Taiping Heavenly Kingdom

Last updated
Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace

太平天囯 [note 1] [note 2]
1851–1864
Flag of Taiping Heavenly Kingdom.svg
Banner used in the kingdom [1]
Seal of the Taiping heavenly kingdom.svg
Royal Seal
TBTQ2(edit).png
Greatest extent (maroon) of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom.
Status Unrecognized state
Capital Tianjing (modern Nanjing)
Common languages Hakka Chinese, Wu Chinese
Religion
Official:
Unofficial:
Government Syncretic Christian-Shenic theocratic absolute monarchy
Taiping Heavenly King  
 1851–1864
Hong Xiuquan
 1864
Hong Tianguifu
Kings 
Historical era Qing dynasty
January 11 1851
 Capture of Nanking
March 1853
1856
 Death of Hong Tianguifu
November 18 1864
Currency Shengbao (cash)
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Flag of the Qing Dynasty (1862-1889).svg Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty Flag of the Qing Dynasty (1862-1889).svg
Today part of China
Taiping Heavenly Kingdom
TaiPingRevolutionSeal.png
Royal seal of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom
Traditional Chinese 太平 天國 [note 1] [note 2]
Simplified Chinese 太平 天国 [note 1] [note 2]
Literal meaning
  • Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace
  • Greatly Peaceful Heavenly Kingdom

The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, later shortened [2] to Heavenly Kingdom or Heavenly Dynasty, [note 3] was an unrecognized oppositional state in China and Chinese Christian theocratic absolute monarchy from 1851 to 1864, supporting the overthrow of the Qing dynasty by Hong Xiuquan and his followers. The unsuccessful war it waged against the Qing is known as the Taiping Rebellion. Its capital was at Tianjing (present-day Nanjing).

Contents

A self-proclaimed younger brother of Jesus Christ [4] and convert to Protestant [5] Christianity, Hong Xiuquan led an army that controlled a significant part of southern China during the middle of the 19th century, eventually expanding to a size of nearly 30 million people. The rebel kingdom announced social reforms and the replacement of Confucianism, Buddhism, and Chinese folk religion by his form of Christianity, holding that he was the second son of God and the younger brother of Jesus. The Taiping areas were besieged by Qing forces throughout most of the rebellion. The Qing government defeated the rebellion with the eventual aid of French and British forces.

Background

Hong Xiuquan Hong Xiuquan.jpg
Hong Xiuquan

During the 19th century, the Qing dynasty experienced a series of famines, natural disasters, economic problems and defeats at the hands of foreign powers; these events have come to be collectively known as China's "century of humiliation". [6] Farmers were heavily overtaxed, rents rose dramatically, and peasants started to desert their lands in droves. The Qing military had recently suffered a disastrous defeat in the First Opium War, while the Chinese economy was severely impacted by a trade imbalance caused by the large-scale and illicit importation of opium. Banditry became more common, and numerous secret societies and self-defense units formed, all of which led to an increase in small-scale warfare.

Protestant missionaries began working from Macao, Pazhou (known at the time as "Whampoa"), and Guangzhou ("Canton"). Their household staff and the printers they employed corrected and adapted the missionaries' message to reach the Chinese and they began to particularly frequent the prefectural and provincial examinations, where local scholars competed for the chance to rise to power in the imperial civil service. One of the native tracts, Liang's nine-part, 500-page tome called Good Words to Admonish the Age , found its way into the hands of Hong Xiuquan in the mid-1830s. Hong initially leafed through it without interest. After several failures during the examinations, however, Hong told friends and family of a dream in which he was greeted by a golden-haired, bearded man and a younger man whom he addressed as "Elder Brother". Hong worked another six years as a tutor before his brother convinced him that Liang's tract was worth examination. When he read the tract he saw his long-past dream in terms of Christian symbolism: he was the younger brother of Jesus and had met God the Father, Shangdi. He now felt it was his duty to restore the faith in the native han religion and overthrow the Qing dynasty. He was joined by Yang Xiuqing, a former charcoal and firewood salesman of Guangxi, who claimed to act as a voice of the Supreme Emperor. [7]

