Taganrog

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Taganrog

Таганрог
Port of Taganrog.jpg
Aerial view of the port of Taganrog (2006)
Flag of Taganrog.svg
Flag
Coat of Arms of Taganrog (Rostov oblast) (1808).png
Coat of arms
Anthem: Anthem of Taganrog [2]
Location of Taganrog
Taganrog
Outline Map of Rostov Oblast.svg
Red pog.svg
Taganrog
Location of Taganrog
European Russia laea location map (Crimea disputed).svg
Red pog.svg
Taganrog
Taganrog (European Russia)
Europe blank laea location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Taganrog
Taganrog (Europe)
Coordinates: 47°13′N38°55′E / 47.217°N 38.917°E / 47.217; 38.917 Coordinates: 47°13′N38°55′E / 47.217°N 38.917°E / 47.217; 38.917
Country Russia
Federal subject Rostov Oblast [1]
FoundedSeptember 12, 1698 [3]
City status since1775 [4]
Government
  BodyCity Duma [5]
  Head [5] Andrey Lisitsky [6]
Area
[7]
  Total80 km2 (30 sq mi)
Elevation
30 m (100 ft)
Population
  Total257,681
  Estimate 
(2018) [9]
249,848 (−3%)
  Rank 72nd in 2010
  Density3,200/km2 (8,300/sq mi)
  Subordinated toTaganrog Urban Okrug [1]
   Capital ofTaganrog Urban Okrug [1]
  Urban okrugTaganrog Urban Okrug [10]
   Capital ofTaganrog Urban Okrug [10]
Time zone UTC+3 (MSK   OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg [11] )
Postal code(s) [12]
347900, 347902, 347904, 347905, 347909, 347910, 347913, 347916, 347919, 347922–347924, 347927, 347928, 347930–347932, 347935, 347936, 347939, 347942, 347943, 347949, 347990
Dialing code(s) +7 8634
OKTMO ID60737000001
City DaySeptember 12 [3]
Website www.tagancity.ru
Taganrog population
2010 Census 257,681 [8]
2002 Census 281,947 [13]
1989 Census 291,622 [14]
1979 Census 276,444 [15]

Taganrog (Russian:Таганрог,IPA:  [təɡɐnˈrok] ) is a port city in Rostov Oblast, Russia, on the north shore of the Taganrog Bay in the Sea of Azov, several kilometers west of the mouth of the Don River. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 257,681; [8] the latest official estimate (as at 1 January 2019) was 248,664. [16]

Contents

History of Taganrog

The history of the city goes back to the late Bronze Age–early Iron Age (between the 20th and 10th centuries BC), when it was the earliest Greek settlement in the northwestern Black Sea Region and was mentioned by the Greek historian Herodotus as Emporion Kremnoi. [17] In the 13th century Pisan merchants founded a colony, Portus Pisanus, which was however short-lived. [18] Taganrog was founded by Peter the Great on September 12, 1698. [3] The first Russian Navy base, it hosted the Azov Flotilla of Catherine the Great (1770–1783), which subsequently became the Russian Black Sea Fleet. Taganrog was granted city status in 1775. [4]

By the end of the 18th century, Taganrog had lost its importance as a military base after Crimea and the entire Sea of Azov were absorbed into the Russian Empire. In 1802, Tsar Alexander I granted the city special status, which lasted until 1887. In 1825, the Alexander I Palace in Taganrog was used as his summer residence, and he died there in November 1825. Also in Taganrog is the House of Teacher, a mansion where numerous artists have performed. Although it had been bombarded and damaged by an Anglo-French fleet in 1855, [18] Taganrog became important as a commercial port, used for the import and export of grain by the end of the 19th century until the early 20th century. Industrialization increased in the city when Belgian and German investors founded a boiler factory, an iron and steel foundry, a leather factory, and an oil press factory. By 1911, fifteen foreign consulates had opened in the city. [19]

