Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg County

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Coordinates: 48°00′N22°10′E / 48.000°N 22.167°E / 48.000; 22.167

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Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg County

Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg megye
A Tur Sonkadnal, Kisbukogat.JPG
Szabolcs-Earthwork.jpg
Town Hall, Kossuth Square, Nyiregyhaza.jpg
Descending, from top: Tur river near Sonkád, Earthwork of Szabolcs, and Downtown of Nyíregyháza
Flag-Szabolcs-Szatmar-Bereg-megye.svg
Flag
HUN Szabolcs-Szatmar-Bereg megye COA.svg
Coat of arms
HU county Szabolcs-Szatmar-Bereg.svg
Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg County within Hungary
Country Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary
Region Northern Great Plain
County seat Nyíregyháza
Districts
Government
  President of the General Assembly Oszkár Seszták (Fidesz-KDNP)
Area
  Total5,935.83 km2 (2,291.84 sq mi)
Area rank 6th in Hungary
Population
 (2015)
  Total562,357 [1]
  Rank 3rd in Hungary
Postal code
423x, 4244 – 4246, 4267, 43xx – 49xx
Area code(s) (+36) 42, 44, 45
ISO 3166 code HU-SZ
Website www.szszbmo.hu

Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg (Hungarian : Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg megye, pronounced  [ˈsɒbolt͡ʃ ˈsɒtmaːr ˈbɛrɛɡ] ) is an administrative county (Hungarian: megye) in north-eastern Hungary, bordering Slovakia (Košice Region), Ukraine (Zakarpattia Oblast), and Romania (Bihor and Satu Mare Counties). It shares borders with the Hungarian counties Hajdú-Bihar and Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén. The capital of Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg county is Nyíregyháza.

Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg county was organised after World War II from the previous counties Szatmár-Ugocsa-Bereg and Szabolcs. Before 1991, it was called Szabolcs-Szatmár county.

Geography

Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg is located in the north-eastern tip of Hungary. It borders Ukraine (Zakarpattia Oblast), Slovakia (Košice Region), and Romania (Bihor and Satu Mare Counties), and has good connections both by road and rail. Within Hungary, the county is bordered by Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén county and the River Tisza to the north west and Hajdú-Bihar county to the south west.

The early Hungarians transformed this region significantly by clearing large areas of forest to make way for pastures and farmland. Approximately 5 to 6 square kilometres of forest were cleared for the construction of the Szabolcs earthwork in the ninth and tenth centuries, and its ruins are still present. The area was the gateway for the Mongol invasion of Hungary in the 1240s, and suffered considerable destruction and population decrease during the raids. With the subsequent development of the country, the region became even more marginalized in the 15th century. Ongoing civil war, rebellion, and war exacted a heavy price and further hindered the region's development.

The county's borders have been altered frequently over the years, its current territory being established in 1950 with the amalgamation of the counties of Szabolcs-Ung and Szatmár-Bereg-Ugocsa.

There are many forests, fields, pastures, meadows, and moorland forests in the county. The bog moss moors at Csaroda, the Nyíres lake, and the Bábtava lake are especially valuable, as they contain many rare species of fauna and flora.

Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg is Hungary's sixth biggest county with a total land area of 5,936 square kilometres. From a geographical aspect, it is possible to divide the county into two main regions: The Upper Tisza Valley and the Nyírség. Tisza is one of the most important rivers of the county, entering Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg — and Hungary — at Tiszabecs, and leaving at Tiszadob. Its segment in Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg county is 235 kilometres long, out of which 208 kilometres belongs to the Upper Tisza Valley, reaching the area of Tokaj and Rakamaz. The larger area named the Nyírség is derived from the word nyír meaning birch, as the region is dominated by birch woodlands. The northern part of Nyírség is covered with sandy forest soils, the southern areas have loose wind-blown sand. Alluvial and meadow soils are found in the Upper Tisza region.