Feng Yunshan formed the Society of God Worshippers (Chinese: 上帝 ; pinyin:Bài Shàngdì Huì) in Guangxi after a missionary journey there in 1844 to spread Hong's ideas. [8] In 1847, Hong became the leader of the secret society. [9] The Taiping faith, inspired by missionary Christianity, says one historian, "developed into a dynamic new Chinese religion... Taiping Christianity". Hong presented this religion as a revival and a restoration of the ancient classical faith in Shangdi. [10] The sect's power grew in the late 1840s, initially suppressing groups of bandits and pirates, but persecution by Qing authorities spurred the movement into a guerrilla rebellion and then into civil war.

The Taiping rebels are viewed by the Communist Party of China as proto-communists and the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom they sought to form as a proto-communist state. [11]

History

Establishment

The Taiping Rebellion began in 1850 in Guangxi. On January 11, 1851 (the 11th day of the 1st lunar month), incidentally Hong Xiuquan's birthday, Hong declared himself "Heavenly King" of a new dynasty, the "Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace". [12] After minor clashes, the violence escalated into the Jintian Uprising in February 1851, in which a 10,000-strong rebel army routed and defeated a smaller Qing force. Feng Yushan was to be the strategist of the rebellion and the administrator of the kingdom during its early days, until his death in 1852. [13]

In 1853 the Taiping forces captured Nanjing, making it their capital and renaming it Tianjing ("Heavenly Capital"). Hong converted the office of the Viceroy of Liangjiang into his Palace of Heavenly King. Since Hong Xiuquan had been supposedly instructed in his dream to exterminate all "demons", which was what the Taipings considered the Manchus to be, thus they set out to kill and wipe out the entire Manchu population. When Nanjing was occupied, the Taipings went on a rampage killing, burning and hacking 40,000 Manchus to death in the city [14] They first killed all the Manchu men, then forced the Manchu women outside the city and burnt them to death. [15]

At its height, the Heavenly Kingdom controlled south China, centered on the fertile Yangtze River Valley. Control of the river meant that the Taiping could easily supply their capital. From there, the Taiping rebels sent armies west into the upper reaches of the Yangtze, and north to capture Beijing, the capital of the Qing dynasty. The attempt to take Beijing failed.

Internal conflict

In 1853 Hong withdrew from active control of policies and administration, ruling exclusively by written proclamations often in religious language. Hong disagreed with Yang in certain matters of policy and became increasingly suspicious of Yang's ambitions, his extensive network of spies, and his declarations when "speaking as God". Yang and his family were put to death by Hong's followers in 1856, followed by the killing of troops loyal to Yang. [16]

With their leader largely out of the picture, Taiping delegates tried to widen their popular support with the Chinese middle classes and forge alliances with European powers, but failed on both counts. The Europeans decided to stay neutral. Inside China, the rebellion faced resistance from the traditionalist middle class because of their hostility to Chinese customs and Confucian values. The land-owning upper class, unsettled by the Taiping rebels' peasant mannerisms and their policy of strict separation of the sexes, even for married couples, sided with the Qing forces and their Western allies.

In 1859 Hong Rengan, a cousin of Hong, joined the Taiping Rebellion in Nanjing, and was given considerable power by Hong. He developed an ambitious plan to expand the kingdom's boundaries. In 1860 the Taiping rebels were successful in taking Hangzhou and Suzhou to the east (See also: Second rout of the Army Group Jiangnan), but failed to take Shanghai, which marked the beginning of the decline of the Kingdom.

Fall

Taiping-Qing naval battle on the Yangtze river near Nanjing Naval battle between Taiping-Qing on Yangtze.jpg
Taiping–Qing naval battle on the Yangtze river near Nanjing

An attempt to take Shanghai in August 1860 was initially successful but finally repulsed by a force of Chinese troops and European officers under the command of Frederick Townsend Ward. [13] This army would later become the "Ever Victorious Army", led by "Chinese" Gordon, and would be instrumental in the defeat of the Taiping rebels. Imperial forces were reorganized under the command of Zeng Guofan and Li Hongzhang, and the Qing government's reconquest began in earnest. By early 1864, Qing control in most areas was well established.

