Tahlequah, Oklahoma

Last updated
Tahlequah, Oklahoma
ᏓᎵᏆ (Cherokee)
Tahlequah, Oklahoma.jpg
Downtown Tahlequah
Motto: 
"City Of Firsts"
Cherokee County Oklahoma incorporated and unincorporated areas Tahlequah highlighted.svg
Location within Cherokee County and the state of Oklahoma
USA Oklahoma location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Tahlequah
Location in the United States
Usa edcp location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Tahlequah
Tahlequah (the United States)
Coordinates: 35°54′46″N94°58′17″W / 35.91278°N 94.97139°W / 35.91278; -94.97139 Coordinates: 35°54′46″N94°58′17″W / 35.91278°N 94.97139°W / 35.91278; -94.97139
Country Flag of the United States.svg  United States
State Flag of Oklahoma.svg  Oklahoma
County Cherokee
Cherokee Nation founded 1838; second capital city
Government
  MayorSue Catron
Area
[1]
  Total12.87 sq mi (33.33 km2)
  Land12.77 sq mi (33.06 km2)
  Water0.10 sq mi (0.27 km2)
Elevation
797 ft (243 m)
Population
 (2020)
  Total16,209
  Density1,269.70/sq mi (490.24/km2)
Time zone UTC-6 (Central (CST))
  Summer (DST) UTC-5 (CDT)
ZIP codes
74464-74465
Area code(s) 539/918
FIPS code 40-72100 [2]
GNIS feature ID1098721 [3]
Website www.cityoftahlequah.com

Tahlequah ( /ˈtæləkwɑː/ TAL-ə-kwah; Cherokee: ᏓᎵᏆ, daligwa [dàlígʷã́] ) [4] [5] is a city in Cherokee County, Oklahoma located at the foothills of the Ozark Mountains. It is part of the Green Country region of Oklahoma and was established as a capital of the 19th-century Cherokee Nation in 1839, as part of the new settlement in Indian Territory after the Cherokee Native Americans were forced west from the American Southeast on the Trail of Tears.

Contents

The city's population was 15,753 at the 2010 census, an increase of 8.96 percent over the figure of 14,458 reported in 2000. [6] The 2019 estimated population is 16,819. [7]

Tahlequah is the capital of the two federally recognized Cherokee tribes based in Oklahoma, the modern Cherokee Nation and the United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians. Tahlequah is also the county seat of Cherokee County. [8] The main campus of Northeastern State University is located in the city.

History

Background

Tahlonteeskee was the first established governmental capital of any kind in what was to become Oklahoma. [9] [10] It was established in 1828—in land that was part of 1816's Lovely Donations, becoming the first Cherokee Nation–West capital city. It continued as the capital until 1839 when new arrivals from the Trail of Tears flooded the area. At that time, Takatoka briefly became the Nation's capital during the construction of the capitol building at Tahlequah. By mid-1840, the seat of government had been officially moved to Tahlequah. [9]

By 1842, Tahlequah was a growing community and had four stores. The town site of 160 acres (65 ha) was surveyed in 1843, and in the same year an intertribal council attracted ten thousand participants representing 21 different tribes. In 1844 the National Hotel was built, and the newspaper Cherokee Advocate issued its first edition using a printing press installed in the brand-new Supreme Court building. The first school opened in 1845, and the Tahlequah post office opened in 1847. The Cherokee Male Seminary opened in 1851, offering higher education to Cherokee boys who had already received their primary education. [11] [lower-alpha 1]

Etymology

Cherokee stop sign with Cherokee language transliteration and the Cherokee syllabary in Tahlequah, Oklahoma, with "alehwisdiha" (also spelled "halehwisda") meaning "stop" Cherokee stop sign.png
Cherokee stop sign with Cherokee language transliteration and the Cherokee syllabary in Tahlequah, Oklahoma, with "alehwisdiha" (also spelled "halehwisda") meaning "stop"
Cherokee traffic sign in Tahlequah, Oklahoma, reading "tla adi yigi", meaning "no parking" from "tla" meaning "no" Cwy no parking.jpg
Cherokee traffic sign in Tahlequah, Oklahoma, reading "tla adi yigi", meaning "no parking" from "tla" meaning "no"

