Tabua

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Tooth of sperm whale Sperm-whale-tooth hg.jpg
Tooth of sperm whale

A tabua is a polished tooth of a sperm whale that is an important cultural item in Fijian society. They were traditionally given as gifts for atonement or esteem (called sevusevu), and were important in negotiations between rival chiefs. The dead men would be buried with their tabua, along with war clubs and even their strangled wives, to help them in the afterlife. Originally they were very rare items, available only from beached whales and from trade from neighbouring Tonga (where the practice may have originated), but when the market became known in the early 19th century thousands of teeth, and fake teeth made from ivory and walrus tusks entered the market. This trade led to the development of the European art of scrimshaw.

Tooth hard, calcified structure found in the jaws (or mouths) of many vertebrates and used to break down food

A tooth is a hard, calcified structure found in the jaws of many vertebrates and used to break down food. Some animals, particularly carnivores, also use teeth for hunting or for defensive purposes. The roots of teeth are covered by gums. Teeth are not made of bone, but rather of multiple tissues of varying density and hardness. The cellular tissues that ultimately become teeth originate from the embryonic germ layer, the ectoderm.

Sperm whale Species of mammal

The sperm whale or cachalot is the largest of the toothed whales and the largest toothed predator. It is the only living member of genus Physeter and one of three extant species in the sperm whale family, along with the pygmy sperm whale and dwarf sperm whale of the genus Kogia.

Fiji country in Oceania

Fiji, officially the Republic of Fiji, is an island country in Melanesia, part of Oceania in the South Pacific Ocean about 1,100 nautical miles northeast of New Zealand's North Island. Its closest neighbours are Vanuatu to the west, New Caledonia to the southwest, New Zealand's Kermadec Islands to the southeast, Tonga to the east, the Samoas and France's Wallis and Futuna to the northeast, and Tuvalu to the north. Fiji consists of an archipelago of more than 330 islands—of which 110 are permanently inhabited—and more than 500 islets, amounting to a total land area of about 18,300 square kilometres (7,100 sq mi). The most outlying island is Ono-i-Lau. The two major islands, Viti Levu and Vanua Levu, account for 87% of the total population of 898,760. The capital, Suva, on Viti Levu, serves as the country's principal cruise-ship port. About three-quarters of Fijians live on Viti Levu's coasts, either in Suva or in smaller urban centres such as Nadi—where tourism is the major local industry—or Lautoka, where the sugar-cane industry is paramount. Due to its terrain, the interior of Viti Levu is sparsely inhabited.

Today the tabua remains an important item in Fijian life. They are not sold but traded regularly as gifts in weddings, birthdays, and at funerals. The tabua is also increasingly used in advertising as a trusted symbol or brand, for example Fiji Airways has a Tabua Club (frequent flyer) and a Tabua Class for business class. They also feature on the Fijian 20 cent piece. The removal of tabua from Fiji is highly restricted, at 225 exports per year, [1] and permits from the Ministry of Fijian Affairs, the Fijian Department of Environment, and CITES are required, as they are regulated both as an endangered species and a cultural item. As such, they can easily command prices above $500.

Symbol something that represents an idea, a process, or a physical entity

A symbol is a mark, sign or word that indicates, signifies, or is understood as representing an idea, object, or relationship. Symbols allow people to go beyond what is known or seen by creating linkages between otherwise very different concepts and experiences. All communication is achieved through the use of symbols. Symbols take the form of words, sounds, gestures, ideas or visual images and are used to convey other ideas and beliefs. For example, a red octagon may be a symbol for "STOP". On a map, a blue line might represent a river. Numerals are symbols for numbers. Alphabetic letters may be symbols for sounds. Personal names are symbols representing individuals. A red rose may symbolize love and compassion. The variable 'x', in a mathematical equation, may symbolize the position of a particle in space.

Brand identifies a good or service

A brand is an overall experience of a customer that distinguishes an organization or product from its rivals in the eyes of the customer. Brands are used in business, marketing, and advertising. Name brands are sometimes distinguished from generic or store brands.

Fiji Airways, is the flag carrier airline of Fiji. and operates international services to 13 countries and 23 cities including Fiji, Australia, New Zealand, Samoa, Tonga, Tuvalu, Kiribati, Vanuatu and Solomon Islands (Oceania), the United States, Hong Kong and Singapore. It has an extended network of 108 international destinations through its codeshare partners. The airline resumed direct flights to Narita, Tokyo on 3 July 2018. The Fiji Airways Group brings in 64 percent of all visitors who fly to Fiji, employs over 1000 employees, and earns revenues of over FJD$815 million.

