Tagalog language

Last updated
Tagalog
ᜏᜒᜃᜅ᜔ ᜆᜄᜎᜓᜄ᜔
Wikang Tagalog
Pronunciation [tɐˈɡaːloɡ]
Native to Philippines
Region Manila, Southern Tagalog and Central Luzon
Ethnicity Tagalog people
Native speakers
28 million (2007) [1]
23.8 million total speakers (2019) [2]
45 million L2 speakers (as Filipino, 2013) [3]
57.3 million total speakers (2000) [4]
Early forms
Standard forms
Dialects
  • Bataan
  • Batangas
  • Bulacan
  • Lubang
  • Manila
  • Marinduque
  • Tanay–Paete (Rizal-Laguna)
  • Tayabas (Quezon)
  • Mindoro
Latin (Tagalog/Filipino alphabet),
Philippine Braille
Baybayin (historical)
Official status
Official language in
Flag of the Philippines.svg  Philippines (in the form of Filipino)
Recognised minority
language in
Flag of the Philippines.svg  Philippines (Regional language; apart from national standard of Filipino)
Regulated by Komisyon sa Wikang Filipino
Language codes
ISO 639-1 tl
ISO 639-2 tgl
ISO 639-3 tgl
Glottolog taga1280  Tagalogic [5]
taga1269  Tagalog-Filipino [6]
Linguasphere 31-CKA
Tagalosphere.png
Map of Tagalog-speaking world.
  Countries with more than 500,000 speakers
  Countries with between 100,000–500,000 speakers
  Countries where it is spoken by minor communities

Tagalog ( /təˈɡɑːlɒɡ/ ; [7] Tagalog pronunciation:  [tɐˈɡaːloɡ] ) is an Austronesian language spoken as a first language by a quarter of the population of the Philippines and as a second language by the majority. [8] [9] Its standardized form, officially named Filipino , is the national language of the Philippines, and is one of two official languages alongside English.

Austronesian languages language family of Southeast Asia and the Pacific

The Austronesian languages are a language family that is widely dispersed throughout Maritime Southeast Asia, Madagascar and the islands of the Pacific Ocean, with a few members in continental Asia. Austronesian languages are spoken by about 386 million people (4.9%), making it the fifth-largest language family by number of speakers. Major Austronesian languages with the highest number of speakers are Malay, Javanese, and Filipino (Tagalog). The family contains 1,257 languages, which is the second most of any language family.

Philippines Republic in Southeast Asia

The Philippines, officially the Republic of the Philippines, is an archipelagic country in Southeast Asia. Situated in the western Pacific Ocean, it consists of about 7,641 islands that are categorized broadly under three main geographical divisions from north to south: Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. The capital city of the Philippines is Manila and the most populous city is Quezon City, both part of Metro Manila. Bounded by the South China Sea on the west, the Philippine Sea on the east and the Celebes Sea on the southwest, the Philippines shares maritime borders with Taiwan to the north, Vietnam to the west, Palau to the east, and Malaysia and Indonesia to the south.

An official language is a language given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction. Typically a country's official language refers to the language used in government. The term "official language" does not typically refer to the language used by a people or country, but by its government, as "the means of expression of a people cannot be changed by any law".

Contents

It is related to other Philippine languages, such as the Bikol languages, Ilocano, the Visayan languages, Kapampangan, and Pangasinan, and more distantly to other Austronesian languages, such as the Formosan languages of Taiwan, Malay (Malaysian and Indonesian), Hawaiian, Māori, and Malagasy. Tagalog is the predominant language used in the tanaga , a type of Filipino poem and the indigenous poetic art of the Tagalog people.

Philippine languages language family

In linguistics, the Philippine languages are a proposal by Zorc (1986) and Robert Blust that all the languages of the Philippines and northern Sulawesi—except Sama–Bajaw and a few languages of Palawan—form a subfamily of Austronesian languages. Although the Philippines is near the center of Austronesian expansion from Formosa, there is little linguistic diversity among the approximately 150 Philippine languages, suggesting that earlier diversity has been erased by the spread of the ancestor of the modern Philippine languages.

Bikol languages language family

The Bikol languages are a group of Central Philippine languages spoken mostly in the Bicol Peninsula in the island of Luzon, the neighboring island province of Catanduanes and the island of Burias of Masbate. There is a dialect continuum between the Visayan languages and the Bikol languages; the two together are called the Bisakol languages.

Ilocano language Austronesian language spoken by the Ilocano people of the Philippines

Ilocano is the third most-spoken native language of the Philippines.

History

The Tagalog Baybayin script Baybayin alpha.jpg
The Tagalog Baybayin script

The word Tagalog is derived from the endonym taga-ilog ("river dweller"), composed of tagá- ("native of" or "from") and ilog ("river"). Linguists such as Dr. David Zorc and Dr. Robert Blust speculate that the Tagalogs and other Central Philippine ethno-linguistic groups originated in Northeastern Mindanao or the Eastern Visayas. [10] [11]

Robert Blust American linguist

Robert A. Blust is a prominent linguist in several areas, including historical linguistics, lexicography and ethnology. Blust specializes in the Austronesian languages and has made major contributions to the field of Austronesian linguistics.

Mindanao second largest island of the Philippines

Mindanao or still commonly known as Southern Philippines, is the second largest island in the Philippines. Mindanao and the smaller islands surrounding it make up the island group of the same name. Located in the southern region of the archipelago, as of the 2010 census, the main island was inhabited by 20,281,545 people, while the entire Mindanao island group had an estimated total of 25,537,691 (2018) residents.

Visayas one of the three island groups of the Philippines

The Visayas, or the Visayan Islands, is one of the three principal geographical divisions of the Philippines, along with Luzon and Mindanao. Located in the central part of the archipelago, it consists of several islands, primarily surrounding the Visayan Sea, although the Visayas are also considered the northeast extremity of the entire Sulu Sea. Its inhabitants are predominantly the Visayan peoples.

Possible words of Old Tagalog origin are attested in the Laguna Copperplate Inscription from the tenth century, which is largely written in Old Malay. [12] The first known complete book to be written in Tagalog is the Doctrina Christiana (Christian Doctrine), printed in 1593. The Doctrina was written in Spanish and two transcriptions of Tagalog; one in the ancient, then-current Baybayin script and the other in an early Spanish attempt at a Latin orthography for the language.

Laguna Copperplate Inscription 10th-century inscription found in the Philippines

The Laguna Copperplate Inscription, a legal document inscribed on a copper plate in 900 CE, is the earliest known calendar-dated document found in the Philippines. The date of the inscription would make it contemporary to the Balitung kingdom of Central Java, although it necessarily did not originate from that area.

<i>Doctrina Christiana</i>

The Doctrina Christiana was an early book on the Roman Catholic Catechism, written in 1593 by Fray Juan de Plasencia, and is believed to be one of the earliest printed books in the Philippines.

Baybayin is an ancient script used primarily by the Tagalog people. Baybayin is an indigenous Indic script that has been widely used in traditional Tagalog domains. It is one of many suyat scripts in the Philippines. It continued to be used during the early part of the Spanish colonization of the Philippines until largely being supplanted by usage of the Latin alphabet. Baybayin is well known because it was carefully documented by scribes during the colonial era.

Vocabulario de la lengua tagala, 1754. Vocabulario de la lengua tagala 1794.jpg
Vocabulario de la lengua tagala, 1754.

Throughout the 333 years of Spanish rule, various grammars and dictionaries were written by Spanish clergymen. In 1610, the Dominican priest Francisco Blancas de San Jose published the “Arte y reglas de la Lengua Tagala” (which was subsequently revised with two editions in 1752 and 1832) in Bataan. In 1613, the Franciscan priest Pedro de San Buenaventura published the first Tagalog dictionary, his "Vocabulario de la Lengua Tagala" in Pila, Laguna.

The first substantial dictionary of the Tagalog language was written by the Czech Jesuit missionary Pablo Clain in the beginning of the 18th century. Clain spoke Tagalog and used it actively in several of his books. He prepared the dictionary, which he later passed over to Francisco Jansens and José Hernandez. [13] Further compilation of his substantial work was prepared by P. Juan de Noceda and P. Pedro de Sanlucar and published as Vocabulario de la Lengua Tagala in Manila in 1754 and then repeatedly [14] reedited, with the last edition being in 2013 in Manila. [15]

Czech Republic Country in Central Europe

The Czech Republic, also known by its short-form name, Czechia, is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast. The Czech Republic covers an area of 78,866 square kilometres (30,450 sq mi) with a mostly temperate continental climate and oceanic climate. It is a unitary parliamentary republic, with 10.6 million inhabitants; its capital and largest city is Prague, with 1.3 million residents. Other major cities are Brno, Ostrava, Olomouc and Pilsen. The Czech Republic is a member of the European Union (EU), NATO, the OECD, the United Nations, the OSCE, and the Council of Europe.

Paul Klein was a Jesuit missionary, pharmacist, botanist, author of an astronomic observation, writer, rector of Colegio de Cavite as well as the rector of Colegio de San José and later Jesuit Provincial Superior in the Philippines, the highest ranking Jesuit official in the country. Klein is known as an important personality of life during the 18th-century Manila.

Among others, Arte de la lengua tagala y manual tagalog para la administración de los Santos Sacramentos (1850) in addition to early studies [16] of the language.