Many linguists believe the word 'Tahlequah' (Tah-le-quah) and the word 'Teh-li-co' are the same as 'di li gwa', the Cherokee word for grain or rice. (See Cherokee Nation Lexicon (dikaneisdi) at cherokee.org under culture/language). Scholars report the Cherokee word 'di li gwa' describes a type of native grain with a red hue that grew in the flat open areas of east Tennessee. One area, Great Tellico (Tellico Plains, Tennessee), was named for the grass with the red seed tops. Others interpret a word 'tel-i-quah' as 'plains'; however, there is no word for 'plains' in the Cherokee lexicon, and the word 'tel-i-quah' is not found in the lexicon. The idea that 'tahlequah' means 'plains' lends weight to the belief that the name refers to the wide open grassy areas of Great Tellico.

Local legend states the name is derived from Cherokee words 'ta-li' and 'ye-li-quu' meaning 'just two' or 'two is enough'. Supposedly three tribal elders had planned to meet to determine the location of the Cherokee Nation's permanent capital. Two elders arrived and waited for the third. As dusk approached, they decided that 'two is enough', or 'ta-li-ye-li-quu' which later became anglicanized to Tahlequah. According to tribal elders and Cherokee County elders, this legend first began to circulate in the 1930s. Tahlequah was a settlement as early as 1832. After the Western Cherokee agreed in 1834 to let the newer migrants settle near them, they joined their government with the Eastern Cherokee at Tahlequah in 1839. Tahlequah was named long before it was chosen as the Cherokee capital.

Cherokee Nation capital

In 1839, Tahlequah was designated the capital of ancestors of both the Cherokee Nation and the United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians. Initially the government buildings were a complex of log or framed structures. Most of these buildings were destroyed during the Civil War, during which the Cherokee became divided into two bitterly opposing sides. The Cherokee Supreme Court Building, located in downtown Tahlequah and constructed in 1844, is the oldest public building in Oklahoma. [12]

Several markers of Cherokee and Native American heritage are found in town: street signs and business signs are noted in both the Cherokee language and English. Such signs use the syllabary created by Sequoyah, a Cherokee scholar of the 1820s who created the writing system.

Post Civil War rebuilding and development

After the war, a brick capitol was built and first occupied in 1870. In 1907, at the time of Oklahoma statehood, the building was converted into the Cherokee County courthouse. It was returned to the Cherokee Nation in 1970. [13]

In 1886, the first telephone company in Indian Territory was built. The Cherokee Female Seminary, which had originally been constructed in Park Hill, burned in 1887, and was rebuilt in Tahlequah. After statehood, it was taken over by the state to become Northeastern State Normal School and the Northeastern State Teachers College (now Northeastern State University). The first bank in the Cherokee Nation opened in 1891 on Muskogee Avenue.

A major fire destroyed much of downtown Tahlequah in 1895. The buildings destroyed were mostly wooden and were replaced with brick structures.

In 1902, the Ozark and Cherokee Central Railway [lower-alpha 2] built a line into Tahlequah. [13]

Tahlequah continued to grow. During the 1990s, it was the fourth fastest growing city in Oklahoma.

Geography

Tahlequah is located at 35°54′55″N94°58′12″W / 35.91528°N 94.97000°W / 35.91528; -94.97000 (35.9153700, -94.9699560). [3] The city has a total area of 12.45 square miles (32.2 km2), all land. [15] The city is 40 miles (64 km) west of the Arkansas state line.

Climate

Tahlequah, like most of the Southern United States, has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa) with uncomfortably hot and humid summers, generally warm but very variable springs and autumns, and cool winters with frequent frosts and occasional spells of severe weather dominated by cold, dry Canadian air.