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Ivory material derived from the tusks and teeth of animals

Ivory is a hard, white material from the tusks and teeth of animals, that consists mainly of dentine, one of the physical structures of teeth and tusks. The chemical structure of the teeth and tusks of mammals is the same, regardless of the species of origin. The trade in certain teeth and tusks other than elephant is well established and widespread; therefore, "ivory" can correctly be used to describe any mammalian teeth or tusks of commercial interest which are large enough to be carved or scrimshawed. It has been valued since ancient times in art or manufacturing for making a range of items from ivory carvings to false teeth, fans, dominoes and joint tubes. Elephant ivory is the most important source, but ivory from mammoth, walrus, hippopotamus, sperm whale, killer whale, narwhal and wart hog are used as well. Elk also have two ivory teeth, which are believed to be the remnants of tusks from their ancestors.

The economy of Samoa is dependent on agricultural exports, development aid and private financing from overseas. The country is vulnerable to devastating storms. Agriculture employs two-thirds of the labor force, and furnishes 9% of exports, featuring coconut cream, coconut oil and copra. Outside a large automotive wire harness factory, the manufacturing sector mainly processes agricultural products. Tourism is an expanding sector; more than 70,000 tourists visited the islands in 1996 and 120,000 in 2014. The Samoan Government has called for deregulation of the financial sector, encouragement of investment, and continued fiscal discipline. Observers point to the flexibility of the labor market as a basic strength factor for future economic advances.

Endowed with forest, mineral, and fish resources, Fiji is one of the most developed of the Pacific island economies, though it remains a developing country with a large subsistence agriculture sector. Agriculture accounts for 18% of gross domestic product, although it employed some 70% of the workforce as of 2001. Sugar exports and the growing tourist industry are the major sources of foreign exchange. Sugar cane processing makes up one-third of industrial activity. Coconuts, ginger, and copra are also significant.

A gift economy, gift culture, or gift exchange is a mode of exchange where valuables are not traded or sold, but rather given without an explicit agreement for immediate or future rewards. This exchange contrasts with a barter economy or a market economy, where goods and services are primarily exchanged for value received. Social norms and custom govern gift exchange. Gifts are not given in an explicit exchange of goods or services for money or some other commodity.

Baleen keratin structure in whales, used for flexible stiffening

Baleen is a filter-feeder system inside the mouths of baleen whales. The baleen system works by a whale opening its mouth underwater and taking in water. The whale then pushes the water out, and animals such as krill are filtered by the baleen and remain as food source for the whale. Baleen is similar to bristles and consists of keratin, the same substance found in human fingernails and hair. Baleen is a skin derivative. Some whales, such as the bowhead whale, have longer baleen than others. Other whales, such as the gray whale, only use one side of their baleen. These baleen bristles are arranged in plates across the upper jaw of the whale.

Fijians are a nation and ethnic group native to Fiji, who speak Fijian and share a common history and culture.

Scrimshaw art work

Scrimshaw is scrollwork, engravings, and carvings done in bone or ivory. Typically it refers to the artwork created by whalers, engraved on the byproducts of whales, such as bones or cartilage. It is most commonly made out of the bones and teeth of sperm whales, the baleen of other whales, and the tusks of walruses. It takes the form of elaborate engravings in the form of pictures and lettering on the surface of the bone or tooth, with the engraving highlighted using a pigment, or, less often, small sculptures made from the same material. However the latter really fall into the categories of ivory carving, for all carved teeth and tusks, or bone carving. The making of scrimshaw began on whaling ships between 1745 and 1759 on the Pacific Ocean, and survived until the ban on commercial whaling. The practice survives as a hobby and as a trade for commercial artisans. A maker of scrimshaw is known as a scrimshander. The word first appeared in print in the early 19th century, but the etymology is uncertain.

The culture of Fiji is a tapestry of indigenous Fijian, Indian, European, Chinese, and other nationalities. Culture polity, traditions, language, food, costume, belief system, architecture, arts, craft, music, dance, and sports which will be discussed in this article to give you an indication of Fiji's indigenous community but also the various communities which make up Fiji as a modern culture and living. The indigenous culture is an active and living part of everyday life for the majority of the population.

Tabua is a polished sperm whale tooth, an important cultural item in Fijian society.

Fijian tradition and ceremony is a living way of life that has remained intact for millennia, evolving as the Fijian nation has modernised over time, with various external influences from Pacific neighbours, and European and Asian society. The term Fijian in this article refers to "indigenous Fijians" or "I Taukei" as the term Fijian generally includes all citizens of Fiji. This article is a general overview of various aspects of Fijian tradition, social structure and ceremony, much of it from the Bauan Fijian tradition. There are variations from province to province. Many social intricacies depend on one's inherited social position and the occasion one is confronted with: each will have a particular social etiquette. The Fijian terms in this article are most often of the Bauan dialect.