During World War I, Taganrog was occupied by the troops of the German Army from May to August 1918. In 1919, General Anton Denikin established his headquarters at the Avgerino mansion in the city while commanding White Russian troops fighting in South Russia during the Russian Civil War. When the White Russians were defeated and Bolshevik power was established in the city on December 25, 1919, Denikin's remaining troops and the British Consulate were evacuated by HMS Montrose. Full power was granted to the Executive Committee of The City Soviet Workers' council on December 17, 1920, and Taganrog briefly joined the Ukrainian SSR as the administrative center of Taganrog Okrug, until it was transferred to the Russian SFSR along with Shakhty Okrug on October 1, 1924. During World War II, Taganrog was occupied by Nazi Germany from 1941 to 1943 during Operation Barbarossa, when two SS divisions entered the city on October 17, 1941, followed by the Wehrmacht. The city suffered extensive damage. Under German occupation the local government system was replaced by a German-style Bürgermeisteramt (Mayor's Office), which governed the city until it was liberated by the Red Army on August 30, 1943.

Administrative and municipal status

Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is incorporated as Taganrog Urban Okrug—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. [1] As a municipal division, this administrative unit also has urban okrug status. [10]

Climate

The climate of Taganrog is temperate (Köppen climate classification Cfb). Taganrog experiences moderately cold (mild by Russian standards) winters and hot summers.

Climate data for Taganrog
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °C (°F)0.1
(32.2)
0.3
(32.5)
5.9
(42.6)
15.4
(59.7)
22.1
(71.8)
25.8
(78.4)
28.8
(83.8)
27.8
(82.0)
21.8
(71.2)
14.6
(58.3)
5.5
(41.9)
0.6
(33.1)
14.1
(57.3)
Daily mean °C (°F)−2.6
(27.3)
−2.2
(28.0)
2.7
(36.9)
11.1
(52.0)
17.6
(63.7)
21.4
(70.5)
24.6
(76.3)
23.8
(74.8)
18.1
(64.6)
11.1
(52.0)
2.8
(37.0)
−2.1
(28.2)
10.5
(50.9)
Average low °C (°F)−5.5
(22.1)
−5.8
(21.6)
−0.7
(30.7)
6.3
(43.3)
12.4
(54.3)
16.5
(61.7)
19.7
(67.5)
19.0
(66.2)
13.8
(56.8)
7.4
(45.3)
0.3
(32.5)
−4.8
(23.4)
6.6
(43.8)
Average precipitation mm (inches)43
(1.7)
40
(1.6)
34
(1.3)
38
(1.5)
38
(1.5)
58
(2.3)
61
(2.4)
39
(1.5)
33
(1.3)
34
(1.3)
42
(1.7)
50
(2.0)
510
(20.1)
Source: Rostov-meteo.ru [20]

Economy

Taganrog is the leading industrial center of Rostov Oblast. Local industry is represented by aerospace, machine-building, automobile, military, iron and steel industry, engineering, metal traders and processors, timber, woodwork, pulp and paper, food, light, chemical and construction materials. The city is one of the major ports of the Sea of Azov.

The biggest company currently operating in Taganrog is Taganrog Metallurgical Plant (publicly traded company Tagmet), which manufactures steel, steel pipe, for oil and gas industry and consumer goods. The other major employer is Taganrog Auto Factory (TagAZ Ltd.), which originated from Taganrog Combine Harvester Factory. The plant manufactures automobiles licensed by Hyundai. The production line includes Hyundai Accent compact sedan, mid-size Hyundai Sonata, sport utility vehicle Santa Fe, and Hyundai Porter pickup truck.

Taganrog is also home to the aircraft design bureau Beriev.

The area around Taganrog has a large industrial potential, a diversified agricultural industry, production plants, and a modern infrastructure. The location of Taganrog on the intersection of traffic routes and the seaport facilitate access to the emerging CIS markets.