The county has a continental climate; it is cooler than the Great Plain because it is further north. Summers are cooler than in other parts of the Plains. Annual precipitation is 550-600 millimetres. The higher than average number of days of sunshine make ideal conditions for the growing of tomatoes, sunflower, tobacco, apples, and other fruits such as plums—for which the county is famous, being eaten fresh, dried into prunes (some made into lekvar) and fermented into well-known brandies.

The county has 229 settlements, of which 20 are towns. The county capital and largest city is Nyíregyháza with a population of 116,900 in 2003. The other cities have relatively small populations, only those of Kisvárda and Mátészalka having around 18,000 inhabitants. The eastern part of the county is lightly populated and is dotted with small villages which often have very poor economic conditions.

River Tisza

The Upper Tisza region has many streams and rivers, but the Nyírség region has little surface water. The most important of River Tisza's tributaries is the River Szamos, which is also characterised by great variations in water volume. There are irrigation systems, a water barrage, and a hydroelectric power station on the Tisza at Tiszalök.

Lakes of various sizes have evolved in sandy areas such as the basin of the Sóstó (Salty lake) of Nyíregyháza, whose alkaline, hydrogen-carbonated waters have medicinal qualities. Many water reservoirs have been built according to local demand. Thermal waters of 55-65 °C can be brought to the surface from wells as shallow as 1,000 metres. The most important thermal water reserves are in Nyíregyháza, Kisvárda, Mátészalka, and Tiszavasvári. The county's geothermal energy still awaits exploitation.

The county has relatively few mineral reserves. Almost all of the large energy source transport systems cross the county.

Demographics

Religion in Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg County (2011 census)

   Calvinism (34.6%)
   Lutheranism (2.0%)
  Roman Catholic (19.4%)
   Greek Catholic (13.1%)
   Orthodoxy (0.1%)
  Other religions (1.9%)
   Non-religious (7.9%)
   Atheists (0.4%)
  Undeclared (20.6%)

In 2015, it had a population of 562,357 and the population density was 92/km².

YearCounty population [2] Change
1949558,098n/a
1960Increase2.svg 586,4515.08%
1970Decrease2.svg 565,557-3.56%
1980Increase2.svg 593,829 (record)5.00%
1990Decrease2.svg 572,301-3.63%
2001Increase2.svg 582,2561.74%
2011Decrease2.svg 559,272-3.95%

Ethnicity

Besides the Hungarian majority, the main minority populations in the county are Romani (about 44,000), German (about 2,000), and Ukrainian (about 1,000).

Total population (2011 census): 559,272
Ethnic groups (2011 census): [3]

  • Hungarians: 476,256 (90.55%)
  • Romani: 44,133 (8.40%)
  • Others and indefinable: 5,569 (1.06%)

About 66,000 people in Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg County did not declare their ethnicity during the 2011 census.

Religion

Religious adherence in the county according to 2011 census: [4]

Regional structure

District of Szabolcs-Szatmar-Bereg County Szabolcs-Szatmar-Bereg districts.png
District of Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg County
English and
Hungarian names
Area
(km²)
Population
(2011)
Density
(pop./km²)
Seat№ of
municipalities
1 Baktalórántháza District
Baktalórántházai járás
254.4719,12375 Baktalórántháza 12
2 Csenger District
Csengeri járás
246.5113,48555 Csenger 11
3 Fehérgyarmat District
Fehérgyarmati járás
707.3737,25953 Fehérgyarmat 50
4 Ibrány District
Ibrányi járás
304.9123,67978 Ibrány 8
5 Kemecse District
Kemecsei járás
246.4122,06690 Kemecse 11
6 Kisvárda District
Kisvárdai járás
523.0956,114107 Kisvárda 23
7 Mátészalka District
Mátészalkai járás
624.7064,015102 Mátészalka 26
8 Nagykálló District
Nagykállói járás
377.3630,40381 Nagykálló 8
9 Nyírbátor District
Nyírbátori járás
695.9443,04062 Nyírbátor 20
10 Nyíregyháza District
Nyíregyházi járás
809.61168,118208 Nyíregyháza 15
11 Tiszavasvári District
Tiszavasvári járás
381.6127,68473 Tiszavasvári 6
12 Vásárosnamény District
Vásárosnaményi járás
617.9435,32357 Vásárosnamény 28
13 Záhony District
Záhonyi járás
145.9518,963130 Záhony 11
Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg County5,935.83559,27294 Nyíregyháza 229

Economy

The county borders three countries, and it is the only Hungarian county bordering Ukraine. The railway border crossing towards Ukraine is well developed; its high capacity is able to meet the requirements of transit and bilateral trade. Following the reconstruction of the road border crossing, the county is also able to cope with increased road transportation.