Economy of ancient Tamil country

The economy of the ancient Tamil country describes the ancient economy of a region in southern India that mostly covers the present-day states of Tamil Nadu and Kerala. The main economic activities were agriculture, weaving, pearl fishery, manufacturing and construction. Paddy was the most important crop; it was the staple cereal and served as a medium of exchange for inland trade. Pepper, millets, grams and sugarcane were other commonly grown crops. Madurai and Urayur were important centers for the textile industry; Korkai was the center of the pearl trade. Industrial activity flourished.

Trade is a key factor of the economy of China. In the twenty-five years that followed after the Communist takeover in 1949, China's trade institutions developed into a partially modern but somewhat inefficient system. The drive to modernize the economy that began in 1978 required a sharp acceleration in commodity flows and greatly improved efficiency in economic transactions. In the ensuing years economic reforms were adopted by the government to develop a socialist market economy. This type of economy combined central planning with market mechanisms. The changes resulted in the decentralization and expansion of domestic and foreign trade institutions, as well as a greatly enlarged role for free markets in the distribution of goods, and a prominent role for foreign trade and investment in economic development.

Neiafu Market

Neiafu is a relatively new Saturday market and shopping centre on Vava'u, Tonga. It is regarded as a municipal market and sells a range of items, including handicrafts, ancient headrests, kava bowls, stone adzes, old whale teeth and other craftswork. Also sold are taro, alocasia, manioc, yams as well as bananas, amongst others. In 2007 it was noted that the Neiafu Market be reviewed by the Vanuatan Government and the EC. The market is well connected by bus and minibus to surrounding villages on the island.

Fiji–South Korea relations Diplomatic relations between the Republic of Fiji and South Korea

Fiji–South Korea relations refers to bilateral relations between Fiji and South Korea. The two countries established official diplomatic relations in January 1971, Korea having recognised Fiji's accession to independence the previous year. There is a South Korean embassy in Suva and a Fijian embassy in Seoul. Fiji opened its embassy in Seoul in July 2012 to "foster trade and investment" and to "promote people-to-people exchanges".

Viliame Veikoso is a Fijian rugby union footballer. He plays as a hooker. Veikoso hails from Nabua village, tikina Koroalau from Cakaudrove Province. he is also related to Akapusi Qera of Gloucester. Veikoso resides with his parents at Kinoya whose father is also a former school teacher. They currently live beside former Australian Wallaby international and ex Fiji coach Ilivasi Tabua.

Thomas Baker was a Methodist missionary in Fiji, known as being the only missionary in that country to be killed and eaten, along with seven of his Fijian followers. The incident occurred in the Navosa Highlands of western Viti Levu in July 1867, and the rock used to kill Baker is still displayed in the village of Nabutatau. The soles of his leather sandals, which were also cooked by the cannibal tribe, are in Fiji Museum in Suva. Records show that Baker was killed and eaten as a result of him touching a chief's head, which in Fijian culture, is considered to be very disrespectful.

The conservation and restoration of ivory objects is activities dedicated to the preservation and projection of ivory object that have a value either historically or personally. Within institutions of cultural heritage this role is ideally taken on by the conservator.

Sam Domoni Fijian rugby union player

Samuela Ravanua Domoni Junior is a former Fijian rugby player and the former national coach of the Fiji national rugby union team. He played as a lock or flanker during his rugby days. He is 6 ft 7 in (2.01 m) and weighs 105 kg (231 lb)

Fiji–Indonesia relations Diplomatic relations between the Republic of Fiji and the Republic of Indonesia

Fiji–Indonesia relations was officially established in 1974, at that time Indonesian mission for Fiji was accredited through Indonesian embassy in Wellington, New Zealand. On August 22, 2002 Indonesia opened their embassy in Suva, Fiji. Fiji reciprocated by opening their embassy in Jakarta on April 6, 2011 which is also accredited to East Timor.

Bangladesh–Slovakia relations Diplomatic relations between the Peoples Republic of Bangladesh and the Slovak Republic

Bangladesh–Slovakia relations refer to the bilateral relations between Bangladesh and Slovakia. The diplomatic relations officially started in 1993.

References

  1. "Tabua export under watch - Fiji Times Online". Fijitimes.com. 2011-10-18. Retrieved 2011-12-14.
Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa national museum

The Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa is New Zealand's national museum, located in Wellington. Known as Te Papa, or "Our Place", it opened in 1998 after the merging of the National Museum and the National Art Gallery. More than 1.5 million people visit every year.