The indigenous poet Francisco Baltazar (1788–1862) is regarded as the foremost Tagalog writer, his most notable work being the early 19th-century epic Florante at Laura . [17]

Historical changes

Diariong Tagalog (Tagalog Newspaper), the first bilingual newspaper in the Philippines founded in 1882 written in both Tagalog and Spanish. Diariong Tagalog.jpg
Diariong Tagalog (Tagalog Newspaper), the first bilingual newspaper in the Philippines founded in 1882 written in both Tagalog and Spanish.

Tagalog differs from its Central Philippine counterparts with its treatment of the Proto-Philippine schwa vowel . In most Bikol and Visayan languages, this sound merged with /u/ and [o]. In Tagalog, it has merged with /i/. For example, Proto-Philippine *dəkət (adhere, stick) is Tagalog dikít and Visayan & Bikol dukot.

Proto-Philippine *r, *j, and *z merged with /d/ but is /l/ between vowels. Proto-Philippine *ŋajan (name) and *hajək (kiss) became Tagalog ngalan and halík.

Proto-Philippine *R merged with /ɡ/. *tubiR (water) and *zuRuʔ (blood) became Tagalog tubig and dugô.

Official status

Tagalog was declared the official language by the first revolutionary constitution in the Philippines, the Constitution of Biak-na-Bato in 1897. [18]

In 1935, the Philippine constitution designated English and Spanish as official languages, but mandated the development and adoption of a common national language based on one of the existing native languages. [19] After study and deliberation, the National Language Institute, a committee composed of seven members who represented various regions in the Philippines, chose Tagalog as the basis for the evolution and adoption of the national language of the Philippines. [20] [21] President Manuel L. Quezon then, on December 30, 1937, proclaimed the selection of the Tagalog language to be used as the basis for the evolution and adoption of the national language of the Philippines. [20] In 1939, President Quezon renamed the proposed Tagalog-based national language as Wikang Pambansâ (national language). [21] Under the Japanese puppet government during World War II, Tagalog as a national language was strongly promoted; the 1943 Constitution specifying: The government shall take steps toward the development and propagation of Tagalog as the national language.".

In 1959, the language was further renamed as "Pilipino". [21] Along with English, the national language has had official status under the 1973 constitution (as "Pilipino") [22] and the present 1987 constitution (as Filipino).

Controversy

The adoption of Tagalog in 1937 as basis for a national language is not without its own controversies. Instead of specifying Tagalog, the national language was designated as Wikang Pambansâ ("National Language") in 1939. [20] [23] Twenty years later, in 1959, it was renamed by then Secretary of Education, José Romero, as Pilipino to give it a national rather than ethnic label and connotation. The changing of the name did not, however, result in acceptance among non-Tagalogs, especially Cebuanos who had not accepted the selection. [21]

The national language issue was revived once more during the 1971 Constitutional Convention. Majority of the delegates were even in favor of scrapping the idea of a "national language" altogether. [24] A compromise solution was worked out—a "universalist" approach to the national language, to be called Filipino rather than Pilipino. The 1973 constitution makes no mention of Tagalog. When a new constitution was drawn up in 1987, it named Filipino as the national language. [21] The constitution specified that as the Filipino language evolves, it shall be further developed and enriched on the basis of existing Philippine and other languages. However, more than two decades after the institution of the "universalist" approach, there seems to be little if any difference between Tagalog and Filipino.

Many of the older generation in the Philippines feel that the replacement of English by Tagalog in the popular visual media has had dire economic effects regarding the competitiveness of the Philippines in trade and overseas remittances. [25]

Use in education

Upon the issuance of Executive Order No. 134, Tagalog was declared as basis of the National Language. On 12th of April 1940, Executive No. 263 was issued ordering the teaching of the national language in all public and private schools in the country. [26]

Article XIV, Section 7 of the 1987 Constitution of the Philippines specifies, in part:

Subject to provisions of law and as the Congress may deem appropriate, the Government shall take steps to initiate and sustain the use of Filipino as a medium of official communication and as language of instruction in the educational system. [27]

The regional languages are the auxiliary official languages in the regions and shall serve as auxiliary media of instruction therein. [27]

In 2009, the Department of Education promulgated an order institutionalizing a system of mother-tongue based multilingual education ("MLE"), wherein instruction is conducted primarily in a student's mother tongue (one of the various regional Philippine languages) until at least grade three, with additional languages such as Filipino and English being introduced as separate subjects no earlier than grade two. In secondary school, Filipino and English become the primary languages of instruction, with the learner's first language taking on an auxiliary role. [28] After pilot tests in selected schools, the MLE program was implemented nationwide from School Year (SY) 2012-2013. [29] [30]

It is the first language of a quarter of the population of the Philippines (particularly in Central and Southern Luzon) and a second language of the majority. [31]

Classification

Tagalog is a Central Philippine language within the Austronesian language family. Being Malayo-Polynesian, it is related to other Austronesian languages, such as Malagasy, Javanese, Malay (Malaysian and Indonesian), Tetum (of Timor), and Yami (of Taiwan). [32] It is closely related to the languages spoken in the Bicol Region and the Visayas islands, such as the Bikol group and the Visayan group, including Waray-Waray, Hiligaynon and Cebuano. [32]

Dialects

Predominantly Tagalog-speaking regions in the Philippines. The color-schemes represent the four dialect zones of the language: Northern, Central, Southern and Marinduque. The majority of residents in Camarines Norte and Camarines Sur speak Bikol as their first language but these provinces nonetheless have significant Tagalog minorities. In addition, Tagalog is used as a second language throughout the Philippines. Katagalugan.png
Predominantly Tagalog-speaking regions in the Philippines. The color-schemes represent the four dialect zones of the language: Northern, Central, Southern and Marinduque. The majority of residents in Camarines Norte and Camarines Sur speak Bikol as their first language but these provinces nonetheless have significant Tagalog minorities. In addition, Tagalog is used as a second language throughout the Philippines.

At present, no comprehensive dialectology has been done in the Tagalog-speaking regions, though there have been descriptions in the form of dictionaries and grammars of various Tagalog dialects. Ethnologue lists Manila, Lubang, Marinduque, Bataan (Western Central Luzon), Batangas, Bulacan (Eastern Central Luzon), Tanay-Paete (Rizal-Laguna), and Tayabas (Quezon) as dialects of Tagalog; however, there appear to be four main dialects, of which the aforementioned are a part: Northern (exemplified by the Bulacan dialect), Central (including Manila), Southern (exemplified by Batangas), and Marinduque.

Some example of dialectal differences are:

Perhaps the most divergent Tagalog dialects are those spoken in Marinduque. [33] Linguist Rosa Soberano identifies two dialects, western and eastern, with the former being closer to the Tagalog dialects spoken in the provinces of Batangas and Quezon.

One example is the verb conjugation paradigms. While some of the affixes are different, Marinduque also preserves the imperative affixes, also found in Visayan and Bikol languages, that have mostly disappeared from most Tagalog early 20th century; they have since merged with the infinitive.

Manila Tagalog Marinduqueño TagalogEnglish
Susulat siná María at Esperanza kay Juan.Másúlat da María at Esperanza kay Juan."María and Esperanza will write to Juan."
Mag-aaral siya sa Maynilà.Gaaral siya sa Maynilà."[He/She] will study in Manila."
Maglutò ka na.Paglutò."Cook now."
Kainin mo iyán.Kaina yaan."Eat it."
Tinatawag tayo ni Tatay.Inatawag nganì kitá ni Tatay."Father is calling us."
Tútulungan ba kayó ni Hilario?Atulungan ga kamo ni Hilario?"Is Hilario going to help you?"

Northern and central dialects form the basis for the national language.

Geographic distribution

No dumping sign along the highway in the Laguna province, Philippines. Brgy. Santo Angel No Dumping Sign.jpg
No dumping sign along the highway in the Laguna province, Philippines.
Welcome sign in Bay, Laguna. BayLos Banosjf3918 09.JPG
Welcome sign in Bay, Laguna.

According to the Philippine Statistics Authority, as of 2014 there were 100 million people living in the Philippines, where almost all of whom will have some basic level of understanding of the language. The Tagalog homeland, Katagalugan, covers roughly much of the central to southern parts of the island of Luzon—particularly in Aurora, Bataan, Batangas, Bulacan, Cavite, Laguna, Metro Manila, Nueva Ecija, Quezon, Rizal and Zambales. Tagalog is also spoken natively by inhabitants living on the islands of Marinduque and Mindoro, as well as Palawan to a lesser extent. It is spoken by approximately 57.3 million Filipinos, 96% of the household population who were able to attend school; [34] 22 million, or 28% of the total Philippine population, [35] speak it as a native language.

Tagalog speakers are found in other parts of the Philippines as well as throughout the world, though its use is usually limited to communication between Filipino ethnic groups. In 2010, the US Census bureau reported (based on data collected in 2007) that in the United States it was the fourth most-spoken language at home with almost 1.5 million speakers, behind Spanish or Spanish Creole, French (including Patois, Cajun, Creole), and Chinese. Tagalog ranked as the third most spoken language in metropolitan statistical areas, behind Spanish and Chinese but ahead of French. [36]

Accents

The Tagalog language also boasts accentations unique to some parts of Tagalog-speaking regions. For example, in some parts of Manila, a strong pronunciation of i exists and vowel-switching of o and u exists so words like "gising" (to wake) is pronounced as "giseng" with a strong 'e' and the word "tagu-taguan" (hide-and-go-seek) is pronounced as "tago-tagoan" with a mild 'o'.

