Tánaiste

Last updated

Tánaiste
Irish Government Logo.png
Leo Varadkar October 2019.jpg
Incumbent
Leo Varadkar

since 27 June 2020
Style Tánaiste
Irish: A Thánaiste
Member of
Reports to Taoiseach
Seat Dublin, Ireland
Nominator Taoiseach
Appointer President of Ireland
Inaugural holder Seán T. O'Kelly [1]
Formation29 December 1937 [1]
Salary€191,403 annually [2]

The Tánaiste ( /ˈtɔːnɪʃtə/ TAW-nish-tə, [3] Irish:  [ˈt̪ˠaːn̪ˠəʃtʲə] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen )) is the deputy head of the government of Ireland and thus holder of its second-most senior office. [4] [5] The Tánaiste is appointed by the President of Ireland on the advice of the Taoiseach. The current office holder is former Taoiseach, Leo Varadkar TD, who was appointed on 27 June 2020, succeeding Simon Coveney. [6]

Contents

Origins

Tánaiste was the Irish word for the heir of the chief (taoiseach) or king ( ), under the Gaelic system of tanistry [ citation needed ]

Modern office

The office was created in 1937 under the new Constitution of Ireland, replacing the previous office of Vice-President of the Executive Council that had existed under the Free State constitution. This office was first held by Kevin O'Higgins of Cumann na nGaedheal from 1922 to 1927.

The Taoiseach nominates a member of Dáil Éireann, [7] who will also be a member of the government, to the office. The nominee then receives their seal of office from the President of Ireland in recognition of their appointment. The Tánaiste acts in the place of the Taoiseach during his or her temporary absence. In the event of the Taoiseach's death or permanent incapacitation, the Tánaiste acts in their stead until another Taoiseach is appointed. [8] The Tánaiste is, ex officio , a member of the Council of State. The Tánaiste chairs meetings of the government in the absence of the Taoiseach and may take questions on their behalf in the Dáil or Seanad.

Aside from these duties, the title is largely honorific as the Constitution does not confer any additional powers on the office holder. While the Department of the Taoiseach is a Department of State, there is no equivalent for the Tánaiste. In theory the Tánaiste could be a minister without portfolio but every Tánaiste has in parallel held a ministerial portfolio as head of a Department of State. Dick Spring in the 1994–97 "Rainbow Coalition" had an official "Office of the Tánaiste", though other parties have not used this nomenclature. [9] Under Spring, Eithne Fitzgerald was "Minister of State at the Office of the Tánaiste", with responsibility for coordinating Labour policy in the coalition. [10] [11]

Under a coalition government, the Tánaiste is typically the leader of the second-largest government party, just as the Taoiseach is usually leader of the largest; however, during the coalition governments in 1989–92, and in 2007–11 governments, the position was held by a Fianna Fáil member, rather than a member of a junior party.

Three Tánaistí later held the office of Taoiseach: Seán Lemass, Bertie Ahern, and Brian Cowen. One Tánaiste, Leo Varadkar, previously held the office of Taoiseach. Two Tánaistí were later elected as President of Ireland: Seán T. O'Kelly and Erskine H. Childers.

List of office-holders

Vice-President of the Executive Council

No.PortraitName
(Birth–Death)
Constituency
Term of officePartyExec. Council
(President)
Ministries as Vice-President
1 Kevin O'Higgins.jpg Kevin O'Higgins
(1892–1927)
TD for Leix–Offaly until 1923
TD for Dublin County from 1923
6 December
1922
10 July
1927
Cumann na nGaedheal 1·2
(W.T.Cosgrave)
Justice (1922–27)
2 Ernest Blythe portrait.jpg Ernest Blythe
(1889–1975)
TD for Monaghan
14 July
1927
9 March
1932
Cumann na nGaedheal 3·4·5
(W.T.Cosgrave)
Posts and Telegraphs (1927–32)
3 Sean T OKelly WhiteHouse 19390517.jpg Seán T. O'Kelly
(1882–1966)
TD for Dublin North until 1937
TD for Dublin North-West from 1937
9 March
1932
29 December
1937
Fianna Fáil 6·7·8
(de Valera)
Local Government and Public Health (1932–37)

