. These included the spiny-finned fishes (Perciformes) as a separate order.
  5. Insecta comprised all arthropods. Crustaceans, arachnids and myriapods were included as the order "Aptera".
  6. Vermes comprised the remaining invertebrates, roughly divided into "worms", molluscs, and hard-shelled organisms like echinoderms.

Plant Kingdom

The orders and classes of plants, according to his Systema Sexuale, were never intended to represent natural groups (as opposed to his ordines naturales in his Philosophia Botanica) but only for use in identification. They were used in that sense well into the 19th century.

Key to the Sexual System from the 10th (1758) edition of Systema Naturae SN-p837.jpg
Key to the Sexual System from the 10th (1758) edition of Systema Naturæ

The Linnaean classes for plants, in the Sexual System, were:

Mineral Kingdoms

Linnaeus's taxonomy of minerals has long since fallen out of use. In the 10th edition, 1758, of the Systema Naturæ, the Linnaean classes were:

Editions

Gmelin's thirteenth (decima tertia) edition of Systema Naturae (1788–1793) should be carefully distinguished from the more limited Systema Vegetabilium first prepared and published by Johan Andreas Murray in 1774 (but labelled as "thirteenth edition"). [13]

EditionLocationYearComplete bibliographical citationLinks to online versions
1Leiden1735Linnæus, C. 1735. Systema naturæ, sive regna tria naturæ systematice proposita per classes, ordines, genera, & species. – pp. [1–12]. Lugduni Batavorum. (Haak) Missouri Botanical Garden
2Stockholm1740Linnæus, C. 1740. Systema naturæ in quo naturæ regna tria, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, systematice proponuntur. Editio secunda, auctior. – pp. [1–2], 1–80. Stockholmiæ. (Kiesewetter) Internet Archive
3Halle1740Lange, J. J. 1740. Caroli Linnaei systema natvrae, sive Regna tria natvrae systematice proposita per classes, ordines, genera et species. Caroli Linnaei Natur-Systema, oder die in ordentlichem Zusammenhange vorgetragene drey Reiche der Natur nach ihren Classen, Ordnungen, Geschlechtern und Arten, in die deutsche Sprache übersetzet und mit einer Vorrede herausgegeben von Johann Joachim Langen. – pp. [1–8], 1–70, [1]. Halle. (Gebauer) Bayerische Staatsbibliothek
4Paris1744Linnæus, C. 1744. Systema naturæ in quo proponuntur naturæ regna tria secundum classes, ordines, genera & species. Editio quarta ab auctore emendata & aucta. Accesserunt nomina Gallica. – pp. i–xxvi, [1], 1–108. Parisiis. (David.) Google Books
CSIC Madrid
5Halle1747 Agnethler, M. G. 1747. Caroli Linnæi systema natvræ in qvo natvræ regna tria, secvndvm classes, ordines, genera, species, systematice proponvntvr. Recvsvm et societatis, qvæ impensas contvlit, vsvi accommodatvm. Editio altera avctior et emendatior. – pp. 1–88. Halæ Magdebvrgicæ. Bayerische Staatsbibliothek
6Stockholm1748Linnæus, C. 1748. Systema naturæ sistens regna tria naturæ, in classes et ordines, genera et species redacta tabulisque æneis illustrata. Editio sexta, emendata et aucta. – pp. [1–3], 1–224, [1–18], Tab. I–VIII. Stockholmiæ. (Kiesewetter) SUB Göttingen
7Leipzig1748Linnæus, C. 1748. Systema naturæ sistens regna tria naturæ, in classes et ordines, genera et species redacta tabulisque æneis illustrata. Secundum sextam Stockholmiensem emendatam & auctam editionem. – pp. [A], [1–5], 1–224, [1–22], Tab. I–VIII. Lipsiae. (Kiesewetter) Bayerische Staatsbibliothek
8Stockholm1753Haartman, J. J. 1753. Caroli Linnæi Indelning i Ö̈rt-Riket, efter Systema Naturae, på Swenska öfwersatt af Johan J. Haartman. – pp. [1–12], 1–136, [1–8]. Stockholm. (Salvius) Umeå UB
9Leiden1756Linnæus, C. 1756. Systema naturæ sistens regna tria naturæ in classes et ordines, genera et species redacta, tabulisque æneis illustrata. Accedunt vocabula gallica. Editio multo auctior & emendatior. – pp. [1–7], 1–227, [1–19], Tab. I–VIII. Lugduni Batavorum. (Haak) New York Botanical Garden
Bayerische Staatsbibliothek
10,
Vol. 1
Stockholm1758Linnæus, C. 1758. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. – pp. [1–4], 1–824. Holmiæ. (Salvius) Bayerische Staatsbibliothek
SUB Göttingen
Missouri Botanical Garden
10,
Vol. 2
Stockholm1759Linnæus, C. 1759. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus II. Editio decima, reformata. – pp. [1–4], 825–1384. Holmiæ. (Salvius) Missouri Botanical Garden
11,
Vol. 1
Halle1760Linnaeus, C. 1760. Systema natvrae per regna tria natvrae, secvndvm classes, ordines, genera, species, cvm characteribvs, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomvs I. Praefactvs est Ioannes Ioachimvs Langivs. Ad editionem decimam reformatam Holmiensem. – pp. [1–8], 1–824. Halae Magdebvrgicae. (Curt). (Linnæus 1758: p. 5 recorded probably this edition as from Leipzig 1762, "nil additum" = nothing added) New York Botanical Garden