Batangas Tagalog boasts the most distinctive accent in Tagalog compared to the more Hispanized northern accents of the language.[ citation needed ] [37] The Batangas accent has been featured in film and television and Filipino actor Leo Martinez speaks with this accent. Martinez's accent, however, will quickly be recognized by native Batangueños as representative of the accent in western Batangas which is milder compared to that used in the eastern part of the province.[ citation needed ]

Bulacan Tagalog has more deep words and accented like Filipino during the Spanish period.

Quezon and Aurora's Tagalog has unique accents.

Cavite accent specifically in the lowland part of the province were a mix of deep Tagalog and Chavacano, a language also spoken in Zamboanga while in upland Cavite like in the municipalities of Alfonso, Cavite, Magallanes, Cavite as well as Tagaytay City uses the accent comparable to the accent used in western Batangas due to its proximity.

Laguna also has a different set of accents, notably in the municipality of Alaminos, Laguna and the City of San Pablo, Laguna has the accent comparable to the accent used in eastern Batangas while the accent used in the northern parts of Laguna such as Biñan, Laguna and San Pedro, Laguna uses the accent comparable to Manila Tagalog.

Nueva Ecija's accent is like Bulacan's, but with different intonations. Tarlac also has this accent.

Code-switching

Taglish and Englog are names given to a mix of English and Tagalog. The amount of English vs. Tagalog varies from the occasional use of English loan words to changing language in mid-sentence. Such code-switching is prevalent throughout the Philippines and in various languages of the Philippines other than Tagalog.

Code-mixing also entails the use of foreign words that are "Filipinized" by reforming them using Filipino rules, such as verb conjugations. Users typically use Filipino or English words, whichever comes to mind first or whichever is easier to use.

"Magshoshopping kami sa mall. Sino ba ang magdadrive sa shopping center?"
"We will go shopping at the mall. Who will drive to the shopping center?"

City-dwellers are more likely to do this.

The practice is common in television, radio, and print media as well. Advertisements from companies like Wells Fargo, Wal-Mart, Albertsons, McDonald's, and Western Union have contained Taglish.

Phonology

Tagalog has 33 phonemes: 19 of them are consonants and 14 are vowels. Syllable structure is relatively simple, being maximally CrVC, where Cr only occurs in borrowed words such as trak "truck" or sombréro "hat". [38]

Vowels

Tagalog has ten simple vowels, five long and five short, and four diphthongs. [38] Before appearing in the area north of Pasig river, Tagalog had three vowel qualities: /a/, /i/, and /u/. This was later expanded to five with the introduction of words from Northern Philippine languages such as the Kapampangan language and Ilocano language as well as Spanish words.

Table of the five general Tagalog vowel phonemes
FrontCentralBack
Close i  i u  u
Mid ɛ  e  o
Open a  a

Nevertheless, simplification of pairs [o ~ u] and [ɛ ~ i] is likely to take place, especially in some Tagalog as second language, remote location and worker class registers.

The four diphthongs are /aj/, /uj/, /aw/, and /iw/. Long vowels are not written apart from pedagogical texts, where an acute accent is used: á é í ó ú. [38]

Table of all possible realizations of Tagalog vowels
FrontCentralBack
Close i  i u  u
Near-close ɪ  i ʊ  u
Mid ɛ̝  e  o
Open-mid ɛ  e ɔ  o
Near-open ɐ  a
Open a  a ä  a

The table above shows all the possible realizations for each of the five vowel sounds depending on the speaker's origin or proficiency. The five general vowels are in bold.

Consonants

Below is a chart of Tagalog consonants. All the stops are unaspirated. The velar nasal occurs in all positions including at the beginning of a word. Loanword variants using these phonemes are italicized inside the angle brackets.

Tagalog consonant phonemes [38]
Bilabial Alveolar/Dental Post-alveolar/Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ɲ ny, niy ŋ ng
Stop p b t d k ɡ ʔ
Affricate ( ts ) ts, tiy, ty, ch diy, dy, j
Fricative s ʃ siy, sy, sh x -k- h h, j
Approximant l j y w
( ɰ -g-)
Rhotic ɾ r

Glottal stop is not indicated. [38] Glottal stops are most likely to occur when:

Stress and final glottal stop

Stress is a distinctive feature in Tagalog. Primary stress occurs on either the final or the penultimate syllable of a word. Vowel lengthening accompanies primary or secondary stress except when stress occurs at the end of a word.

Tagalog words are often distinguished from one another by the position of the stress and/or the presence of a final glottal stop. In formal or academic settings, stress placement and the glottal stop are indicated by a diacritic (tuldík) above the final vowel. [39] The penultimate primary stress position (malumay) is the default stress type and so is left unwritten except in dictionaries.

Phonetic comparison of Tagalog homographs based on stress and final glottal stop
Common spellingStressed non-ultimate syllable
no diacritic
Stressed ultimate syllable
acute accent (´)
Unstressed ultimate syllable with glottal stop
grave accent (`)
Stressed ultimate syllable with glottal stop
circumflex accent (^)
baka[ˈbaka]baka ('cow')[bɐˈka]baká ('possible')
pito[ˈpito]pito ('whistle')[pɪˈto]pitó ('seven')
bayaran[bɐˈjaran]bayaran ('pay [imperative]')[bɐjɐˈran]bayarán ('for hire')
bata[ˈbata]bata ('bath robe')[bɐˈta]batá ('persevere')[ˈbataʔ]batà ('child')
sala[ˈsala]sala ('living room')[ˈsalaʔ]salà ('sin')[sɐˈlaʔ]salâ ('filtered')
baba[ˈbaba]baba ('father')[baˈba]babá ('piggy back')[ˈbabaʔ]babà ('chin')[bɐˈbaʔ]babâ ('descend [imperative]')
labi[ˈlabɛʔ]/[ˈlabiʔ]labì ('lips')[lɐˈbɛʔ]/[lɐˈbiʔ]labî ('remains')

Grammar

Writing system

Tagalog, like other Philippines languages today, is written using the Latin alphabet. Prior to the arrival of the Spanish in 1521 and the beginning of their colonization in 1565, Tagalog was written in an abugida–or alphasyllabary—called Baybayin. This system of writing gradually gave way to the use and propagation of the Latin alphabet as introduced by the Spanish. As the Spanish began to record and create grammars and dictionaries for the various languages of the Philippine archipelago, they adopted systems of writing closely following the orthographic customs of the Spanish language and were refined over the years. Until the first half of the 20th century, most Philippine languages were widely written in a variety of ways based on Spanish orthography.

In the late 19th century, a number of educated Filipinos began proposing for revising the spelling system used for Tagalog at the time. In 1884, Filipino doctor and student of languages Trinidad Pardo de Tavera published his study on the ancient Tagalog script Contribucion para el Estudio de los Antiguos Alfabetos Filipinos and in 1887, published his essay El Sanscrito en la lengua Tagalog which made use of a new writing system developed by him. Meanwhile, Jose Rizal, inspired by Pardo de Tavera's 1884 work, also began developing a new system of orthography (unaware at first of Pardo de Tavera's own orthography). [40] A major noticeable change in these proposed orthographies was the use of the letter ⟨k⟩ rather than ⟨c⟩ and ⟨q⟩ to represent the phoneme /k/.

In 1889, the new bilingual Spanish-Tagalog La España Oriental newspaper, of which Isabelo de los Reyes was an editor, began publishing using the new orthography stating in a footnote that it would "use the orthography recently introduced by ... learned Orientalis". This new orthography, while having its supporters, was also not initially accepted by several writers. Soon after the first issue of La España, Pascual H. Poblete's Revista Católica de Filipina began a series of articles attacking the new orthography and its proponents. A fellow writer, Pablo Tecson was also critical. Among the attacks was the use of the letters "k" and "w" as they were deemed to be of German origin and thus its proponents were deemed as "unpatriotic". The publishers of these two papers would eventually merge as La Lectura Popular in January 1890 and would eventually make use of both spelling systems in its articles. [41] [40] Pedro Laktaw, a schoolteacher, published the first Spanish-Tagalog dictionary using the new orthography in 1890. [41]

In April 1890, Jose Rizal authored an article Sobre la Nueva Ortografia de la Lengua Tagalog in the Madrid-based periodical La Solidaridad. In it, he addressed the criticisms of the new writing system by writers like Pobrete and Tecson and the simplicity, in his opinion, of the new orthography. Rizal described the orthography promoted by Pardo de Tavera as "more perfect" than what he himself had developed. [41] The new orthography was however not broadly adopted initially and was used inconsistently in the bilingual periodicals of Manila until the early 20th century. [41] The revolutionary society Kataás-taasan, Kagalang-galang Katipunan ng̃ mg̃á Anak ng̃ Bayan or Katipunan made use of the k-orthography and the letter k featured prominently on many of its flags and insignias. [41]

In 1937, Tagalog was selected to serve as basis for the country's national language. In 1940, the Balarílà ng Wikang Pambansâ (English: Grammar of the National Language) of grammarian Lope K. Santos introduced the Abakada alphabet. This alphabet consists of 20 letters and became the standard alphabet of the national language. [42] The orthography as used by Tagalog would eventually influence and spread to the systems of writing used by other Philippine languages (which had been using variants of the Spanish-based system of writing). In 1987, the ABAKADA was dropped and in its place is the expanded Filipino alphabet.