Hong declared that God would defend Nanjing, but in June 1864, with Qing forces approaching, he died of food poisoning as the result of eating wild vegetables as the city began to run out of food. He was sick for twenty days before the Qing forces could take the city. Only a few days after his death the Qing forces took the city. His body was buried and was later exhumed by Zeng to verify his death, and cremated. Hong's ashes were later blasted out of a cannon in order to ensure that his remains have no resting place as eternal punishment for the uprising.

The seal of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom reads: Blue; Jade Seal Green; Heavenly Father God Gold; Taiping (The Kingdom) Magenta; Grace and Tranquility Orange; Eternal stability in heaven and earth, Eight hail Marys, The saviour god king Hong Ri (Hong Xiuquan), Heavenly brother of Christ, True ruler of the world, True emperor of nobility and fortune, Forever bestowed possession of the empire. Seal of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom Colour Coded.svg
The seal of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom reads: Blue; Jade Seal Green; Heavenly Father God Gold; Taiping (The Kingdom) Magenta; Grace and Tranquility Orange; Eternal stability in heaven and earth, Eight hail Marys, The saviour god king Hong Ri (Hong Xiuquan), Heavenly brother of Christ, True ruler of the world, True emperor of nobility and fortune, Forever bestowed possession of the empire.

Four months before the fall of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, Hong Xiuquan abdicated in favour of Hong Tianguifu, his eldest son, who was 14 years old then. Hong Tianguifu was unable to do anything to restore the kingdom, so the kingdom was quickly destroyed when Nanjing fell in July 1864 to Qing forces after vicious fighting in the streets. Most of the so-called princes were executed by Qing officials in Jinling Town (金陵城), Nanjing.

Although the fall of Nanjing in 1864 marked the destruction of the Taiping regime, the fight was not yet over. There were still several thousands of Taiping rebel troops continuing the fight. It took seven years to finally put down all remnants of the Taiping Rebellion. In August 1871 the last Taiping rebel army, led by Shi Dakai's commander, Li Fuzhong (李福忠), was completely wiped out by the Qing forces in the border region of Hunan, Guizhou and Guangxi.

Administrative divisions

25 provinces were mentioned in Taiping Heavenly Kingdom sources: [17]

Kings, princes and noble ranks

Miniature of the Palace of Heavenly Kingdom in Nanjing Model-of-palace-of-heavenly-kingdom.JPG
Miniature of the Palace of Heavenly Kingdom in Nanjing
The Heavenly King's throne in Nanjing Heavenly king's throne.jpg
The Heavenly King's throne in Nanjing

The Heavenly King was the highest position in the Heavenly Kingdom. The sole people to hold this position were Hong Xiuquan and his son Hong Tianguifu:

The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, 1851–1864
Personal NamePeriod of Reign Era Names (and their according range of years)
Hong Xiuquan洪秀全
August 1851 – May 1864
Yannian (元年 Yuánnián) 1851–1864
Hong Tianguifu洪天貴福
May 1864 – August 1864
None

Ranked below the "King of Heaven" Hong Xiuquan, the territory was divided among provincial rulers called kings or princes; initially there were five the Kings of the Four Cardinal Directions and the Flank King[ citation needed ]). Of the original rulers, the West King and South King were killed in combat in 1852. The East King was murdered by the North King during a coup in 1856, and the North King himself was subsequently killed. The Kings' names were:

The later leaders of the movement were 'Princes':

Other princes include:

Leaders of concurrent rebellions were similarly granted the title of King, such Lan Chaozhu, a leader in the Li Yonghe rebellion in Sichuan. [18]

In the later years of the Taiping Rebellion, the territory was divided among many, for a time into the dozens, of provincial rulers called princes, depending on the whims of Hong.