(pp. [1–8], 1–338)
New York Botanical Garden
(pp. 339–824)
12,
Vol. 1,
part 1
Stockholm1766Linné, C. a 1766. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio duodecima, reformata. – pp. 1–532. Holmiæ. (Salvius) SUB Göttingen
Bayerische Staatsbibliothek
12,
Vol. 1,
part 2
Stockholm1767Linné, C. a 1767. Systema naturæ, Tom. I. Pars II. Editio duodecima reformata. – pp. 533–1327, [1–37]. Holmiæ. (Salvius) SUB Göttingen
Bayerische Staatsbibliothek
12,
Vol. 2
Stockholm1767Linné, C. a 1767. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus & differentiis. Tomus II. – pp. 1–735, [1–16], 1–142, [1–2]. Holmiæ. (Salvius)
12,
Vol. 3
Stockholm1768Linné, C. a 1768. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus & differentiis. Tomus III. – pp. 1–236, [1–20], Tab. I–III. Holmiæ. (Salvius) SUB Göttingen
12a ("13"),
Vol. 1,
part. 1
Vienna1767Linné, C. a 1767. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima tertia, ad editionem duodecimam reformatam Holmiensem. – pp. 1–532. Vindobonae. (Trattnern) NCSU Libraries
Missouri Botanical Garden
Google Books
12a ("13"),
Vol. 1,
part 2
Vienna1767Linné, C. a [1767]. Systema naturæ. Tom. I. Pars II. – pp. [1–2], 1–1327, [1–37]. Vindobonae. (Trattnern) NCSU Libraries
Missouri Botanical Garden
Google Books
12a ("13"),
Vol. 2
Vienna1770Linné, C. a 1770. Systema natvrae per regna tria natvrae, secvndvm classes, ordines, genera, species cvm characteribvs, et differentiis. Tomvs II. Editio decima tertia, ad editionem duodecimam reformatam Holmiensem. – 1–736, [1–6]. Vindobonae. (Trattnern) NCSU Libraries
Missouri Botanical Garden
New York Botanical Garden
Google Books
12a ("13"),
Vol. 3
Vienna1770Linnaeus, C. 1770. Systema natvrae per regna tria natvrae, secvndvm classes, ordines, genera, species cvm characteribvs, et differentiis. Tomvs III. – 1–236, [1–19]. Vindobonae. (Trattnern) NCSU Libraries
Missouri Botanical Garden
Google Books
12b,
Vol. 1
Göttingen1772Beckmann, J. 1772. Caroli a Linné systema naturae ex editione duodecima in epitomen redactum et praelectionibus academicis accommodatum a Iohanne Beckmanno. Tomus I. Regnum Animale. – pp. [1–5], 1–240, [1–10]. Gottingae. (Vandenhoeck) NCSU Libraries
12b,
Vol. 2
Göttingen1772Beckmann, J. 1772. Caroli a Linné systema naturae ex editione duodecima in epitomen redactum et praelectionibus academicis accommodatum a Iohanne Beckmanno. Tomus II. Regnum Vegetabile. – pp. 1–356, [1–32]. Gottingae. (Vandenhoeck) NCSU Libraries
13,
Vol. 1,
part 1
Leipzig1788Gmelin, J. F. 1788. Caroli a Linné systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima tertia, aucta, reformata. – pp. [1–12], 1–500. Lipsiae. (Beer) Missouri Botanical Garden
NCSU Libraries
13,
Vol. 1,
part 2
Leipzig[1789]Gmelin, J. F. [1789]. Caroli a Linné, systema naturae. Tom. I. Pars II. – pp. 501–1032. Lipsiae. (Beer) Missouri Botanical Garden
NCSU Libraries
13,
Vol. 1,
part 3
Leipzig[1789]Gmelin, J. F. [1789]. Caroli a Linné, systema naturae. Tom. I. Pars III. – pp. 1033–1516. Lipsiae. (Beer) Missouri Botanical Garden
NCSU Libraries
13,
Vol. 1,
part 4
Leipzig[1790]Gmelin, J. F. [1790]. Caroli a Linné, systema naturae. Tom. I. Pars IV. – pp. 1517–2224. Lipsiae. (Beer) Missouri Botanical Garden
NCSU Libraries
13,
Vol. 1,
part 5
Leipzig[1790]Gmelin, J. F. [1790]. Caroli a Linné, systema naturae. Tom. I. Pars V. – pp. 2225–3020. Lipsiae. (Beer) Missouri Botanical Garden
NCSU Libraries
13,
Vol. 1,
part 6
Leipzig[1791]Gmelin, J. F. [1791]. Caroli a Linné, systema naturae. Tom. I. Pars VI. – pp. 3021–3910. Lipsiae. (Beer) Missouri Botanical Garden
NCSU Libraries
13,
Vol. 1,
part 7
Leipzig[1792]Gmelin, J. F. [1792]. Caroli a Linné, systema naturae. Tom. I. Pars VII. – pp. [1], 3911–4120. Lipsiae. (Beer) Missouri Botanical Garden
13,
Vol. 2,
part 1
Leipzig1791Gmelin, J. F. 1791. Caroli a Linné systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus et differentiis. Tomus II. Editio decima tertia, aucta, reformata. – pp. [1], I–XL, 1–884. Lipsiae. (Beer) Missouri Botanical Garden
NCSU Libraries
Bayerische Staatsbibliothek
13,
Vol. 2,
part 2
Leipzig[1791]?Caroli a Linné, systema naturae. Tom. II. Pars II. – pp. [1], 885–1661, [1]. Lipsiae. (Beer) Missouri Botanical Garden
Bayerische Staatsbibliothek
13,
Vol. 3
Leipzig1793Gmelin, J. F. 1793. Caroli a Linné (...) systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus et differentiis. Tomus III. Editio decima tertia, aucta, reformata. – pp. 1–476. Lipsiae. (Beer) Missouri Botanical Garden
NCSU Libraries
Bayerische Staatsbibliothek