Baybayin

Tagalog was written in an abugida—or alphasyllabary—called Baybayin prior to the Spanish colonial period in the Philippines, in the 16th century. This particular writing system was composed of symbols representing three vowels and 14 consonants. Belonging to the Brahmic family of scripts, it shares similarities with the Old Kawi script of Java and is believed to be descended from the script used by the Bugis in Sulawesi.

Although it enjoyed a relatively high level of literacy, Baybayin gradually fell into disuse in favor of the Latin alphabet taught by the Spaniards during their rule.

There has been confusion of how to use Baybayin, which is actually an abugida, or an alphasyllabary, rather than an alphabet. Not every letter in the Latin alphabet is represented with one of those in the Baybayin alphasyllabary. Rather than letters being put together to make sounds as in Western languages, Baybayin uses symbols to represent syllables.

A "kudlit" resembling an apostrophe is used above or below a symbol to change the vowel sound after its consonant. If the kudlit is used above, the vowel is an "E" or "I" sound. If the kudlit is used below, the vowel is an "O" or "U" sound. A special kudlit was later added by Spanish missionaries in which a cross placed below the symbol to get rid of the vowel sound all together, leaving a consonant. Previously, the consonant without a following vowel was simply left out (for example, bundok being rendered as budo), forcing the reader to use context when reading such words.

Example:

Baybayin sample 02.jpg

Baybayin is encoded in Unicode version 3.2 in the range 1700-171F under the name "Tagalog".

[?] Baybayin A.svg
a
[?] Baybayin E-I.svg
e/i
[?] Baybayin O-U.svg
o/u
[?] Baybayin Ka.svg
ka
[?] Baybayin Ga.svg
ga
[?] Baybayin Nga.svg
nga
[?] Baybayin Ta.svg
ta
[?] Baybayin Da.svg
da/ra
[?] Baybayin Na.svg
na
[?] Baybayin Pa.svg
pa
[?] Baybayin Ba.svg
ba
[?] Baybayin Ma.svg
ma
[?] Baybayin Ya.svg
ya
[?] Baybayin La.svg
la
[?] Baybayin Wa.svg
wa
[?] Baybayin Sa.svg
sa
[?] Baybayin Ha.svg
ha

vowels

a
i
e
u
o

b

bᜊ᜔
ba
bi
be
ᜊᜒ
bu
bo
ᜊᜓ

k

kᜃ᜔
ka
ki
ke
ᜃᜒ
ku
ko
ᜃᜓᜓ

d/r

d/rᜇ᜔
da/ra
di/ri
de/re
ᜇᜒ
du/ru
do/ro
ᜇᜓ

g

gᜄ᜔
ga
gi
ge
ᜄᜒ
gu
go
ᜄᜓ

h

hᜑ᜔
ha
hi
he
ᜑᜒ
hu
ho
ᜑᜓ

l

lᜎ᜔
la
li
le
ᜎᜒ
lu
lo
ᜎᜓ

m

mᜋ᜔
ma
mi
me
ᜋᜒ
mu
mo
ᜋᜓ

n

nᜈ᜔
na
ni
ne
ᜈᜒ
nu
no
ᜈᜓ

ng

ngᜅ᜔
nga
ngi
nge
ᜅᜒ
ngu
ngo
ᜅᜓ

p

pᜉ᜔
pa
pi
pe
ᜉᜒ
pu
po
ᜉᜓ

s

sᜐ᜔
sa
si
se
ᜐᜒ
su
so
ᜐᜓ

t

tᜆ᜔
ta
ti
te
ᜆᜒ
tu
to
ᜆᜓ

w

wᜏ᜔
wa
wi
we
ᜏᜒ
wu
wo
ᜏᜓ

y

yᜌ᜔
ya
yi
ye
ᜌᜒ
yu
yo
ᜌᜓ

Latin alphabet

Abecedario

Until the first half of the 20th century, Tagalog was widely written in a variety of ways based on Spanish orthography consisting of 32 letters called 'ABECEDARIO' (Spanish for "alphabet"): [43] [44]

MajusculeMinusculeMajusculeMinuscule
AaNgng
BbÑñ
CcN͠g / Ñgn͠g / ñg
ChchOo
DdPp
EeQq
FfRr
GgRrrr
HhSs
IiTt
JjUu
KkVv
LlWw
LlllXx
MmYy
NnZz

Abakada

When the national language was based on Tagalog, grammarian Lope K. Santos introduced a new alphabet consisting of 20 letters called ABAKADA in school grammar books called balarilà: [45] [46] [47]

MajusculeMinusculeMajusculeMinuscule
AaNn
BbNgng
KkOo
DdPp
EeRr
GgSs
HhTt
IiUu
LlWw
MmYy

Revised alphabet

In 1987, the Department of Education, Culture and Sports issued a memo stating that the Philippine alphabet had changed from the Pilipino-Tagalog Abakada version to a new 28-letter alphabet [48] [49] to make room for loans, especially family names from Spanish and English: [50]

MajusculeMinusculeMajusculeMinuscule
AaÑñ
BbNgng
CcOo
DdPp
EeQq
FfRr
GgSs
HhTt
IiUu
JjVv
KkWw
LlXx
MmYy
NnZz

ng and mga

The genitive marker ng and the plural marker mga (e.g. Iyan ang mga damit ko. (Those are my clothes)) are abbreviations that are pronounced nang[naŋ] and mangá[mɐˈŋa]. Ng, in most cases, roughly translates to "of" (ex. Siya ay kapatid ng nanay ko. She is the sibling of my mother) while nang usually means "when" or can describe how something is done or to what extent (equivalent to the suffix -ly in English adverbs), among other uses.

  • Nang si Hudas ay nadulás.—When Judas slipped.
  • Gumising siya nangmaaga.—He woke up early.
  • Gumalíng nangtodo si Juan dahil nag-ensayo siya.—Juan greatly improved because he practiced.

In the first example, nang is used in lieu of the word noong (when; Noong si Hudas ay madulas). In the second, nang describes that the person woke up (gumising) early (maaga); gumising nang maaga. In the third, nang described up to what extent that Juan improved (gumaling), which is "greatly" (nang todo). In the latter two examples, the ligature na and its variants -ng and -g may also be used (Gumising na maaga/Maagang gumising; Gumaling natodo/Todong gumaling).

The longer nang may also have other uses, such as a ligature that joins a repeated word:

  • Naghintáy sila nang naghintáy.—They kept on waiting" (a closer calque: "They were waiting and waiting.")

pô/hô and opò/ohò

The words pô/hô and opò/ohò are traditionally used as polite iterations of the affirmative "oo" ("yes"). It is generally used when addressing elders or superiors such as bosses or teachers.

"Pô" and "opò" are specifically used to denote a high level of respect when addressing older persons of close affinity like parents, relatives, teachers and family friends. "Hô" and "ohò" are generally used to politely address older neighbours, strangers, public officials, bosses and nannies, and may suggest a distance in societal relationship and respect determined by the addressee's social rank and not their age. However, "pô" and "opò" can be used in any case in order to express an elevation of respect.

Used in the affirmative:

Pô/Hô may also be used in negation.

Vocabulary and borrowed words

A 3D pie-chart about the languages and loanwords that comprise the Tagalog language. 3D Image of Tagalog component Languages.png
A 3D pie-chart about the languages and loanwords that comprise the Tagalog language.

Tagalog vocabulary is composed mostly of words of native Austronesian origin - most of the words that end with the diphthongs -iw, (e.g. saliw) and those words that exhibit reduplication (e.g. halo-halo, patpat, etc.). However it has a significant number of Spanish loanwords. Spanish is the language that has bequeathed the most loanwords to Tagalog.

In pre-Hispanic times, Trade Malay was widely known and spoken throughout Maritime Southeast Asia.

Tagalog also includes many loanwords from English, Indian languages (Sanskrit and Tamil), Chinese languages (Hokkien, Cantonese, Mandarin), Japanese, Arabic and Persian.

Due to trade with Mexico via the Manila galleons from the 16th to the 19th centuries, many words from Nahuatl (Aztec) and Castilian (Spanish) were introduced to Tagalog.

The Philippines has long been a melting pot of nations. The islands have been subject to different influences and a meeting point of numerous migrations since the early prehistoric origins of trading activities, especially from the time of the Neolithic Period, the Silk Road, the Tang Dynasty, the Ming Dynasty, the Ryukyu Kingdom, the Spice Route and the Manila Galleon trading periods. This means that the evolution of the language is difficult to reconstruct (although many theories exist).

English has borrowed some words from Tagalog, such as abaca, barong, balisong, boondocks, jeepney, Manila hemp, pancit, ylang-ylang, and yaya, although the vast majority of these borrowed words are only used in the Philippines as part of the vocabularies of Philippine English.[ citation needed ]

Other examples of Tagalog words used in English
ExampleDefinition
boondocks meaning "rural" or "back country," was imported by American soldiers stationed in the Philippines following the Spanish–American War as a mispronounced version of the Tagalog bundok, which means "mountain."
cogona type of grass, used for thatching. This word came from the Tagalog word kugon (a species of tall grass).
ylang-ylang a tree whose fragrant flowers are used in perfumes.
Abaca a type of hemp fiber made from a plant in the banana family, from abaká.
Manila hemp a light brown cardboard material used for folders and paper usually made from abaca hemp.
Capiz also known as window oyster, is used to make windows.

Tagalog has contributed several words to Philippine Spanish, like barangay (from balan͠gay, meaning barrio), the abacá, cogon, palay, dalaga etc.