Captured areas in Jiangsu were called “Sufu Province”.

Policies

The "Happiness" (Fu ) tablet of Hong Xiuquan has a similar design with Chinese gospel tract flyer. Taiping tablet.jpg
The "Happiness" () tablet of Hong Xiuquan has a similar design with Chinese gospel tract flyer.

Within the land that it controlled, the Taiping Heavenly Army established a totalitarian, theocratic, and highly militarized rule. [19]

Hong Rengan's proposed reforms

In 1859 the Gan Prince Hong Rengan, with the approval of his cousin the Heavenly King, advocated several new policies, including: [23]

Military procurement

While the Taiping rebels did not have the support of Western governments, they were relatively modernized in terms of weapons. An ever growing number of Western weapons dealers and blackmarketeers sold Western weapons such as modern muskets, rifles, and cannons to the rebels. As early as 1853, Taiping Tianguo soldiers had been using guns and ammunition sold by Westerners. Rifles and gunpowder were smuggled into China by English and American traders as "snuff and umbrellas". They were partially equipped with surplus equipment sold by various Western companies and military units' stores, both small arms and artillery. One shipment of weaponry from an American dealer in April 1862 already "well known for their dealings with rebels" was listed as 2,783 (percussion cap) muskets, 66 carbines, 4 rifles, and 895 field artillery guns, as well as carrying passports signed by the Loyal King. Almost two months later, a ship was stopped with 48 cases of muskets, and another ship with 5000 muskets. Mercenaries from the West also joined the Taiping forces, though most were motivated by opportunities for plunder during the rebellion rather than joining for ideological reasons. The Taiping forces constructed iron foundries where they were making heavy cannons, described by Westerners as vastly superior to Qing cannons. [24] Just before his execution, Taiping Loyal King Li Xiucheng advised his enemies that war with the Western powers was coming and the Qing must buy the best Western cannons and gun carriages, and have the best Chinese craftsmen learn to build exact copies, teaching other craftsmen as well. [25]

Religious affairs

Initially, the followers of Hong Xiuquan were called God Worshippers. Hong's faith was inspired by visions he reported in which the Shangdi, the Supreme Emperor, greeted him in Heaven. Hong had earlier been in contact with Protestant missionaries and read the Bible. Officially, the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom endorsed Hong Xiuquan's own syncretism between Christianity and Shenism, although there were also adherents of Buddhism, Chinese folk religion and other religious traditions native to China. [26] The libraries of the Buddhist monasteries were destroyed, almost completely in the case of the Yangtze Delta area. [27] Temples of Daoism, Confucianism, and other traditional beliefs were often converted to churches, schools or hospitals or defaced. [28]

Foreign affairs

The Heavenly Kingdom maintained the concept of the Imperial Chinese tributary system in mandating all of the "ten thousand nations in the world" to submit and make the annual tribute missions to the Heavenly Court. [29] The Heavenly King proclaimed that he intended to establish a new dynasty of China. [30]

Currency

In its first year, the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom minted coins that were 23 mm to 26 mm in diameter, weighing around 4.1  g. The kingdom's name was inscribed on the obverse and "Holy Treasure" (Chinese : ) on the reverse; the kingdom also issued paper notes. [31]

Impact on Hakkas

With the collapse of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, the Qing dynasty launched waves of massacres against the Hakkas, killing up to 30,000 each day during the height of the massacres. [32] Similar purges were taken while defeating the Red Turban Rebellion (1854–1856). In Guangdong, Governor Ye Mingchen oversaw the execution of 70,000 people in Guangzhou, eventually one million people would be killed throughout Guangdong. [33] [34] Another major impact was the bloody Punti-Hakka Clan Wars (1855 and 1867), which would cause the deaths of a million people. The Cantonese opera was purged clean. [35]