Tánaiste

No.PortraitName
(Birth–Death)
Constituency
Term of officePartyGovernment
(Taoiseach)
Ministries as Tánaiste
Higher Offices Held
(3) Sean T OKelly WhiteHouse 19390517.jpg Seán T. O'Kelly
(1882–1966)
TD for Dublin North-West
29 December
1937
14 June
1945
Fianna Fáil 1·2·3·4
(de Valera)
Local Government and Public Health (1937–39)
Education (1939)
Finance (1939–45)
President of Ireland (1945–59)
4 Sean Lemass, 1966.jpg Seán Lemass
(1899–1971)
TD for Dublin South
14 June
1945
18 February
1948
Fianna Fáil 4
(de Valera)
Supplies (1945)
Industry and Commerce (1945–48)
5 William Norton circa 1927 to 1932.png William Norton
(1900–1963)
TD for Kildare
18 February
1948
13 June
1951
Labour Party 5
(Costello)
Social Welfare (1948–51)
(4) Sean Lemass, 1966.jpg Seán Lemass
(1899–1971)
TD for Dublin South-Central
13 June
1951
2 June
1954
Fianna Fáil 6
(de Valera)
Industry and Commerce (1951–54)
(5) William Norton circa 1927 to 1932.png William Norton
(1900–1963)
TD for Kildare
2 June
1954
20 March
1957
Labour Party 7
(Costello)
Industry and Commerce (1954–57)
(4) Sean Lemass, 1966.jpg Seán Lemass
(1899–1971)
TD for Dublin South-Central
20 March
1957
23 June
1959
Fianna Fáil 8
(de Valera)
Industry and Commerce (1957–59)
Taoiseach (1959–66)
6 Sean MacEntee portrait.jpg Seán MacEntee
(1889–1984)
TD for Dublin South-East
23 June
1959
21 April
1965
Fianna Fáil 9·10
(Lemass)
Health (1959–65)
7 Frank Aiken 1944 cropped.jpg Frank Aiken
(1898–1983)
TD for Louth
21 April
1965
2 July
1969
Fianna Fáil 11
(Lemass)
12
(Lynch)
External Affairs (1965–69)
8 Erskine H. Childers
(1905–1974)
TD for Monaghan
2 July
1969
14 March
1973
Fianna Fáil 13
(Lynch)
Health (1969–73)
President of Ireland (1973–74)
9 Brendan Corish
(1918–1990)
TD for Wexford
14 March
1973
5 July
1977
Labour Party 14
(L. Cosgrave)
Health (1973–77)
10 George Colley
(1925–1983)
TD for Dublin Clontarf
5 July
1977
30 June
1981
Fianna Fáil 15
(Lynch)
16
(Haughey)
Finance (1977–79)
Tourism and Transport (1979–80)
Energy (1980–81)
11 Michael O'Leary
(1936–2006)
TD for Dublin Central
30 June
1981
9 March
1982
Labour Party 17
(FitzGerald)
Energy (1981–82)
12 Ray MacSharry
(born 1938)
TD for Sligo–Leitrim
9 March
1982
14 December
1982
Fianna Fáil 18
(Haughey)
Finance (1982)
13 Irish Tanaiste Dick Spring at the White House, 16 Nov 1993.jpg Dick Spring
(born 1950)
TD for Kerry North
14 December
1982
20 January
1987
Labour Party 19
(FitzGerald)
Environment (1982–83)
Energy (1983–87)
14 Peter Barry
(1928–2016)
TD for Cork South-Central
20 January
1987
10 March
1987
Fine Gael Foreign Affairs (1987)
15 Brian Lenihan
(1930–1995)
TD for Dublin West