Tagalog words of foreign origin

Cognates with other Philippine languages

Tagalog wordmeaninglanguage of originoriginal spelling
bakitwhy Kapampangan obakit
akyatclimb/step upKapampanganukyát/mukyat
atandKapampanganat
bundokmountainKapampanganbunduk
huwagdon't Pangasinan ag
asodog South Cordilleran or Ilocano (also Ilokano) aso
tayowe (inc.)South Cordilleran or Ilocanotayo
ito, nitothis, itsSouth Cordilleran or Ilocanoto
ngof Cebuano
Hiligaynon
Waray
Kapampangan
Pangasinan
Ilocano
sa
sg (pronounced as /sang/)
han
ning
na
nga
arawsun; day Visayan languages adlaw
angdefinite articleVisayan languages
Central Bikol
ang
an

Austronesian comparison chart

Below is a chart of Tagalog and a number of other Austronesian languages comparing thirteen words.

Englishonetwothreefourpersonhousedogcoconutdaynewwe (inclusive)whatfire
Tagalogisadalawatatloapattaobahayasoniyogarawbagotayoanoapoy
Tombulu (Minahasa)esazua (rua)teluepattouwaléasupo'po'endowerukai, kitaapaapi
Central Bikol saroduwatuloapattawoharongayamniyogaldawba-gokitaanokalayo
Rinconada Bikol əsaddarwātolōəpattawōbaləyayamnoyogaldəwbāgokitāonōkalayō
Waray usaduhatuloupattawobalayayam/idolubiadlawbag-okitaanukalayo
Cebuano usa/isaduhatuloupattawobalayirolubiadlawbag-okitaunsakalayo
Hiligaynon isaduhatatloapattawobalayidolubiadlawbag-okitaanokalayo
Aklanon isaea, sambilog, unodaywa, dostatlo, tresap-at, kwatrotawobaeayayamniyogadlawbag-okitaanokaeayo
Kinaray-a saradarwatatloapattawobalayayamniyogadlawbag-okitaanokalayo
Tausug hambuukduwatuupattaubayiru'niyugadlawba-gukitaniyuunukayu
Maranao isadowat'lophattawwalayasoneyoggawi'ebagotanotonaaapoy
Kapampangan metungadwaatluapattaubaleasungungutaldobayuikatamunanuapi
Pangasinan sakeydua, duaratalo, taloraapat, apatiratooabongasoniyogageobalosikatayoantopool
Ilocano maysaduatallouppattaobalayasoniogaldawbarodatayoaniaapoy
Ivatan asadadowatatdoapattaovahaychitoniyoyarawva-yoyatenangoapoy
Ibanag taddayduatalluappa'tolaybalaykituniukaggawbagusittamanniafi
Yogad tataaddutalluappattolaybinalayatuiyyogagawbagusikitamganiafuy
Gaddang antetaddwatalloappattolaybalayatuayogawbawuikkanetamsanenayafuy
Tboli sotulewutlufattaugunuohulefokdawlomitekuyteduofih
Kadazan isoduvotohuapattuhunhamintasupiasautadauvagutokouonutapui
Malay / Indonesian satuduatigaempatorangrumahanjingkelapa/nyiurharibaru/baharukitaapaapi
Javanese sijilorotelupapatuwongomahasuklapa/kambilharianyar/enggalkitaapa/anugeni
Acehnese saduwalhèëpeuëtureuëngrumoh/balèëasèëuuroëbarô(geu)tanyoëpeuëapuy
Lampung saikhuatelupakjelemalambanasunyiwikhanibarukhamapiapui
Buginese se'diduatellueppa'taubolaasukalukuessobaruidi'agaapi
Batak sadaduatoluopathalakjabubiangharambiriaribaruhitaahaapi
Tetum idaruatoluhaatemaumaasunuuloronfounitasaidaahi
Maori tahiruatoruwhatangatawharekurikokonatirahoutauaahaahi
Tuvaluan tasiluatolutokofalekurimokuasofoutāuaāafi
Hawaiian kahiluakolukanakahale'īlioniuaohoukākouahaahi
Banjarese asaduataluampaturangrumahhadupankalapaharihanyarkitaapaapi
Malagasy isaroateloefatraolonatranoalikavoanioandrovaovaoisikainonaafo
Dusun isoduotoluapattulunwalaitasupiasautadauwagutokouonu/nutapui
Iban sa/sanduandangkudangkanorangrumahukui/uduknyiurharibarukitainamaapi
Melanau satuduatelouempatapahlebokasounyiorlaubaewteleunamaapui

Religious literature

The Ten Commandments in Tagalog. CalauanChurchjf4373 11.JPG
The Ten Commandments in Tagalog.

Religious literature remains one of the most dynamic contributors to Tagalog literature. The first Bible in Tagalog, then called Ang Biblia [51] ("the Bible") and now called Ang Dating Biblia [52] ("the Old Bible"), was published in 1905. In 1970, the Philippine Bible Society translated the Bible into modern Tagalog. Even before the Second Vatican Council, devotional materials in Tagalog had been in circulation. There are at least four circulating Tagalog translations of the Bible

When the Second Vatican Council, (specifically the Sacrosanctum Concilium) permitted the universal prayers to be translated into vernacular languages, the Catholic Bishops' Conference of the Philippines was one of the first to translate the Roman Missal into Tagalog. The Roman Missal in Tagalog was published as early as 1982.

Jehovah's Witnesses were printing Tagalog literature at least as early as 1941 [53] and The Watchtower (the primary magazine of Jehovah's Witnesses) has been published in Tagalog since at least the 1950s. New releases are now regularly released simultaneously in a number of languages, including Tagalog. The official website of Jehovah's Witnesses also has some publications available online in Tagalog. [54]

Tagalog is quite a stable language, and very few revisions have been made to Catholic Bible translations. Also, as Protestantism in the Philippines is relatively young, liturgical prayers tend to be more ecumenical.

Examples

Lord's Prayer

In Tagalog, the Lord's Prayer is exclusively known by its incipit, Amá Namin (literally, "Our Father").

Amá namin, sumasalangit Ka

Sambahín ang ngalan Mo.

Mapasaamin ang kaharián Mo.

Sundín ang loób Mo,

Dito sa lupà, gaya nang sa langit.

Bigyán Mo kamí ngayón ng aming kakanin sa araw-araw,

At patawarin Mo kamí sa aming mga salâ,

Para nang pagpápatawad namin,

Sa nagkakasalà sa amin;

At huwág Mo kamíng ipahintulot sa tuksó,

At iadyâ Mo kamí sa lahát ng masamâ.

[Sapagkát sa Inyó ang kaharián, at ang kapangyarihan,

At ang kaluwálhatian, ngayón, at magpakailanman.]

Amen

Universal Declaration of Human Rights

This is Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Pángkalahatáng Pagpapahayag ng Karapatáng Pantao)

Bawat tao'y isinilang na may layà at magkakapantáy ang tagláy na dangál at karapatán. Silá'y pinagkalooban ng pangangatwiran at budhî na kailangang gamitin nilá sa pagtuturingan nilá sa diwà ng pagkakapatiran. All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. [55]

Numbers

The numbers (mga bilang) in Tagalog language are of two sets. The first set consists of native Tagalog words and the other set are Spanish loanwords. (This may be compared to other East Asian languages, except with the second set of numbers borrowed from Spanish instead of Chinese.) For example, when a person refers to the number "seven", it can be translated into Tagalog as "pito" or "siyete" (Spanish: siete).