See also

Notes

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Ten.png uses the traditional printed form of with a longer upper stroke. This is similar to the Japanese ten, but Unicode does not offer support as separate character, instead only displaying the Japanese version when Chinese functionality is disabled.
  2. 1 2 3 Note that the uncommon variant character is used, as opposed to the more common (and later, ). The Taiping used wáng ( , "king") in the center of their character, as opposed to the traditional Chinese huò ( , "or", used as a phonetic marker) or the later simplified Chinese ( , "jade").
  3. Taiping Heavenly Kingdom later shortened to Heavenly Kingdom (天囯) or Heavenly Dynasty (天朝). Other official names of this kingdom were: Taiping Heavenly Kingdom of Heaven's True Will (真天命太平天囯), and Taiping Heavenly Kingdom of the Heavenly Father, Heavenly Brother & Heavenly King (天父天兄天王太平天囯). [3]

Related Research Articles

Taiping Rebellion Rebellion in Qing-era China from 1850 to 1864

The Taiping Rebellion, also known as the Taiping Civil War or the Taiping Revolution, was a massive rebellion or civil war that was waged in China between the Manchu Qing dynasty and the Han, Hakka-led Taiping Heavenly Kingdom. It lasted from 1850 to 1864, although following the fall of Nanjing the last rebel army was not wiped out until 1871. After fighting the bloodiest civil war in world history, with 30 to 50 million dead, the established Qing government won decisively, although the outcome is considered a pyrrhic victory.

Hong Xiuquan Leader of the Taiping Rebellion

Hong Xiuquan, born Hong Huoxiu and with the courtesy name Renkun, was a Hakka Chinese revolutionary who was the leader of the Taiping Rebellion against the Qing dynasty. He established the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom over varying portions of southern China, with himself as the "Heavenly King" and self-proclaimed younger brother of Jesus Christ.

Hong Tianguifu was the second and last king of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom. He is popularly referred to as the Junior Lord (幼主). Officially, like his father Hong Xiuquan, he was the King of Heaven (天王). To differentiate, he is also called the Junior King of Heaven (幼天王).

Tianjing

Tianjing (天京), romanized at the time as Tienking, was the name given to Nanjing when it served as the capital of Hong Xiuquan's Heavenly Kingdom from 1853 to 1864, amid the Qing Empire's Taiping Rebellion.

Li Xiucheng

Li Xiucheng was a military rebel commander opposing the Qing dynasty during the Taiping Rebellion. He was born to a peasant family. In 1864, he was captured and interrogated at the third and final Battle of Nanjing. He was then executed by Zeng Guofan.

Hong Rengan was an important leader of the Taiping Rebellion. He was a distant cousin of the movement's founder and spiritual leader Hong Xiuquan. His position as the Prince Gan resembled the role of a Prime Minister. He is a noted figure in history because of the sweeping reforms attempted under his rule, and because of his popularity in the West.

Yang Xiuqing, was an organizer and commander-in-chief of the Taiping Rebellion.

The Jintian Uprising was an armed revolt formally declared by Hong Xiuquan on 11 January 1851 during the late Qing Dynasty. The uprising was named after the rebel base in Jintian, a town in Guangxi within present-day Guiping. It marked the beginning of the Taiping Rebellion.

Heavenly King Chinese honorific title

Heavenly King or Tian Wang is a Chinese title for various religious deities and divine leaders throughout history, as well as an alternate form of the term Son of Heaven, referring to the emperor. The Chinese term for Heavenly King consists of two Chinese characters meaning "heaven/sky" and "king". The term was most notably used in its most recent sense as the title of the kings of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, but is also used in religious contexts as well.

Taiping Heavenly Kingdom History Museum

The Taiping Kingdom History Museum is a museum dedicated to artifacts from the Taiping Rebellion (1851-1864). It is located on the grounds of the Zhan Yuan Garden, a historical garden in Nanjing, China.

Shi Dakai Wing King (翼王)

Shi Dakai, born in Guigang, Guangxi, also known as Wing King or phonetically translated as Yi-Wang, was one of the most highly acclaimed leaders in the Taiping Rebellion and a poet.