10 March
1987
31 October
1990
Fianna Fáil 20·21
(Haughey)
Foreign Affairs (1987–89)
Defence (1989–90)
16 John Wilson
(1923–2007)
TD for Cavan–Monaghan
13 November
1990
12 January
1993
Fianna Fáil 21
(Haughey)
Marine (1990–92)
22
(Reynolds)
Defence and Gaeltacht (1992–93)
(13) Irish Tanaiste Dick Spring at the White House, 16 Nov 1993.jpg Dick Spring
(born 1950)
TD for Kerry North
12 January
1993
17 November
1994
Labour Party 23
(Reynolds)
Foreign Affairs (1993–94)
17 BertieAhernBerlin2007-bis.jpg Bertie Ahern
(born 1951)
TD for Dublin Central
17 November
1994
15 December
1994
Fianna Fáil Finance (1994)
Taoiseach (1997–2008)
(13) Irish Tanaiste Dick Spring at the White House, 16 Nov 1993.jpg Dick Spring
(born 1950)
TD for Kerry North
15 December
1994
26 June
1997
Labour Party 24
(Bruton)
Foreign Affairs (1994–97)
18 Mary Harney cropped.jpg Mary Harney
(born 1953)
TD for Dublin South-West until 2002
TD for Dublin Mid-West from 2002
26 June
1997
13 September
2006
Progressive Democrats 25·26
(Ahern)
Enterprise, Trade and Employment (1997–2004)
Health and Children (2004–06)
19 McDowell says NO! (9826113044) (cropped).jpg Michael McDowell
(born 1951)
TD for Dublin South-East
13 September
2006
14 June
2007
Progressive Democrats 26
(Ahern)
Justice, Equality and Law Reform (2002–07)
20 Brian Cowen in Philadelphia.jpg Brian Cowen
(born 1960)
TD for Laois–Offaly
14 June
2007
7 May
2008
Fianna Fáil 27
(Ahern)
Finance (2007–08)
Taoiseach (2008–11)
21 Mary Coughlan.jpg Mary Coughlan
(born 1965)
TD for Donegal South-West
7 May
2008
9 March
2011
Fianna Fáil 28
(Cowen)
Enterprise, Trade and Employment (2008–10)
Education and Skills (2010–11)
Health and Children (2011)
22 Eamon Gilmore Conference 2010 cropped.jpg Eamon Gilmore
(born 1955)
TD for Dún Laoghaire
9 March
2011
4 July
2014
Labour Party 29
(Kenny)
Foreign Affairs and Trade (2011–14)
23 Joan Burton July 2014 (cropped).jpg Joan Burton
(born 1949)
TD for Dublin West
4 July
2014
6 May
2016
Labour Party Social Protection (2014–2016)
24 Frances Fitzgerald 2014.png Frances Fitzgerald
(born 1950)
TD for Dublin Mid-West
6 May
2016
28 November
2017
Fine Gael 30
(Kenny)
Justice and Equality (2014–17)
31
(Varadkar)
Business, Enterprise and Innovation (2017)
25 Simon Coveney, Minister of Defence (cropped).jpg Simon Coveney
(born 1972)
TD for Cork South Central
30 November
2017
27 June
2020
Fine Gael Foreign Affairs (2017–2020)
26 HANDSHAKE 2016-07-14 (28303482095) (cropped).jpg Leo Varadkar
(born 1979)
TD for Dublin West
27 June
2020
Incumbent Fine Gael 32
(Martin)
Enterprise, Trade and Employment (2020–)
Taoiseach (2017−2020)