NumberCardinalSpanish loanword
(Original Spanish)
Ordinal
0sero / walâ (lit. "null") / awánsero (cero)-
1isáuno (uno)una
2dalawá [dalaua]dos (dos)pangalawá / ikalawá (informally, ikadalawá)
3tatlótres (tres)pangatló / ikatló
4apatkuwatro (cuatro)pang-apat / ikaapat ("ika" and the number-word are never hyphenated. For numbers, however, they always are.)
5limásingko (cinco)panlimá / ikalimá
6animsais (seis)pang-anim / ikaanim
7pitósiyete (siete)pampitó / ikapitó
8walóotso (ocho)pangwaló / ikawaló
9siyámnuwebe (nueve)pansiyám / ikasiyám
10sampû [sang puo]diyés (diez)pansampû / ikasampû (or ikapû in some literary compositions)
11labíng-isáonse (once)panlabíng-isá / pang-onse / ikalabíng-isá
12labíndalawádose (doce)panlabíndalawá / pandose / ikalabíndalawá
13labíntatlótrese (trece)panlabíntatló / pantrese / ikalabíntatló
14labíng-apatkatorse (catorce)panlabíng-apat / pangkatorse / ikalabíng-apat
15labínlimákinse (quince)panlabínlimá / pangkinse / ikalabínlimá
16labíng-animdisisaís (dieciséis)panlabíng-anim / pandyes-sais / ikalabíng-anim
17labímpitódisisyete (diecisiete)panlabímpitó / pandyes-syete / ikalabímpitó
18labíngwalódisiotso (dieciocho)panlabíngwaló / pandyes-otso / ikalabíngwaló
19labinsiyámdisinuwebe (diecinueve)panlabinsiyám / pandyes-nwebe / ikalabinsiyám
20dalawampûbente / beinte (veinte)pandalawampû / ikadalawampû (rare literary variant: ikalawampû)
21dalawampú't isábente'y uno (veintiuno)pang-dalawampú't isá / ikalawamapú't isá
30tatlumpûtrenta / treinta (treinta)pantatlumpû / ikatatlumpû (rare literary variant: ikatlumpû)
40apatnapûkuwarenta (cuarenta)pang-apatnapû / ikaapatnapû
50limampûsingkuwenta (cincuenta)panlimampû / ikalimampû
60animnapûsesenta (sesenta)pang-animnapû / ikaanimnapû
70pitumpûsetenta (setenta)pampitumpû / ikapitumpû
80walumpûotsenta / utsenta (ochenta)pangwalumpû / ikawalumpû
90siyamnapûnobenta (noventa)pansiyamnapû / ikasiyamnapû
100sándaánsiyento (cien)pan(g)-(i)sándaán / ikasándaán (rare literary variant: ika-isándaan)
200dalawandaándos siyentos (doscientos)pandalawándaán / ikadalawandaan (rare literary variant: ikalawándaán)
300tatlóndaántres siyentos (trescientos)pantatlóndaán / ikatatlondaan (rare literary variant: ikatlóndaán)
400apat na raánkuwatro siyentos (cuatrocientos)pang-apat na raán / ikaapat na raán
500limándaánkinyentos (quinientos)panlimándaán / ikalimándaán
600anim na raánsais siyentos (seiscientos)pang-anim na raán / ikaanim na raán
700pitondaánsiyete siyentos (sietecientos)pampitóndaán / ikapitóndaán (or ikapitóng raán)
800walóndaánotso siyentos (ochocientos)pangwalóndaán / ikawalóndaán (or ikawalóng raán)
900siyám na raánnuwebe siyentos (novecientos)pansiyám na raán / ikasiyám na raán
1,000sánlibomil (mil)pan(g)-(i)sánlibo / ikasánlibo
2,000dalawánlibodos mil (dos mil)pangalawáng libo / ikalawánlibo
10,000sánlaksâ / sampúng libodiyes mil (diez mil)pansampúng libo / ikasampúng libo
20,000dalawanlaksâ / dalawampúng libobente mil (veinte mil)pangalawampúng libo / ikalawampúng libo
100,000sangyutá / sandaáng libosiyento mil (cien mil) 
200,000dalawangyutá / dalawandaáng libodos siyento mil (dos cientos mil) 
1,000,000sang-angaw / sangmilyónmilyón (un millón) 
2,000,000dalawang-angaw / dalawang milyóndos milyón (dos millones) 
10,000,000sangkatì / sampung milyóndyes milyón (diez millones) 
100,000,000sampúngkatì / sandaáng milyónsyento milyón (cien millones) 
1,000,000,000sang-atos / sambilyónbilyón (un billón) 
1,000,000,000,000sang-ipaw / santrilyóntrilyón (un trillón) 
NumberEnglishOrdinal SpanishCardinal
1stfirstprimero/auna / ika-isá
2ndsecondsegundo/aikalawá
3rdthirdtercero/aikatló
4thfourthcuarto/aika-apat
5thfifthquinto/aikalimá
6thsixthsexto/aika-anim
7thseventhséptimo/aikapitó
8theighthoctavo/aikawaló
9thninthnoveno/aikasiyám
10thtenthdécimo/aikasampû
1/2halfmediakalahatì
1/4quartercuartakapat
3/5three-fifthstres quintas partestatlóng-kalimá
2/3two-thirdsdos terciosdalawáng-katló
1 1/2one and a halfun medioisá't kalahatì
2 2/3two and two-thirdsdos de dos terciosdalawá't dalawáng-katló
0.5zero point fivecero punto cincosalapî / limá hinatì sa sampû
0.005zero point zero zero fivecero punto cero cero cincobagól / limá hinatì sa sanlibo
1.25one point twenty-fiveuno punto veinticincoisá't dalawampú't limá hinatì sa sampû
2.025two point zero twenty-fivedos punto cero veinticincodalawá't dalawampú't limá hinatì sa sanlibo
25%twenty-five percentveinticinco por cientodalawampú't-limáng bahagdán
50%fifty percentcincuenta por cientolimampúng bahagdán
75%seventy-five percentsetenta y cinco por cientopitumpú't-limáng bahagdán

Months and days

Months and days in Tagalog are also localised forms of Spanish months and days. "Month" in Tagalog is buwán (also the word for moon) and "day" is araw (the word also means sun). Unlike Spanish, however, months and days in Tagalog are always capitalised.

MonthOriginal SpanishTagalog (abbreviation)
JanuaryeneroEnero (Ene.)
FebruaryfebreroPebrero (Peb.)
MarchmarzoMarso (Mar.)
AprilabrilAbríl (Abr.)
MaymayoMayo (Mayo)
JunejunioHunyo (Hun.)
JulyjulioHulyo (Hul.)
AugustagostoAgosto (Ago.)
SeptemberseptiembreSetyembre (Set.)
OctoberoctubreOktubre (Okt.)
NovembernoviembreNobyembre (Nob.)
DecemberdiciembreDisyembre (Dis.)
DayOriginal SpanishTagalog
MondaylunesLunes
TuesdaymartesMartes
WednesdaymiércolesMiyérkules / Myérkules
ThursdayjuevesHuwebes / Hwebes
FridayviernesBiyernes / Byernes
SaturdaysábadoSábado
SundaydomingoLinggó

Time

Time expressions in Tagalog are also Tagalized forms of the corresponding Spanish. "Time" in Tagalog is panahon, or more commonly oras. Unlike Spanish and English, times in Tagalog are capitalized whenever they appear in a sentence.

TimeEnglishOriginal SpanishTagalog
1 hourone houruna horaIsang oras
2 mintwo minutesdos minutosDalawang sandali/minuto
3 secthree secondstres segundosTatlong saglit/segundo
morningmañanaUmaga
afternoontardeHapon
evening/nightnocheGabi
noonmediodíaTanghali
midnightmedianocheHatinggabi
1:00 amone in the morninguna de la mañanaIka-isa ng umaga
7:00 pmseven at nightsiete de la nocheIkapito ng gabi
1:15quarter past one
one-fifteen
una y cuartoKapat makalipas ikaisa
Labinlima makalipas ikaisa
Apatnapu't-lima bago mag-ikaisa
2:30half past two
two-thirty
dos y mediaKalahati makalipas ikalawa
Tatlumpu makalipas ikalawa
3:45three-forty-five
quarter to/of four
tres y cuarenta y cincoTatlong-kapat makalipas ikatlo
Apatnapu't-lima makalipas ikatlo
Labinlima bago mag-ikaapat
4:25four-twenty-five
thirty-five to/of four
cuatro y veinticincoDalawampu't-lima makalipas ikaapat
Tatlumpu't-lima bago mag-ikaapat
5:35five-thirty-five
twenty-five to/of six
cinco y treinta y cincoTatlumpu't-lima makalipas ikalima
Dalawampu't-lima bago mag-ikaanim

Common phrases

EnglishTagalog (with Pronunciation)
FilipinoPilipino[ˌpiːliˈpiːno]
EnglishInglés[ʔɪŋˈɡlɛs]
TagalogTagalog[tɐˈɡaːloɡ]
Spanish"Espanyol/Español/Kastila"
What is your name?Anó ang pangalan ninyo/nila*? (plural or polite) [ɐˈno aŋ pɐˈŋaːlan nɪnˈjo], Anó ang pangalan mo? (singular) [ɐˈno aŋ pɐˈŋaːlan mo]
How are you?kumustá[kʊmʊsˈta] (modern), Anó po áng lagáy ninyo/nila? (old use)
Good morning!Magandáng umaga![mɐɡɐnˈdaŋ uˈmaːɡa]
Good noontime! (from 11 a.m. to 1 p.m.)Magandáng tanghali![mɐɡɐnˈdaŋ taŋˈhaːlɛ]
Good afternoon! (from 1 p.m. to 6:00 p.m.)Magandáng hapon![mɐɡɐnˈdaŋ ˈhaːpon]
Good evening!Magandáng gabí![mɐɡɐnˈdaŋ ɡɐˈbɛ]
Good-byepaálam[pɐˈʔaːlam]
PleaseDepending on the nature of the verb, either pakí-[pɐˈki] or makí-[mɐˈki] is attached as a prefix to a verb. ngâ[ŋaʔ] is optionally added after the verb to increase politeness. (e.g. Pakipasa ngâ ang tinapay. ("Can you pass the bread, please?"))
Thank youSalamat[sɐˈlaːmat]
This oneito[ʔiˈtoh], sometimes pronounced [ʔɛˈtoh] (literally—"it", "this")
That oneiyan[ʔiˈjan], When pointing to something at greater distances: iyun[ʔiˈjʊn] or iyon[ʔiˈjon]
Heredito[dɪˈtoh], heto[hɛˈtoh] ("Here it is")
Theredoon[dʒan], hayan[hɑˈjan] ("There it is")
How much?Magkano?[mɐɡˈkaːno]
Yesoo[ˈoːʔo]

opô[ˈʔopoʔ] or ohô[ˈʔohoʔ] (formal/polite form)

Nohindî[hɪnˈdɛʔ], often shortened to [dɛʔ]

hindî pô (formal/polite form)

I don't knowhindî ko álam[hɪnˈdɛʔ ko aːlam]

Very informal: ewan[ʔɛˈʊɑn], archaic aywan[ɑjˈʊɑn] (closest English equivalent: colloquial dismissive 'Whatever')