The dates of publication for Gmelin's edition were the following: [19]

See also

Related Research Articles

Carl Linnaeus Swedish botanist, physician, and zoologist

Carl Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as Carl von Linné, was a Swedish botanist, zoologist, taxonomist, and physician who formalised binomial nomenclature, the modern system of naming organisms. He is known as the "father of modern taxonomy". Many of his writings were in Latin, and his name is rendered in Latin as Carolus Linnæus.

Linnaean taxonomy Rank based classification system for organisms

Linnaean taxonomy can mean either of two related concepts:

  1. the particular form of biological classification (taxonomy) set up by Carl Linnaeus, as set forth in his Systema Naturae (1735) and subsequent works. In the taxonomy of Linnaeus there are three kingdoms, divided into classes, and they, in turn, into orders, genera, and species, with an additional rank lower than species.
  2. a term for rank-based classification of organisms, in general. That is, taxonomy in the traditional sense of the word: rank-based scientific classification. This term is especially used as opposed to cladistic systematics, which groups organisms into clades. It is attributed to Linnaeus, although he neither invented the concept of ranked classification nor gave it its present form. In fact, it does not have an exact present form, as "Linnaean taxonomy" as such does not really exist: it is a collective (abstracting) term for what actually are several separate fields, which use similar approaches.
Taxonomy (biology) Science of naming, defining and classifying organisms

In biology, taxonomy is the scientific study of naming, defining (circumscribing) and classifying groups of biological organisms based on shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped into taxa and these groups are given a taxonomic rank; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a more inclusive group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species. The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus is regarded as the founder of the current system of taxonomy, as he developed a ranked system known as Linnaean taxonomy for categorizing organisms and binominal nomenclature for naming organisms.

Binomial nomenclature System of identifying species of organisms using a two-part name

In taxonomy, binomial nomenclature, also called binominal nomenclature or binary nomenclature, is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms, although they can be based on words from other languages. Such a name is called a binomial name, a binomen, binominal name or a scientific name; more informally it is also called a Latin name.