Xiao Chaogui West King (西王)

Xiao Chaogui was an important leader during the early years of the Taiping Rebellion against the Qing dynasty of China. He was a sworn brother to Hong Xiuquan, the leader of the Taipings, and claimed to serve as a mouthpiece for Jesus Christ. Because of his importance to the rebellion, he was awarded the title of the "West King."

Wei Changhui was the North King of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom during the Taiping Rebellion.

Qin Rigang, né Qin Richang (秦日昌), was a Hakka military leader of the Taiping Rebellion, known during his military tenure as the King of Yen (燕王). He served under Hong Xiuquan's Taiping Administration and led Taiping forces to many military victories. He was executed by Hong Xiuquan in 1856 because he had killed the family and followers of Shi Dakai during the Tianjing Incident. Chen Yucheng and Li Xiucheng were trained and taught by Qin.

The Tianjing Incident occurred during the late Qing Dynasty from September 2 to October 1856. This was a major political internal conflict within the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom which took place in its capital city Tianjing. A few key leaders of the Taiping Rebellion were killed: the East King Yang Xiuqing, the North King Wei Changhui and the Yan King Qin Rigang. More than 27,000 other opposition rivals including soldiers perished in the conflict as well. The Tianjing Incident was said to be one of the factors which led to the eventual failure of the Taiping Rebellion, as well as the turning point in its fate.

Battle of Changzhou occurred during the Taiping Rebellion. It was won by the Qing dynasty, who regained control over all of Jiangsu.

Fu Shanxiang Qing dynasty politician

Fu Shanxiang was a Chinese scholar from Nanjing who became Chancellor under the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, which was nearly successful in its attempts to overthrow the Qing dynasty in the 1850s. Fu is known as the first female Zhuangyuan in Chinese history.

Hong Xuanjiao

Hong Xuanjiao, was a Chinese female general and rebel leader during the Taiping Rebellion. She was the sister of the leader of Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, Hong Xiuquan. She acted as co-commander of the Taiping forces during the civil war against the Imperial forces of the Qing dynasty. Xuanjiao and her brother, Xiuquan, established the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom over varying portions of southern China with himself as the "Heavenly King" and self-proclaimed younger brother of Jesus Christ

Battle of Wuchang

The Battle of Wuchang occurred in 1852 during the Taiping Rebellion in Wuchang, part of the modern-day city of Wuhan.

Hong Daquan or Tian De was a possibly mythical leader of the early Taiping Rebellion connected to the triads. His identity and even his existence have been a matter of dispute, and the title "Tian De" may refer to multiple people. Modern research suggests that Hong was a triad leader from Hunan Province named Jiao Liang who collaborated with the Taiping rebels but held the title "Tian De" independently of the movement.