Sorrypasensya pô[pɐˈsɛːnʃa poʔ] (literally from the word "patience") or paumanhin po,patawad po[pɐtaːwad poʔ] (literally—"asking your forgiveness")
Becausekasí[kɐˈsɛ] or dahil[dɑˈhɪl]
Hurry!dalí![dɐˈli], bilís![bɪˈlis]
Againmulí[muˈli], ulít[ʊˈlɛt]
I don't understandHindî ko naiintindihan[hɪnˈdiː ko nɐʔɪɪnˌtɪndiˈhan] or

Hindi ko nauunawaan[hɪnˈdiː ko nɐʔʊʊnawaʔˌʔan]

What?Anó?[ɐˈno]
Where?Saán?[sɐˈʔan], Nasaán?[ˌnaːsɐˈʔan] (literally - "Where at?")
Why?Bakít?[bɑˈkɛt]
When?Kailan?[kɑjˈlɑn], [kɑˈɪˈlɑn], or [kɛˈlɑn] (literally—"In what order?/"At what count?"")
How?Paánó?[pɑˌɐˈno] (literally—"By what?")
Where's the bathroom?Nasaán ang banyo?[ˌnaːsɐˈʔan ʔaŋ ˈbaːnjo]
Generic toast Mabuhay![mɐˈbuːhaɪ] (literally—"long live")
Do you speak English?Marunong ka báng magsalitâ ng Inglés?[mɐˈɾuːnoŋ ka baŋ mɐɡsaliˈtaː naŋ ʔɪŋˈɡlɛs]

Marunong po bâ kayóng magsalitâ ng Inglés? (polite version for elders and strangers)
Marunong ka báng mag-Inglés? (short form)
Marunong po ba kayóng mag-Inglés? (short form, polite version for elders and strangers)

It is fun to live.Masayá ang mabuhay![mɐˈsaˈja ʔaŋ mɐˈbuːhaɪ] or Masaya'ng mabuhay (contracted version)

*Pronouns such as niyo (2nd person plural) and nila (3rd person plural) are used on a single 2nd person in polite or formal language. See Tagalog grammar.

Proverbs

Ang hindî marunong lumingón sa pinánggalingan ay hindî makaráratíng sa paroroonan. (José Rizal)
One who knows not how to look back from whence he came, will never get to where he is going.

Unang kagat, tinapay pa rin. It means :"First bite, still bread." or "All fluff no substance."

Tao ka nang humarap, bilang tao kitang haharapin.
(A proverb in Southern Tagalog that made people aware the significance of sincerity in Tagalog communities. It says, "As a human you reach me, I treat you as a human and never act as a traitor.")

Hulí man daw (raw) at magalíng, nakáhahábol pa rin.
If one is behind but capable, one will still be able to catch up.

Magbirô ka na sa lasíng, huwág lang sa bagong gising.
Make fun of someone drunk, if you must, but never one who has just awakened.

Aanhín pa ang damó kung patáy na ang kabayo?
What use is the grass if the horse is already dead?

Ang sakít ng kalingkingan, ramdám ng buóng katawán.
The pain in the pinkie is felt by the whole body.
(In a group, if one goes down, the rest follow.)

Nasa hulí ang pagsisisi.
Regret is always in the end.

Pagkáhabà-habà man ng prusisyón, sa simbahan pa rin ang tulóy.
The procession may stretch on and on, but it still ends up at the church.
(In romance: refers to how certain people are destined to be married. In general: refers to how some things are inevitable, no matter how long you try and postpone it.)

Kung 'dî mádaán sa santóng dasalan, daanin sa santóng paspasan.
If it cannot be got through holy prayer, get it through blessed force.
(In romance and courting: santóng paspasan literally means 'holy speeding' and is a euphemism for sexual intercourse. It refers to the two styles of courting by Filipino boys: one is the traditional, protracted, restrained manner favored by older generations, which often featured serenades and manual labor for the girl's family; the other is upfront seduction, which may lead to a slap on the face or a pregnancy out of wedlock. The second conclusion is known as pikot or what Western cultures would call a 'shotgun marriage'. This proverb is also applied in terms of diplomacy and negotiation.)

Majority provinces

Northern Tagalog

Central Luzon Region

Central Tagalog

National Capital Region

Southern Tagalog

Southern Luzon

(mainly) Calabarzon and Mimaropa

See also

Related Research Articles

Filipino language official language of the Philippines

Filipino is the national language of the Philippines. Filipino is also designated, along with English, as an official language of the country. It is a standardized variety of the Tagalog language, an Austronesian regional language that is widely spoken in the Philippines. As of 2007, Tagalog is the first language of 28 million people, or about one-third of the Philippine population, while 45 million speak Tagalog as their second language. Tagalog is among the 185 languages of the Philippines identified in the Ethnologue. Officially, Filipino is defined by the Commission on the Filipino Language as "the native dialect, spoken and written, in Metro Manila, the National Capital Region, and in other urban centers of the archipelago."

Filipinoorthography specifies the correct use of the writing system of the Filipino language, the national and co-official language of the Philippines.

Cebuano language Austronesian language of the Philippines

The Cebuano or Cebuan language, also often referred to informally by most of its speakers simply as Bisaya, is an Austronesian language spoken in the Philippines by about closely 45 million people in Central Visayas, western parts of Eastern Visayas and most parts of Mindanao, most of whom belong to various Visayan ethnolinguistic groups, mainly the Cebuanos. While Filipino (Tagalog) has the most number of speakers of Philippine languages, Cebuano had the largest native language-speaking population in the Philippines until about the 1980s. It is by far the most widely spoken of the Visayan languages, which are in turn part of the wider Philippine languages.

Languages of the Philippines languages of a geographic region

There are some 120 to 187 languages and dialects in the Philippines, depending on the method of classification. Almost all are Malayo-Polynesian languages. A number of Spanish-influenced creole varieties generally called Chavacano are also spoken in certain communities. The 1987 constitution designates Filipino as the national language and an official language along with English.

Kapampangan language Austronesian language spoken in the Philippines

Kapampangan, Pampango, or the Pampangan language is a major Philippine language. It is spoken in the province of Pampanga, most of Tarlac and Bataan. Kapampangan is also understood in some municipalities of Bulacan and Nueva Ecija and by the Aeta people of Zambales. The language is known honorifically as Amánung Sísuan.

Maranao language Austronesian language spoken in the Philippines

Maranao is an Austronesian language spoken by the Maranao people in the provinces of Lanao del Norte and Lanao del Sur in the Philippines, and in Sabah, Malaysia.

Commission on the Filipino Language Tagalog language regulator

The Commission on the Filipino Language is the official regulating body of the Filipino language and the official government institution tasked with developing, preserving, and promoting the various local Philippine languages. The commission was established in accordance with the 1987 Constitution of the Philippines.

The Abakada alphabet was an "indigenized" Latin alphabet adopted for the Tagalog-based Filipino national language in 1940.

The modern Filipino alphabet, otherwise known as the Filipino alphabet, is the alphabet of the Filipino language, the official national language and one of the two official languages of the Philippines. The modern Filipino alphabet is made up of 28 letters, which includes the entire 26-letter set of the ISO basic Latin alphabet, the Spanish Ñ and the Ng digraph of Tagalog. It replaced the Pilipino alphabet of the Fourth Republic. Today, the modern Filipino alphabet may also be used to write all autochthonous languages of the Philippines and Chavacano, a Spanish-derived creole.

Tagalog people ethnic group

The Tagalog people are a major ethnolingustic group in the Philippines. They have a well developed society due to their cultural heartland, Manila, being the capital city of the Philippines. Most of them inhabit and form a majority in the Metro Manila and Calabarzon regions of southern Luzon, as well as a plurality in the provinces of Bulacan, Bataan, Zambales, Nueva Ecija and Aurora in Central Luzon and in the islands of Marinduque and Mindoro in MIMAROPA.

Batangas Tagalog is a dialect of the Tagalog language that is spoken primarily in the province of Batangas and in portions of Quezon, Laguna and on the island of Mindoro. It is characterized by a strong accent and a vocabulary and grammar that is closely related to Old Tagalog. It is not customary, in colloquial Batangan, to speak Taglish.

Rinconada Bikol language Bikol language spoken in Camarines Sur, Bicol Region

Rinconada Bikol or simply Rinconada, spoken in the province of Camarines Sur, Philippines, is one of several languages that compose the Inland Bikol group of the Bikol macrolanguage. It belongs to the Austronesian language family that also includes most Philippine languages, the Formosan languages of Taiwanese aborigines, Malay, the Polynesian languages and Malagasy.

"Sa Aking mga Kabata" is a poem about the love of one's native language written in Tagalog. It is widely attributed to the Filipino national hero José Rizal, who supposedly wrote it in 1869 at the age of eight. There is no evidence, however, to support authorship by Rizal and several historians now believe it to be a hoax. The actual author of the poem is suspected to have been the poets Gabriel Beato Francisco or Herminigildo Cruz.

Tomás Pinpin was a printer, writer and publisher from Abucay, a municipality in the province of Bataan, Philippines, who was the first Filipino printer and is sometimes referred as the "Prince of the Filipino Printers."

Bible translations into the languages of the Philippines

The Filipino language, based on the Tagalog language, is the national language of the Philippines. The Christian Bible has been translated into numerous Philippine languages.