Several regions in the county have tourism potential, mostly unexploited. Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg has several agricultural products of excellent quality, with capacity for higher production. There is an abundance of low-cost, semiskilled labour.

The county's biggest problem is the economic crisis. There is a shortage of local capital and inward investment, which restrains the creation of new jobs, thus the unemployment rate remains the second highest in Hungary. Manufacturing lags the rest of the country, most notably lacking high quality, high value-added products. The marginal soil quality limits the scope of agricultural production to a few products which suffer from shrinking export markets to the east.

It is home to the Szakoly Power Plant.

Politics

The Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg County Council, elected at the 2019 local government elections, is made up of 25 counselors, [5] with the following party composition:

Countyhall of Szabolcs-Szatmar-Bereg Nyiregyhaza megyehaza.jpg
Countyhall of Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg
PartySeatsCurrent County Assembly
  Fidesz-KDNP 18                  
  Jobbik-Momentum Movement 3                  
  Hungarian Socialist Party 2                  
  Democratic Coalition 1                 
 Association for Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg County1                  

Presidents of the General Assembly

List of Presidents, from 1990 [6]
Oszkár Seszták (Fidesz-KDNP)2014–

Municipalities

Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg County has 1 urban county, 27 towns, 15 large villages and 186 villages.

City with county rights

(ordered by population, as of 2011 census)

Towns
Villages

Red pog.svg municipalities are large villages.

Notable people from Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg

International relations

Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg County has a partnership relationship with: [7]

Related Research Articles

Nyíregyháza City in northeastern Hungary

Nyíregyháza is a city in northeastern Hungary and the county capital of Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg. With a population of 118,001, it is the seventh-largest city in Hungary and the largest in Northern Hungary and the northern part of the Great Hungarian Plain (Alföld). Its development has been ongoing since the 18th century, making it the economic and cultural center of the region. Nyíregyháza Zoo, with over 500 species, is recognized throughout Europe.

Szabolcs County County of the Kingdom of Hungary

Szabolcs was an administrative county (comitatus) of the Kingdom of Hungary. Its territory is now part of Hungary, except three villages which are in Zakarpattia Oblast of Ukraine. The capital of the county was Nyíregyháza.

Szatmár County

Szatmár County was an administrative county (comitatus) of the Kingdom of Hungary, situated south of the river Tisza. Most of its territory is now divided between Romania and Hungary, while a very small area is part of Ukraine. The capital of the county was Nagykároly, today called Carei.

Hajdú-Bihar County County of Hungary

Hajdú-Bihar is an administrative county in eastern Hungary, on the border with Romania. It shares borders with the Hungarian counties Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg, Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén, Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok and Békés. The capital of Hajdú-Bihar county is Debrecen. Together with Bihor County in Romania it constitutes the Biharia Euroregion.

Kisvárda Town in Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg, Hungary

Kisvárda is a town in Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg county, in the Northern Great Plain region of eastern Hungary near the border of Slovakia and Ukraine. It is the 3rd largest town in Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg after Nyíregyháza and Mátészalka with a population of 16 669 people. The Subregion of Kisvárda lies between two large landscapes, the Nyírség and the Rétköz. Kisvárda is just 22 km (14 mi) from the border of Ukraine, 30 km (18.6 mi) from Slovakia, 43.9 km (27.3 mi) from Nyíregyháza, 50 km (31 mi) from Ungvár (Uzhorod), 52.1 km (32.4 mi) from Beregszász (Berehove), 52.9 km (32.9 mi) from Sátoraljaújhely and 80 km (50 mi) from Dorolţ, Romania.