In biological classification, the order is

  1. a taxonomic rank used in the classification of organisms and recognized by the nomenclature codes. The well-known ranks in descending order are: life, domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species, with order fitting in between class and family. An immediately higher rank, superorder, is sometimes added directly above order, with suborder directly beneath order.
  2. a taxonomic unit in the rank of order. In that case the plural is orders.
Johann Friedrich Gmelin

Johann Friedrich Gmelin was a German naturalist, botanist, entomologist, herpetologist, and malacologist.

<i>Species Plantarum</i> Book by Carl Linnæus

Species Plantarum is a book by Carl Linnaeus, originally published in 1753, which lists every species of plant known at the time, classified into genera. It is the first work to consistently apply binomial names and was the starting point for the naming of plants.

Nomenclature codes or codes of nomenclature are the various rulebooks that govern biological taxonomic nomenclature, each in their own broad field of organisms. To an end-user who only deals with names of species, with some awareness that species are assignable to families, it may not be noticeable that there is more than one code, but beyond this basic level these are rather different in the way they work.

In botany, the phrase ordo naturalis, 'natural order', was once used for what today is a family. Its origins lie with Carl Linnaeus who used the phrase when he referred to natural groups of plants in his lesser-known work, particularly Philosophia Botanica. In his more famous works the Systema Naturae and the Species Plantarum, plants were arranged according to his artificial "Sexual system", and Linnaeus used the word ordo for an artificial unit. In those works, only genera and species were "real" taxa.

<i>Supplementum Plantarum</i>

Supplementum Plantarum Systematis Vegetabilium Editionis Decimae Tertiae, Generum Plantarum Editiones Sextae, et Specierum Plantarum Editionis Secundae, commonly abbreviated to Supplementum Plantarum Systematis Vegetabilium or just Supplementum Plantarum, and further abbreviated by botanists to Suppl. Pl., is a 1782 book by Carolus Linnaeus the Younger. Written entirely in Latin, it was intended as a supplement to the 1737 Genera Plantarum and the 1753 Species Plantarum, both written by the author's father, the "father of modern taxonomy", Carl Linnaeus.

<i>Philosophia Botanica</i>

Philosophia Botanica was published by the Swedish naturalist and physician Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778) who greatly influenced the development of botanical taxonomy and systematics in the 18th and 19th centuries. It is "the first textbook of descriptive systematic botany and botanical Latin". It also contains Linnaeus's first published description of his binomial nomenclature.

<i>Genera Plantarum</i>

Genera Plantarum is a publication of Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778). The first edition was issued in Leiden, 1737. The fifth edition served as a complementary volume to Species Plantarum (1753). Article 13 of the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants states that "Generic names that appear in Linnaeus' Species Plantarum ed. 1 (1753) and ed. 2 (1762–63) are associated with the first subsequent description given under those names in Linnaeus' Genera Plantarum ed. 5 (1754) and ed. 6 (1764)." This defines the starting point for nomenclature of most groups of plants.

Carl Linnaeus bibliography List of publications by Swedish scientist, Carl Linnaeus

The bibliography of Carl Linnaeus includes academic works about botany, zoology, nomenclature and taxonomy written by the Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778). Linnaeus laid the foundations for the modern scheme of binomial nomenclature and is known as the father of modern taxonomy. His most famous works is Systema Naturae which is considered as the starting point for zoological nomenclature together with Species Plantarum which is internationally accepted as the beginning of modern botanical nomenclature.

10th edition of <i>Systema Naturae</i> Book by Carl Linnaeus

The 10th edition of Systema Naturae is a book written by Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus and published in two volumes in 1758 and 1759, which marks the starting point of zoological nomenclature. In it, Linnaeus introduced binomial nomenclature for animals, something he had already done for plants in his 1753 publication of Species Plantarum.

<i>Critica Botanica</i>

Critica Botanica was written by Swedish botanist, physician, zoologist and naturalist Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778). The book was published in Germany when Linnaeus was twenty-nine with a discursus by the botanist Johannes Browallius (1707–1755), bishop of Åbo. The first edition was published in July 1737 under the full title Critica botanica in qua nomina plantarum generica, specifica & variantia examini subjiciuntur, selectoria confirmantur, indigna rejiciuntur; simulque doctrina circa denominationem plantarum traditur. Seu Fundamentorum botanicorum pars IV Accedit Johannis Browallii De necessitate historiae naturalis discursus.