Old Tagalog is the earliest form of the Tagalog language and was the language of Central and Southern Luzon during the Classical period in Luzon. It is the language of Tondo, Namayan, state of Ma-i, Rajahnate of Maynila, and other regions of the northern Philippines. The language originated from the Proto-Philippine language and evolved to Classical Tagalog, which was the basis for Modern Tagalog.

Kundiman is a genre of traditional Filipino love songs. The lyrics of the Kundiman are written in Tagalog. The melody is characterized by a smooth, flowing and gentle rhythm with dramatic intervals. Kundiman was the traditional means of serenade in the Philippines.

Karay-a language language

The Karay-a language, or Kinaray-a, is an Austronesian regional language spoken by the Karay-a people, mainly in Antique in the Philippines as well as Iloilo and other provinces on the island of Panay. It is one of the Visayan languages, mainly along with Aklanon/Malaynon, Capiznon and Hiligaynon. As of 2015, there is an estimated 1,200,000 speakers of Kinaray-a with almost half of them are from Antique and Iloilo provinces.

Hiligaynon language Austronesian language spoken in the Western Visayas region of the Philippines

The Hiligaynon language, also often referred to by most of its speakers simply as Ilonggo, is an Austronesian regional language spoken in the Philippines by about 9.1 million people, mainly in Western Visayas and Soccsksargen, most of whom belong to the Visayan ethnic group, mainly the Hiligaynons. It is the second-most widely spoken language and a member of the so-named Visayan language family and is more distantly related to other Philippine languages.

References

  1. Mikael Parkvall, "Världens 100 största språk 2007" (The World's 100 Largest Languages in 2007), in Nationalencyklopedin
  2. Tagalog at Ethnologue (22st ed., 2019)
  3. Filipino at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  4. Resulta mula sa 2000 Census of Population and Housing: Educational Characteristics of the Filipinos, National Statistics Office, 18 March 2005, archived from the original on 27 January 2008
  5. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Tagalogic". Glottolog 3.0 . Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  6. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Tagalog-Filipino". Glottolog 3.0 . Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  7. According to the OED and Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary
  8. Zorc, David. 1977. "The Bisayan Dialects of the Philippines: Subgrouping and Reconstruction". Pacific Linguistics C.44. Canberra: The Australian National University
  9. Blust, Robert. 1991. "The Greater Central Philippines hypothesis". Oceanic Linguistics 30:73–129
  10. Postma, Anton. The Laguna Copper-Plate Inscription: Text and Commentary. Philippine Studies. Vol. 40, No. 2 (Second Quarter 1992), pp. 183-203.
  11. Juan José de Noceda, Pedro de Sanlucar, Vocabulario de la Lengua Tagala, Manila 2013, pg iv, Komision sa Wikang Filipino
  12. Vocabulario de la Lengua Tagala, Manila 1860 at Google Books
  13. Juan José de Noceda, Pedro de Sanlucar, Vocabulario de la lengua tagala, Manila 2013, Komision sa Wikang Filipino.
  14. Spieker-Salazar, Marlies (1992). "A contribution to Asian Historiography : European studies of Philippines languages from the 17th to the 20th century". Archipel. 44 (1): 183–202. doi:10.3406/arch.1992.2861.
  15. Cruz, H. (1906). Kun sino ang kumathâ ng̃ "Florante": kasaysayan ng̃ búhay ni Francisco Baltazar at pag-uulat nang kanyang karunung̃a't kadakilaan. Libr. "Manila Filatélico,". Retrieved January 8, 2017.
  16. 1897 Constitution of Biak-na-Bato, Article VIII, Filipiniana.net, archived from the original on 2009-02-28, retrieved 2008-01-16
  17. 1935 Philippine Constitution, Article XIV, Section 3, Chanrobles Law Library, retrieved 2007-12-20
  18. 1 2 3 Manuel L. Quezon III, Quezon’s speech proclaiming Tagalog the basis of the National Language (PDF), quezon.ph, retrieved 2010-03-26
  19. 1 2 3 4 5 Andrew Gonzalez (1998), "The Language Planning Situation in the Philippines" (PDF), Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 19 (5, 6): 487–488, doi:10.1080/01434639808666365 , retrieved 2007-03-24.
  20. 1973 Philippine Constitution, Article XV, Sections 2–3, Chanrobles Law Library, retrieved 2007-12-20
  21. "Mga Probisyong Pangwika sa Saligang-Batas". Wika.pbworks.com. Retrieved 2012-06-07.
  22. "What the PH constitutions say about the national language". Rappler.
  23. "The cost of being tongue-tied in the colonisers' tongue". The Economist. The Economist Newspaper Limited. 4 June 2009. Retrieved 10 July 2018. ONCE it claimed to have more English speakers than all but two other countries, and it has exported millions of them. But these days Filipinos are less boastful. Three decades of decline in the share of Filipinos who speak the language, and the deteriorating proficiency of those who can manage some English, have eroded one of the country's advantages in the global economy. Call-centres complain that they reject nine-tenths of otherwise qualified job applicants, mostly college graduates, because of their poor command of English. This is lowering the chances that the outsourcing industry will succeed in its effort to employ close to 1m people, account for 8.5% of GDP and have 10% of the world market
  24. "Filipino Language in the Curriculum - National Commission for Culture and the Arts". National Commission for Culture and the Arts. Retrieved 2018-08-21.
  25. 1 2 1987 Philippine Constitution, Article XIV, Sections 6–9, Chanrobles Law Library, retrieved 2007-12-20
  26. Order No. 74 (2009) Archived 2012-06-16 at the Wayback Machine . Department of Education.
  27. DO 16, s. 2012
  28. Dumlao, Artemio (21 May 2012). "K+12 to use 12 mother tongues". philstar.com.
  29. Philippine Census, 2000. Table 11. Household Population by Ethnicity, Sex and Region: 2000
  30. 1 2 Lewis, M.P., Simons, G.F., & Fennig, C.D. (2014). Tagalog. Ethnologue: Languages of the World. Retrieved from http://www.ethnologue.com/language/tgl
  31. Soberano, Ros (2015). "The dialects of Marinduque Tagalog" (PDF). B-69. doi:10.15144/PL-B69.
  32. Results from the 2000 Census of Population and Housing: Educational characteristics of the Filipinos bat man, National Statistics Office, March 18, 2005, archived from the original on January 27, 2008, retrieved 2008-01-21
  33. Results from the 2000 Census of Population and Housing: Population expected to reach 100 million Filipinos in 14 years, National Statistics Office, October 16, 2002, retrieved 2008-01-21
  34. "Language Use in the United States: 2007" (PDF). United States. Retrieved 2011-01-02.
  35. "Tagalog Language". Archived from the original on 2017-02-12.
  36. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Tagalog (2005). Keith Brown (ed.). Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics (2 ed.). Elsevier. ISBN   0-08-044299-4.
  37. Himmelmann, Nikolaus (2005). "Tagalog" in K. Alexander Adelaar & Nikolaus Himmelmann (eds.) The Austronesian languages of Asia and Madagascar, pp. 350-376, London, Routledge.
  38. 1 2 "Accusations of Foreign-ness of the Revista Católica de Filipinas - Is 'K' a Foreign Agent? Orthography and Patriotism..." www.espanito.com.
  39. 1 2 3 4 5 Thomas, Megan C. (8 October 2007). "K is for De-Kolonization: Anti-Colonial Nationalism and Orthographic Reform". Comparative Studies in Society and History. 49 (04): 938–967. doi:10.1017/S0010417507000813.
  40. "Ebolusyon ng Alpabetong Filipino" . Retrieved 2010-06-22.
  41. Gómez Rivera, Guillermo (April 10, 2001). "The evolution of the native Tagalog alphabet". Philippines: Emanila Community (emanila.com). Views & Reviews. Archived from the original on August 3, 2010. Retrieved August 3, 2010.
  42. Signey, Richard, Philippine Journal of Linguistics, Manila, Philippines: Linguistic Society of the Philippines, The Evolution and Disappearance of the "Ğ" in Tagalog orthography since the 1593 Doctrina Christiana, ISSN   0048-3796, OCLC   1791000 , retrieved August 3, 2010.
  43. Linda Trinh Võ; Rick Bonus (2002), Contemporary Asian American communities: intersections and divergences, Temple University Press, pp.  96, 100, ISBN   978-1-56639-938-8
  44. University of the Philippines College of Education (1971), "Philippine Journal of Education", Philippine Journal of Education, Philippine Journal of Education., 50: 556
  45. Perfecto T. Martin (1986), Diksiyunaryong adarna: mga salita at larawan para sa bata, Children's Communication Center, ISBN   978-971-12-1118-9
  46. Trinh & Bonus 2002 , pp.  96 , 100
  47. Renato Perdon; Periplus Editions (2005), Renato Perdon (ed.), Pocket Tagalog Dictionary: Tagalog-English/English-Tagalog, Tuttle Publishing, pp.  vi–vii, ISBN   978-0-7946-0345-8
  48. Michael G. Clyne (1997), Undoing and redoing corpus planning, Walter de Gruyter, p.  317, ISBN   978-3-11-015509-9
  49. Worth, Roland H. Biblical Studies On The Internet: A Resource Guide, 2008 (p. 43)
  50. "Genesis 1 Tagalog: Ang Dating Biblia (1905)". Adb.scripturetext.com. Retrieved 2012-07-07.
  51. 2003 Yearbook of Jehovah's Witnesses. Watch Tower Society. p. 155.
  52. "Watchtower Online Library (Tagalog)". Watch Tower Society.
  53. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, The United Nations.