References

Citations

  1. "중국 난징(남경) 매화산, 우화대, 첨원, maehwa, meihua, Nanjing, China".
  2. Spence, Jonathan D. (1996). "22". God's Chinese Son: The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom of Hong Xiuquan . W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN   0393285863. Hong Xiuquan ordered his troops and followers to drop the name Taiping, and instead to use the one word “Heavenly,” to pay proper homage to God the Father. As Li later phrases his unease: The Heavenly King always used heavenly words to admonish people. We, his officials, did not dare to challenge him, but let him give what names he wanted. Calling them “Heavenly Dynasty, Heavenly Army, Heavenly Officials, Heavenly People, Heavenly Commanders, Heavenly Soldiers and Royal Troops”
  3. 太平天国の階級構成原理とその基本性格
  4. Michael, Franz H.; Chang, Chung-li (1966), The Taiping Rebellion: History and Documents, I: History, Seattle, WA: University of Washington Publications on Asia pg- 35
  5. "History of Christianity in China « Christians in China".
  6. Chesneaux, Jean. Peasant Revolts in China, 1840–1949. Translated by C. A. Curwen. New York: W. W. Norton, 1973. pp. 23–24
  7. Spence (1990), p.  171.
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  9. "Taiping Rebellion (Chinese history) – Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Britannica.com. Retrieved 2013-03-08.
  10. Reilly (2004), p.  4.
  11. Little, Daniel Marx and the Taipings (2009)
  12. China: A New History , John King Fairbank and Merle Goldman. Harvard, 2006.
  13. 1 2 Spence (1996)
  14. Matthew White (2011). Atrocities: The 100 Deadliest Episodes in Human History. W. W. Norton. p. 289. ISBN   978-0-393-08192-3.
  15. Reilly (2004), p.  139.
  16. Spence 1996, p. 243
  17. 华强《太平天国地理志》,广西人民出版社,1991年
  18. 王新龙 (2013). 大清王朝4. 青苹果数据中心.
  19. Franz H. Michael, The Taiping Rebellion: History 190–91 (1966)
  20. 1 2 Pamela Kyle Crossley, The Wobbling Pivot: China Since 1800 105 (2010)
  21. Spence 1996, p. 25
  22. Spence 1996, p. 234
  23. Teng, Ssu-yü; Fairbank, John King (1979). China's Response to the West: A Documentary survey 1839–1923. Harvard University Press. pp. 57–59. ISBN   0674120256.
  24. Spence, Jonathan D. (1996). God's Chinese Son: The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom of Hong Xiuquan . W. W. Norton & Company. p.  237–238, 300, 311. ISBN   0393285863.
  25. Spence, Jonathan D. (1996). "22". God's Chinese Son: The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom of Hong Xiuquan . W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN   0393285863.
  26. Gao, James Z. (2009). Historical Dictionary of Modern China (1800–1949). Scarecrow Press. p.  136. ISBN   978-0810863088.
  27. Tarocco, Francesca (2007), The Cultural Practices of Modern Chinese Buddhism: Attuning the Dharma, London: Routledge, p.  48, ISBN   978-1136754395 .
  28. Platt, Stephen R. (2012). Autumn in the Heavenly Kingdom: China, the West, and the Epic Story of the Taiping Civil War . New York: Knopf. ISBN   978-0307271730.
  29. Spence, Jonathan D. (1996). "14". God's Chinese Son: The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom of Hong Xiuquan . W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN   0393285863. Our Sovereign, the T’ien Wang [Heavenly King], is the true Sovereign of Taiping of the ten thousand nations in the world. Therefore all nations under heaven ought to revere Heaven and follow the Sovereign, knowing on whom they depend. We are especially afraid that you do not understand the nature of Heaven, and believe that there are distinctions between this and that nation, not knowing the indivisibility of the true doctrine. Therefore we send this special mandatory dispatch. If you can revere Heaven and recognize the Sovereign, then our Heavenly Court, regarding all under heaven as one family and uniting all nations as one body, will certainly remember your faithful purpose and permit you, year after year, to bring tribute and come to court annually so that you may become ministers and people of the Heavenly Kingdom, forever basking in the grace and favor of the Heavenly Dynasty, peacefully residing in your own lands, and quietly enjoying great glory. This is what we, the great ministers, sincerely wish. You must tremblingly obey; do not circumvent these instructions
  30. Spence, Jonathan D. (1996). God's Chinese Son: The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom of Hong Xiuquan . W. W. Norton & Company. p.  116. ISBN   0393285863.
  31. "Money of the Kingdom of Heavenly Peace". The Currency Collector. Retrieved 24 March 2016.
  32. The Hakka Odyssey & their Taiwan homeland p. 120, Clyde Kiang (1992) [ ISBN missing ]
  33. Ning, Qian (29 July 2012). Chinese students encounter America. p. 206. ISBN   9780295803548.
  34. Hsu, Madeline Y. (2000). Dreaming of Gold, Dreaming of Home: Transnationalism and Migration Between the United States and South China, 1882–1943. p. 26. ISBN   9780804746878.
  35. Mark Anthony Chang, Hakka–Punti Clan Wars, Guangdong, China, 1855–1867 Geni

Sources

Works cited

Further reading

For a fuller selection, please see the section Taiping Rebellion: Further reading