Mátészalka Town in Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg, Hungary

Mátészalka is a town in Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg county, in the Northern Great Plain region of eastern Hungary. It is on the Kraszna River, 52 kilometers from the city of Nyiregyhaza.

A list of associated topics with Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg county in eastern Hungary. The list is far from complete.

Baktalórántháza District Districts of Hungary in Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg

Baktalórántháza is a district in central part of Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg County. Baktalórántháza is also the name of the town where the district seat is found. The district is located in the Northern Great Plain Statistical Region. This district is a part of Nyírség geographical region.

Nyíregyháza District Districts of Hungary in Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg

Nyíregyháza is a district in western part of Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg County. Nyíregyháza is also the name of the town where the district seat is found. The district is located in the Northern Great Plain Statistical Region. This district is a part of Nyírség geographical region.

Csenger District Districts of Hungary in Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg

Csenger is a district in eastern part of Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg County. Csenger is also the name of the town where the district seat is found. The district is located in the Northern Great Plain Statistical Region. This district is a part of Szatmár historical and geographical region.

Záhony District Districts of Hungary in Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg

Záhony is a district in northern part of Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg County. Záhony is also the name of the town where the district seat is found. The district is located in the Northern Great Plain Statistical Region. This district is a part of Rétköz geographical region.

Tiszavasvári District Districts of Hungary in Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg

Tiszavasvári is a district in western part of Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg County. Tiszavasvári is also the name of the town where the district seat is found. The district is located in the Northern Great Plain Statistical Region.

Vásárosnamény District Districts of Hungary in Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg

Vásárosnamény is a district in north-eastern part of Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg County. Vásárosnamény is also the name of the town where the district seat is found. The district is located in the Northern Great Plain Statistical Region. This district is a part of Nyírség and Bereg geographical and historical region.

Nyírbátor District Districts of Hungary in Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg

Nyírbátor is a district in south-eastern part of Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg County. Nyírbátor is also the name of the town where the district seat is found. The district is located in the Northern Great Plain Statistical Region. This district is a part of Nyírség geographical region.

Nagykálló District Districts of Hungary in Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg

Nagykálló is a district in southern part of Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg County. Nagykálló is also the name of the town where the district seat is found. The district is located in the Northern Great Plain Statistical Region. This district is a part of Nyírség geographical region.

Fehérgyarmat District Districts of Hungary in Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg

Fehérgyarmat is a district in eastern part of Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg County. Fehérgyarmat is also the name of the town where the district seat is found. The district is located in the Northern Great Plain Statistical Region. This district is a part of Szatmár historical and geographical region.

Kisvárda District Districts of Hungary in Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg

Kisvárda is a district in northern part of Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg County. Kisvárda is also the name of the town where the district seat is found. The district is located in the Northern Great Plain Statistical Region. This district is a part of Rétköz and Nyírség geographical region.

Mátészalka District Districts of Hungary in Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg

Mátészalka is a district in central-eastern part of Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg County. Mátészalka is also the name of the town where the district seat is found. The district is located in the Northern Great Plain Statistical Region. This district is a part of Szatmár historical and geographical region.

Cigánd is a district in north-eastern part of Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén County. The district seat is in a town that is called Cigánd as well. The district is located in the Northern Hungary Statistical Region.

Sárospatak District Districts of Hungary in Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén

Sárospatak is a district in north-eastern part of Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén County. Sárospatak is also the name of the town where the district seat is found. The district is located in the Northern Hungary Statistical Region.

References

  1. nepesseg.com, population data of Hungarian settlement
  2. népesség.com, "Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg megye népessége 1870-2015"
  3. 1.1.6. A népesség anyanyelv, nemzetiség és nemek szerint – Frissítve: 2013.04.17.; Hungarian Central Statistical Office (in Hungarian)
  4. 2011. ÉVI NÉPSZÁMLÁLÁS, 3. Területi adatok, 3.16 Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg megye, (in Hungarian)
  5. "Megyei közgyűlés tagjai 2019-2024 (Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg megye)". valasztas.hu. Retrieved 2019-10-28.
  6. Önkormányzati választások eredményei (in Hungarian)