Climate data for Tahlequah 1981-2010, extremes 1900-2008
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °F (°C)78
(26)
88
(31)
96
(36)
94
(34)
97
(36)
108
(42)
118
(48)
118
(48)
109
(43)
98
(37)
89
(32)
80
(27)
118
(48)
Average high °F (°C)49.0
(9.4)
54.0
(12.2)
63.4
(17.4)
72.1
(22.3)
78.5
(25.8)
85.5
(29.7)
90.8
(32.7)
91.5
(33.1)
83.5
(28.6)
73.0
(22.8)
61.4
(16.3)
50.2
(10.1)
71.1
(21.7)
Average low °F (°C)27.1
(−2.7)
31.5
(−0.3)
39.8
(4.3)
48.4
(9.1)
57.3
(14.1)
65.0
(18.3)
69.2
(20.7)
68.1
(20.1)
60.4
(15.8)
49.5
(9.7)
39.5
(4.2)
29.5
(−1.4)
48.8
(9.3)
Record low °F (°C)−23
(−31)
−13
(−25)
−10
(−23)
19
(−7)
30
(−1)
41
(5)
40
(4)
45
(7)
28
(−2)
16
(−9)
6
(−14)
−14
(−26)
−23
(−31)
Average precipitation inches (mm)2.58
(66)
2.65
(67)
4.10
(104)
4.03
(102)
6.26
(159)
5.20
(132)
4.40
(112)
3.87
(98)
5.14
(131)
4.61
(117)
4.30
(109)
3.09
(78)
50.23
(1,275)
Average snowfall inches (cm)2.1
(5.3)
1.9
(4.8)
1.0
(2.5)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.2
(0.51)
0.9
(2.3)
6.1
(15.41)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)66799866766682
Source: WRCC [16]

Demographics

Historical population
CensusPop.
1900 1,482
1910 2,89195.1%
1920 2,271−21.4%
1930 2,4959.9%
1940 3,02721.3%
1950 4,75056.9%
1960 5,84022.9%
1970 9,25458.5%
1980 9,7084.9%
1990 10,3987.1%
2000 14,45839.0%
2010 15,7539.0%
2020 16,2092.9%
Sources:
[2]
U.S. Decennial Census [6]

As of the 2010 census, [6] there were 15,753 people, 6,111 households, and 3,351 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,312.75 per square mile (506.5/km2). There were 6,857 housing units at an average density of 571.4 per square mile (220.5/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 53.8% White, 2.4% African American, 30.0% Native American, 1.3% Asian, 0.0% Pacific Islander, 3.7% from other races, and 8.7% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 9.8% of the population.

Out of 6,111 households, 25.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 35.5% were married couples living together, 14.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 45.2% were non-families. 34.3% of all households were made up of individuals, and 10.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.31 and the average family size was 2.99.

In the city, the population was spread out, with 21.1% under the age of 18, 23.6% from 18 to 24, 24.3% from 25 to 44, 18.5% from 45 to 64, and 12.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 27.8 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.2 males.

As of 2013, the median household income was $29,114 and the median family income was $43,940. Males had a median income of $32,475 versus $27,939 for females. The per capita income for the city was $17,003. About 20.7% of families and 33.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 43.2% of those under age 18 and 21.8% of those age 65 or over. [17]

Many people in Tahlequah speak Cherokee, and there is a Cherokee language immersion school in Tahlequah, Oklahoma, that educates students from pre-school through eighth grade with the Cherokee language as the medium of instruction, and no English. [18]

Education

Primary and secondary education

Most of the city is zoned to Tahlequah Public Schools, while portions are zoned to Briggs Public School. [19]

Education within the Tahlequah city limits consists of one early learning center serving students in Pre-K: Sequoyah; three elementary schools serving students in Kindergarten through 5th grade: Greenwood, Cherokee, and Heritage; one middle school with grades 6 through 8: Tahlequah Middle School; and one high school with grades 9-12: Tahlequah High School. Tahlequah High School serves as the main high school within the county as well and is fed by other rural Pre-K through 8th grade schools within Cherokee County.

The following schools have Tahlequah postal addresses but are in the Park Hill census-designated place. [20]

Colleges

Tahlequah is home to Northeastern State University. Seminary Hall.jpg
Tahlequah is home to Northeastern State University.