Taganrog's main trading partners are the CIS countries, South Korea, Turkey, Italy, Greece, and Egypt.

Military

Alferaki Palace on Frunze Street Alferaki Palace 2008.jpg
Alferaki Palace on Frunze Street

The Taganrog air base is 3.6 miles (5.8 km) to the northwest of the city and hosts the Taganrog Aviation Museum. The city also hosts the Taganrog military museum.

Higher education

Taganrog in literature

The Assumption Cathedral in Taganrog, Russia (1818-1938), where Anton Chekhov was christened on February 10, 1860 Assumption Cathedral.jpg
The Assumption Cathedral in Taganrog, Russia (1818–1938), where Anton Chekhov was christened on February 10, 1860

Anton Chekhov featured the city and its people in many of his works, including Ionych , The House with an Attic, The Man in a Shell , Van'ka , Three Years , Mask, and My Life. It is believed that Taganrog may have been the Lukomorye (fairy tale land) in which Alexander Pushkin's Ruslan and Lyudmila (1820) was set.[ citation needed ] The city also appeared in the novels of Ivan Vasilenko and Konstantin Paustovsky and in the poems of Nikolay Sherbina and Valentin Parnakh.

The conspiratorial legend of "Elder Fyodor Kuzmich" is cited in the book Roza Mira by Russian mystic Daniil Andreyev. According to this legend, the Russian tsar Alexander I did not die in Taganrog, but instead left his crown and the status of monarch to continue his life as a traveling hermit.[ citation needed ]

In foreign literature, the city was mentioned in the titles of Der Tote von Taganrog by Eberhard von Cranach-Sichart and Taganrog by Reinhold Schneider.

In 2004 Sabine Wichert published a collection of poems titled Taganrog.

In Maria Kuncewiczowa's 1945 novel The Stranger (New York, LB Fischer publisher), the city of Taganrog plays an essential role as a place of nostalgic happiness for the uprooted Polish musician and matriarch, Rose.

Notable people

Birth house of Faina Ranevskaya House ranevskaya.jpg
Birth house of Faina Ranevskaya

Numerous Russian and international aristocrats, politicians, artists, and scientists were born and/or have lived in Taganrog. Taganrog is the native city of

It is also associated with:

Twin towns – sister cities

Taganrog is twinned with: [21]

See also

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References

Notes

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 Law #340-ZS
  2. Decision #537
  3. 1 2 3 Charter of Taganrog, Article 2
  4. 1 2 Энциклопедия Города России. Moscow: Большая Российская Энциклопедия. 2003. pp. 454–455. ISBN   5-7107-7399-9.
  5. 1 2 Charter of Taganrog, Article 12
  6. Official website of Taganrog. Andrey Vladimirovich Lisitsky, Head of the Administration of the City of Taganrog (in Russian)
  7. Official website of Taganrog. Information About Taganrog (in Russian)
  8. 1 2 3 Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1 [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  9. "26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
  10. 1 2 3 Law #190-ZS
  11. "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  12. Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian)
  13. Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000](XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
  14. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 via Demoscope Weekly.
  15. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1979 г. Национальный состав населения по регионам России [All Union Population Census of 1979. Ethnic composition of the population by regions of Russia](XLS). Всесоюзная перепись населения 1979 года [All-Union Population Census of 1979] (in Russian). 1979 via Demoscope Weekly (website of the Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics.
  16. Federal State Statistics Service Russia (web).
  17. "taganrogcity.com - Taganrog's Ancient History". taganrogcity.com.
  18. 1 2 Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Taganrog"  . Encyclopædia Britannica . 26 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 355–356.
  19. "taganrogcity.com - Taganrog History in the 19th Century". taganrogcity.com.
  20. "Rostov-meteo.ru" . Retrieved April 17, 2012.[ permanent dead link ]
  21. "Города - партнеры". tagancity.ru (in Russian). Taganrog. Retrieved February 5, 2020.

Sources