See also

Related Research Articles

Fine Gael Centre-right liberal-conservative political party in the Republic of Ireland, one of two leading parties since 1933

Fine Gael is a liberal-conservative political party in Ireland. Fine Gael is currently the third-largest party in Ireland in terms of members of Dáil Éireann and largest in terms of Irish members of the European Parliament. The party has a membership of 21,000. Leo Varadkar succeeded Enda Kenny as party leader on 2 June 2017 and as Taoiseach on 14 June; Kenny had been leader since 2002, and Taoiseach since 2011.

Ireland is a parliamentary, representative democratic republic and a member state of the European Union. While the head of state is the popularly elected President of Ireland, it is a largely ceremonial position, with real political power being vested in the Taoiseach, who is nominated by the Dáil and is the head of the government.

Taoiseach Head of government (Prime Minister) of Ireland

The Taoiseach is the prime minister and head of government of Ireland. The Taoiseach is appointed by the President upon the nomination of Dáil Éireann, the lower house of the Oireachtas (parliament), and must retain the support of a majority in the Dáil to remain in office.

The Government of the 29th Dáil or the 26th Government of Ireland was the government of Ireland formed after the 2002 general election which had been held on 17 May 2002. It was led by Fianna Fáil leader Bertie Ahern as Taoiseach, with Progressive Democrats leader Mary Harney as Tánaiste. It was the first, and to date only, coalition government to be returned to government after an election; both parties increased their number of seats, and together secured a Dáil majority, where in the previous government they had governed together as a minority government dependent on the support of Independent TDs.

There were two Government of the 26th Dáil, which was elected at the 1989 general election on 15 June 1989. The 21st Government of Ireland (1989–92) was led by Charles Haughey as Taoiseach and the 22nd Government of Ireland (1992–93) was led by Albert Reynolds as Taoiseach. They were coalition governments of Fianna Fáil and the Progressive Democrats.

The Government of the 20th Dáil or the 14th Government of Ireland was the government of Ireland formed after the 1973 general election held on 28 February 1973. It was a coalition government of Fine Gael and the Labour Party, known as the National Coalition, led by Liam Cosgrave as Taoiseach with Brendan Corish as Tánaiste. It was the first time either of the parties had been in government since the Government of the 15th Dáil (1954–57), when they were in coalition with Clann na Talmhan.

The Government of the 9th Dáil was successively the 8th Executive Council of the Irish Free State and the 1st Government of Ireland. They were led by Éamon de Valera, first as President of the Executive Council and then as Taoiseach. It was formed after the 1937 general election held on 1 July, the same day the new Constitution of Ireland was approved in a plebiscite. Fianna Fáil were continuing in office as a single-party government as they had since the 1932 general election.

Government of Ireland Ministerial cabinet exercising executive authority in the country of the Republic of Ireland

The Government of Ireland is the cabinet that exercises executive authority in Ireland.

The Taoiseach is the head of government of Ireland. Prior to the enactment of the Constitution of Ireland in 1937, the head of government was referred to as the President of the Executive Council. This office was first held by W. T. Cosgrave from 1922 to 1932, and then by Éamon de Valera from 1932 to 1937. By convention Taoisigh are numbered to include Cosgrave, for example Micheál Martin is considered the 15th Taoiseach.

Simon Coveney Irish Fine Gael politician

Simon Coveney is an Irish Fine Gael politician who has served as Deputy Leader of Fine Gael and Minister for Foreign Affairs since 2017, and Minister for Defence since 2020. He served as Tánaiste in the 31st Government from 2017 to 2020. He has been a Teachta Dála (TD) for Cork South-Central since 1998. He previously served as Minister for Agriculture, Food and the Marine from 2011 to 2016, Minister for Defence from 2014 to 2016 and Minister for Housing, Planning, Community and Local Government from 2016 to 2017. He served as a Member of the European Parliament (MEP) for the South constituency from 2004 to 2007.

This is a list of records relating to the Oireachtas, the national parliament of Ireland, which consists of the President of Ireland, and two Houses, Dáil Éireann, a house of representatives whose members are known as Teachtaí Dála or TDs, and Seanad Éireann, a senate whose members are known as senators.

Eithne Fitzgerald is an Irish economist and former Labour Party politician who served as Minister of State at the Office of the Tánaiste from 1994 to 1997, Minister of State at the Department of Enterprise and Employment from 1994 to 1997 and Minister of State at the Department of Finance from 1993 to 1994. She served as a Teachta Dála (TD) for the Dublin South constituency from 1992 to 1997.

Leo Varadkar Irish Fine Gael politician and Tánaiste

Leo Eric Varadkar is an Irish politician and physician who has served as Leader of Fine Gael since 2017 and Tánaiste and Minister for Enterprise, Trade and Employment since 2020. He served as Taoiseach and Minister for Defence from 2017 to 2020, and has served as a Teachta Dála (TD) for Dublin West since 2007. Following the 2020 Irish general election in which Fine Gael were returned as the third-largest party behind Fianna Fáil and Sinn Féin, Varadkar resigned as Taoiseach but remained as Taoiseach in a caretaker capacity until his successor, Micheál Martin, was appointed in June 2020.