Northeastern State University is the oldest institution of higher learning in the state of Oklahoma as well as one of the oldest institutions of higher learning west of the Mississippi River. [23] Tahlequah is home to the capital of the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma and about 25 percent of the students at NSU identify themselves as American Indian. [24] The university has many courses focused on Native American linguistics, and offers Cherokee language Education as a major. [25] Cherokee can be studied as a second language, and some classes are taught in Cherokee for first language speakers as well. [26]

Culture

Cherokee National Supreme Court Museum

The building that once housed the Supreme Court of the Cherokee Nation has been converted into a museum and is open to the public. It reportedly is the oldest public building in Oklahoma. [12] [lower-alpha 3] It was constructed on the southeast corner of the town square by James S. Pierce in 1844. The first chief justice of the Cherokee Nation, John Martin (judge) (1784–1840) held court here. The printing press for the early-day Cherokee Phoenix newspaper was also located in this building, and a reproduction of the press and the newsroom can be seen here. [27]

Cherokee National History Museum

The Cherokee National Capitol building was built on the town square in 1869. It contained the nation's executive and legislative offices until the tribal national government was dissolved in 1906, in preparation for Oklahoma's statehood. [lower-alpha 4] The building is listed on the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) and is designated as a National Landmark. [28]

The museum contains 4,000 square feet (370 m2) of space for permanent exhibits and 1,000 square feet (93 m2) of rotating gallery space. Exhibits include not only works by Cherokee artists, but also artifacts loaned by the collections of the Cherokee Nation Archives, Gilcrease Museum, Smithsonian Institution and the Oklahoma Historical Society. [28]

Notable people

In media

Notes

  1. The Cherokee Female Seminary, which performed a parallel function for Cherokee girls, also opened in 1851 at Park Hill. [11]
  2. OCCR was soon afterwards bought by the St. Louis and San Francisco Railway (aka Frisco). [14]
  3. The museum is normally open 10 AM - 4 PM, Monday through Friday. The street address is 122 East Keetowah Street, Tahlequah. [27]
  4. The Supreme Court met in this building until 2018. [28]

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sequoyah County, Oklahoma</span> County in Oklahoma, United States

Sequoyah County is a county located in the U.S. state of Oklahoma. As of the 2010 census, the population was 42,391. The county seat is Sallisaw. Sequoyah County was created in 1907 when Oklahoma became a state. It was named after Sequoyah, who created the Cherokee syllabary and its written language.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Muskogee County, Oklahoma</span> County in Oklahoma, United States

Muskogee County is a county located in the U.S. state of Oklahoma. As of the 2010 census, the population was 70,990. The county seat is Muskogee. The county and city were named for the Muscogee (Creek) Nation. The official spelling of the name was changed to Muskogee by the post office in 1900.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Cherokee County, Oklahoma</span> County in Oklahoma, United States

Cherokee County is a county located in the U.S. state of Oklahoma. As of the 2010 census, the population was 46,987. Its county seat is Tahlequah, which is also the capital of the Cherokee Nation.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Park Hill, Oklahoma</span> Census-designated place in Oklahoma, United States

Park Hill is an unincorporated community and census-designated place (CDP) in southwestern Cherokee County, Oklahoma, United States. The population was 3,909 at the 2010 census. It lies near Tahlequah, east of the junction of U.S. Route 62 and State Highway 82.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Muskogee, Oklahoma</span> City in Oklahoma, United States

Muskogee is the eleventh-largest city in Oklahoma and the county seat of Muskogee County. Home to Bacone College, it lies approximately 48 miles (77 km) southeast of Tulsa. The population of the city was 36,878 as of the 2020 census, a 6.0 percent decrease from 39,223 in 2010.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sallisaw, Oklahoma</span> City in Oklahoma, United States

Sallisaw is a city and county seat in Sequoyah County, Oklahoma, United States. As of the 2010 Census, it had a population was 8,880, an 11.2 percent increase over the figure of 7,891 recorded in 2000. Sallisaw is part of the Fort Smith, Arkansas–Oklahoma Metropolitan Statistical Area.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Fort Gibson, Oklahoma</span> Town in Oklahoma, United States

Fort Gibson is a town in Cherokee and Muskogee counties in the U.S. state of Oklahoma. The population was 4,154 at the 2010 census, an increase of 2.5 percent over the figure of 4,054 recorded in 2000. It is the location of Fort Gibson Historical Site and Fort Gibson National Cemetery and is located near the end of the Cherokees' Trail of Tears at Tahlequah.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Vonore, Tennessee</span> Town in Tennessee, United States