<i>Fundamenta Botanica</i>

Fundamenta Botanica was one of the major works of the Swedish botanist, zoologist and physician Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778) and issued both as a separate work and part of the Bibliotheca Botanica.

<i>Classes Plantarum</i>

Classes Plantarum is a book that was written by Carl Linnaeus, a Swedish botanist, physician, zoologist and naturalist.

<i>Svenska Spindlar</i>

The book Svenska Spindlar or Aranei Svecici was one of the major works of the Swedish arachnologist and entomologist Carl Alexander Clerck and appeared in Stockholm in the year 1757. It was the first comprehensive book on the spiders of Sweden and one of the first regional monographs of a group of animals worldwide. The full title of the work was Svenska Spindlar uti sina hufvud-slägter indelte samt under några och sextio särskildte arter beskrefne och med illuminerade figurer uplysteAranei Svecici, descriptionibus et figuris æneis illustrati, ad genera subalterna redacti, speciebus ultra LX determinati, and included 162 pages of text and 6 colour plates. It was published in Swedish, with a Latin translation printed in a slightly smaller font below the Swedish text.

12th edition of <i>Systema Naturae</i>

The 12th edition of Systema Naturae was the last edition of Systema Naturae to be overseen by its author, Carl Linnaeus. It was published by Laurentius Salvius in Holmiæ (Stockholm) in three volumes, with parts appearing from 1766 to 1768. It contains many species not covered in the previous edition, the 10th edition which was the starting point for zoological nomenclature.

Johan Andreas Murray

Johan Andreas (Anders) Murray was a Swedish physician of German descent and botanist, who published a major work on plant-derived medicines.

References

  1. Linnaeus, Carl (1758). Systema naturae per regna tria naturae :secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis (in Latin) (10th  ed.). Stockholm: Laurentius Salvius.
  2. Windelspecht (2002), p. 28.
  3. Gordh, Gordon; Beardsley, John W. (1999). "Taxonomy and biological control". In Bellows, T. S.; Fisher, T. W. (eds.). Handbook of Biological Control: Principles and Applications of Biological Control. Academic Press. pp. 45–55. ISBN   978-0-12-257305-7.
  4. "Sherborn, C. D. 1902". Index Animalium.
  5. "Neave, S. A. 1939–1940, updated". Nomenclator Zoologicus.
  6. Opinions and Declarations rendered by the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 8: 167–178, also p. 318 in ICZN 1987. Archived 2010-06-25 at the Wayback Machine Official lists and indexes of names and works in zoology. – pp. 1–366. London. (The International Commission of Zoological Nomenclature).
  7. Stearn, W. T. (1957). "An introduction to the Species Plantarum and cognate botanical works of Linnaeus". Species Plantarum (1957 Ray Society facsimile ed.). p. 14.
  8. 1 2 Stearn, William T. (1959). "The background of Linnaeus's contributions to the nomenclature and methods of systematic biology" (PDF). Systematic Zoology . 8 (1): 4–22. doi:10.2307/2411603. JSTOR   2411603. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-10-28.
  9. 1 2 Quammen, David (June 2007). "A Passion for Order". National Geographic Magazine. Retrieved 27 April 2013.
  10. Warne, K. (May 2007). "Organization Man". Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved 7 February 2018.
  11. Everts, Sarah (2016). "Information Overload". Distillations. 2 (2): 26–33. Retrieved 20 March 2018.
  12. Schiebinger, Londa (April 1993). "Why mammals are called mammals: gender politics in eighteenth-century natural history" (PDF). The American Historical Review . 98 (2): 382–411. doi:10.2307/2166840. JSTOR   2166840. PMID   11623150. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-10-02.
  13. 1 2 Linné 1774.
  14. Linné 1785.
  15. Clerck, C. (1757). Svenska Spindlar / Aranei Svecici. Stockholm: Laurentius Salvius. pp. [1–8], 1–154, pl. 1–6.
  16. ICZN Code Art. 3.1
  17. Sörlin, Sverker; Fagerstedt, Otto (2004). Linné och hans apostlar[Linnaeus and his apostles] (in Swedish). Örebro, Sweden: Natur & Kultur/Fakta. ISBN   978-91-27-35590-3.
  18. "Linnaeus as a mineralogist". Linné on line. Uppsala University. 2008.
  19. Hopkinson, John (May 1907). "Dat). "Why mammals are called mammals: gender politics in eighteenth-century natural historyrate Parts of Gmelin's Edition (13th) of the 'Systema Naturae' of Linnæus". Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London . 77 (4): 1035–1037. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.1907.tb06965.x.

Bibliography