Government of the 31st Dáil

The Government of the 31st Dáil or the 29th Government of Ireland was the government of Ireland which was formed following the 2011 general election to Dáil Éireann on 25 February 2011. It was a coalition government of Fine Gael and the Labour Party led by Enda Kenny as Taoiseach. From 2011 to 2014, Labour Party leader Eamon Gilmore served as Tánaiste, and from 2014 to 2016, the new Labour leader Joan Burton served as Tánaiste.

The 1992 general election was held on 25 November 1992. The 23rd Government of Ireland, the first government of the 27th Dáil, was a coalition of Fianna Fáil and the Labour Party. It was the first time that these two parties were in government together; on each previous occasion Labour was in government, it was a junior coalition party with Fine Gael. The 27th Dáil lasted until 1997, but its first government fell in 1994 after the breakdown of relations between the two parties. It was succeeded by the 24th Government, a coalition of Labour with Fine Gael under John Bruton and Democratic Left under Proinsias De Rossa, with Spring serving again as Tánaiste under Bruton as Taoiseach. This was the only time a new government with a different party composition was formed within a single Dáil term.

This is a list of the members elected to the 32nd Dáil Éireann, the lower house of the Oireachtas (legislature) of Ireland. These TDs were elected at the 2016 general election on 26 February. That general election took place throughout the state to elect 158 members of Dáil Éireann, a reduction of 8 from the prior number of 166. This followed the passing of the Electoral (Amendment) Act 2013.

There were two Governments of the 32nd Dáil, which was elected at the general election held on 26 February 2016. The 30th Government of Ireland was led by Enda Kenny as Taoiseach and the 31st Government of Ireland was led by Leo Varadkar as Taoiseach. They were minority governments with Fine Gael and Independent TDs at cabinet, reliant on the support of other Independent TDs, and a confidence and supply arrangement with Fianna Fáil. It was the first time Fine Gael had returned to government after a general election, and the succession of Varadkar as Taoiseach in 2017 was the first time a Fine Gael leader had succeeded a party colleague as Taoiseach within a Dáil term.

Government of the 33rd Dáil Incumbent government of Ireland

The Government of the 33rd Dáil or the 32nd Government of Ireland is the government of Ireland which was formed on 27 June 2020, following negotiations on a programme for government for a coalition government of Fianna Fáil, Fine Gael and the Green Party that followed the 2020 general election to Dáil Éireann held on 8 February. Fianna Fáil leader Micheál Martin will serve as Taoiseach, with Fine Gael leader Leo Varadkar serving as Tánaiste. It has been agreed that the government will last until December 2022, after which the positions will rotate, with Varadkar forming a new government as Taoiseach, and Martin serving as Tánaiste. It is the first time that Fianna Fáil and Fine Gael have participated in the same government, which Varadkar has suggested signifies the end of what has often been referred to as Civil War politics.

References

Sources

Citations

  1. 1 2 Before the enactment of the 1937 Constitution of Ireland, the deputy head of government was referred to as the Vice-President of the Executive Council.
  2. "TDs and Senators salaries". Houses of the Oireachtas. 21 February 2020. Retrieved 21 February 2020.
  3. "Tánaiste". Lexico UK Dictionary. Oxford University Press . Retrieved 14 August 2019.
  4. "Tánaiste: definition of Tánaiste in Oxford dictionary (British & World English). Meaning, pronunciation and origin of the word". Oxford Language Dictionaries. Oxford University Press. 2013. Retrieved 30 November 2013.
  5. "Role of the Taoiseach". Department of the Taoiseach . Retrieved 18 May 2012.
  6. "Taoiseach names Coveney as new Tánaiste". RTÉ.ie . 30 November 2017. Retrieved 30 November 2017.
  7. Article 28.7.1º of the Constitution of Ireland.
  8. Article 28.6.2º and 28.6.3º of the Constitution of Ireland.
  9. Connolly 2005, pp.339–340
  10. "Eithne Fitzgerald". Directory of Members. Oireachtas. Retrieved 20 April 2016.
  11. Müller, Wolfgang C.; Strom, Kaare (2003). Coalition Governments in Western Europe. Oxford University Press. p. 149. ISBN   9780198297611 . Retrieved 20 April 2016.