Vonore is a town in Monroe County, which is located on the southeast border of the U.S. state of Tennessee. The population was 1,574 as of the 2020 census. The city hall, library, community center, police department, and fire department are located on Church Street.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sequoyah</span> Cherokee polymath and creator of the Cherokee syllabary

Sequoyah, also known as George Gist or George Guess, was a Native American polymath of the Cherokee Nation. In 1821, he completed his independent creation of the Cherokee syllabary, making reading and writing in Cherokee possible. His achievement was one of the few times in recorded history that an individual who was a member of a pre-literate group created an original, effective writing system. His creation of the syllabary allowed the Cherokee nation to be one of the first North American Indigenous groups to have a written language. Sequoyah was also an important representative for the Cherokee nation, by going to Washington, D.C. to sign two relocations and trading of land treaties.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Northeastern State University</span> University in Oklahoma, United States

Northeastern State University (NSU) is a public university with its main campus in Tahlequah, Oklahoma. The university also has two other campuses in Muskogee and Broken Arrow as well as online. Northeastern is the oldest institution of higher learning in the state of Oklahoma as well as one of the oldest institutions of higher learning west of the Mississippi River. Tahlequah is home to the capital of the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma and about 25 percent of the students at NSU identify themselves as American Indian. The university has many courses focused on Native American linguistics, and offers Cherokee language Education as a major. Cherokee can be studied as a second language, and some classes are taught in Cherokee for first language speakers as well.

Jesse Bartley Milam (1884–1949) was best known as the first Principal Chief of the Cherokee Nation appointed by a U.S. President since tribal government had been dissolved before Oklahoma Statehood in 1907. He was appointed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1941, who reappointed him in 1942 and 1943; he was reappointed by President Harry S. Truman in 1948. He died while in office in 1949.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Cherokee Nation</span> Native American tribe in Oklahoma, United States

The Cherokee Nation, also known as the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma, is the largest of three Cherokee federally recognized tribes in the United States. It was established in the 20th century and includes people descended from members of the Old Cherokee Nation who relocated, due to increasing pressure, from the Southeast to Indian Territory and Cherokee who were forced to relocate on the Trail of Tears. The tribe also includes descendants of Cherokee Freedmen, Absentee Shawnee, and Natchez Nation. As of 2021, over 400,000 people were enrolled in the Cherokee Nation.

Sequoyah High School is a Native American boarding school serving students in grades 7 through 12, who are members of a federally recognized Native American tribe. The school is located in Park Hill, Oklahoma, with a Tahlequah post office address, and is a Bureau of Indian Education (BIE) grant school operated by the Cherokee Nation.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tulsa metropolitan area</span> Metropolitan area in northeastern Oklahoma

The Tulsa Metropolitan Area, officially defined as the Tulsa Metropolitan Statistical Area is a metropolitan area in northeastern Oklahoma centered around the city of Tulsa and encompassing Tulsa, Rogers, Wagoner, Osage, Creek, Okmulgee and Pawnee counties. It had a population of 1,015,331 according to the 2020 U.S. Census.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Cherokee National Capitol</span> United States historic place

The Cherokee National Capitol, now the Cherokee Nation Courthouse, is a historic tribal government building in Tahlequah, Oklahoma. Completed in 1869, it served as the capitol building of the Cherokee Nation from 1869 to 1907, when Oklahoma became a state. It now serves as the site of the tribal supreme court and judicial branch. It was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1961 for its role in the Nation's history.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hastings Shade</span>

Hastings Shade was a former deputy chief of the Cherokee Nation. He was a traditionalist, artist, and master level fluent speaker of the Cherokee language.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bill John Baker</span> Principal Chief of the Cherokee Nation

Bill John Baker is the previous Principal Chief of the Cherokee Nation. First elected in October 2011, Baker defeated three-term incumbent Chief Chad "Corntassel" Smith. Prior to his election as Chief, Baker served 12 years on the Cherokee Tribal Council. In 1999, Baker unsuccessfully ran for Deputy Chief of the Cherokee Nation.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Cherokee Immersion School</span> Cherokee language immersion school in Tahlequah, Oklahoma, United States

The Cherokee Immersion School is a Cherokee language immersion school in Park Hill, Oklahoma, with a Tahlequah post office address. It is for children during pre-school to grade 8.

Mary Adair is a Cherokee Nation educator and painter based in Oklahoma.

References

  1. "ArcGIS REST Services Directory". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved September 20, 2022.
  2. 1 2 "Census QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 2014-12-27. Retrieved 2014-12-27.
  3. 1 2 "Geographic Names Information System". United States Geological Survey . Retrieved 2014-12-27.
  4. Cowen, Agnes Spade and Jane B. Noble. Comptemporary Cherokee Language Book. Tahlequah, OK: Heritage Printing, 1996: 77
  5. "ᏓᎵᏆ". www.cherokeedictionary.net. Retrieved 2021-07-03.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  6. 1 2 3 "Census of Population and Housing". United States Census Bureau . Retrieved 2014-12-27.
  7. "Population and Housing Unit Estimates" . Retrieved May 21, 2020.
  8. "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
  9. 1 2 Sequoyah County; Oklahoma Historical Society online; accessed April 2018
  10. Tahlonteeskee; photo of roadside marker [Oklahoma Historical Society]; at waymarking.com; accessed November 2015.
  11. 1 2 Harrington, Beth. "Tahlequah." Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture. 2009. Accessed November 8, 2019.
  12. 1 2 Martindale, Robert. "Cherokee Nation places three historical buildings in trust", Tulsa World, 28 June 2003
  13. 1 2 Harrington, Beth. "Tahlequah," Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture, 2009. Accessed March 30, 2015.
  14. Mullins, Jonita. "Three Forks History: Muskogee once served by five railroads." Muskogee Phoenix. November 28, 2015. Accessed November 8, 2019.
  15. "2010 Census Gazetteer". United States Census Bureau . Retrieved 2014-12-27.
  16. "TAHLEQUAH, OKLAHOMA". Western Regional Climate Center.
  17. "2009-2013 American Community Survey: Economic Characteristics". United States Census Bureau . Retrieved 2014-12-27.
  18. Chavez, Will (April 5, 2012). "Immersion students win trophies at language fair". Cherokeephoenix.org. Retrieved April 8, 2013.
  19. "2020 CENSUS - SCHOOL DISTRICT REFERENCE MAP: Cherokee County, OK" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau . Retrieved 2022-07-20.
  20. "2020 CENSUS - CENSUS BLOCK MAP: Park Hill CDP, OK" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. p. 1 (PDF p. 2/3). Retrieved 2022-07-20. - Compare to the physical locations indicated by the postal address.
  21. "Cherokee Immersion Charter Sch 11T001". Oklahoma Department of Education. 16951 W Cherokee St, Tahlequah, OK, 74465 - Compare the address to the U.S. Census Bureau maps. Please note the school is not (as of 2020) in the Tahlequah city limits. The city of Houston stated in 1996 that the US Postal Service does not match city names of postal addresses to actual municipal boundaries.
  22. "Home". Sequoyah High School. Retrieved 2020-10-12. 17091 S. Muskogee Ave.Tahlequah, OK 74465 - Compare the address to the CDP maps. Please note the school is not (as of 2020) in the Tahlequah city limits. The city of Houston stated in 1996 that the US Postal Service does not match city names of postal addresses to actual municipal boundaries.
  23. "General Information". NSU. Archived from the original on 2009-08-28. Retrieved 2008-02-20.
  24. Agnew, Brad. Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture. "Northeastern State University." "Northeastern State University". Archived from the original on 2012-11-19. Retrieved 2016-01-08.
  25. + auElement.html() +. "NSU, Cherokee Nation Partner to Train and Hire Language Instructors - ICTMN.com". Indiancountrytodaymedianetwork.com. Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2015-07-17.
  26. "Cherokee". Ethnologue.
  27. 1 2 "Cherokee National Supreme Court Museum." Trip Advisor. 2019. Accessed November 8, 2019.
  28. 1 2 3 "Cherokee National History Museum." Visit Cherokee Nation. Undated. Accessed November 8, 2019.