|Taiwan Army of Japan|
|Active||August 20, 1919 - September 22, 1944|
|Country||Empire of Japan|
|Branch||Imperial Japanese Army|
The Taiwan Army of Japan (台湾軍, Taiwan gun) was an army of the Imperial Japanese Army recruited from, and stationed on, the island of Taiwan as a garrison force.
Following the First Sino-Japanese War, the Treaty of Shimonoseki transferred control of Taiwan from Qing dynasty China to the Empire of Japan. The Japanese government established the Governor-General of Taiwan based in Taipei. The Governor-General of Taiwan was given control of local military forces on 20 August 1919, which formed the nucleus of the Taiwan Army of Japan.
Primarily a garrison force, the Japanese Taiwan Army was placed under control of the Shanghai Expeditionary Army at the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1937. A component of the Taiwan Army, the Taiwan Independent Combined Brigade, was active in numerous campaigns on the Chinese mainland, and was later expanded into the 48th Infantry Division. Troops from this army were also involved in the Nanjing Massacre.
Towards the end of World War II, as the situation looked increasingly desperate for Japan, the Taiwan Army was merged with several other units garrisoning the island of Taiwan against possible Allied invasion, and the Taiwan Army was absorbed into the new Japanese Tenth Area Army on 22 September 1944, under which it formed the Taiwan District Army on 1 February 1945, but its command was directly by the Japanese 10th Area Army.
|1||General Jiro Akashi||20 August 1919||26 October 1919|
|2||General Goro Shiba||1 December 1919||4 May 1921|
|3||Lieutenant General Heitaro Fukuda||4 May 1921||6 August 1923|
|4||General Soroku Suzuki||6 August 1923||20 August 1924|
|5||Lieutenant General Takaichi Kanno||20 August 1924||28 July 1926|
|6||Lieutenant General Kunishige Tanaka||28 July 1926||10 August 1928|
|7||General Takashi Hishikari||10 August 1928||3 June 1930|
|8||General Jotaro Watanabe||3 June 1930||1 August 1931|
|9||Lieutenant General Saburo Hayashi||1 August 1931||9 January 1932|
|10||General Nobuyuki Abe||9 January 1932||1 August 1933|
|11||General Iwane Matsui||1 August 1933||1 August 1934|
|12||Field Marshal Count Hisaichi Terauchi||1 August 1934||2 December 1935|
|13||Lieutenant General Heisuke Yanagawa||2 December 1935||1 August 1936|
|14||Field Marshal Shunroku Hata||1 August 1936||2 August 1937|
|15||Lieutenant General Mikio Tsutsumi||2 August 1937||8 September 1938|
|16||Lieutenant General Tomou Kodama||8 September 1938||1 December 1939|
|17||Lieutenant General Mitsuru Ushijima||1 December 1939||2 December 1940|
|18||Lieutenant General Masaharu Homma||2 December 1940||6 November 1941|
|19||General Rikichi Ando||6 November 1941||17 September 1945|
|1||Major General Koichiro Soda||20 August 1919||25 February 1921|
|2||Major General Kojiro Satoi||25 February 1921||4 February 1924|
|3||Major General Kinzo Watanabe||4 February 1924||26 July 1927|
|4||Major General Nenosuke Sato||26 July 1927||24 April 1930|
|5||Major General Takeshi Kosugi||24 April 1930||11 April 1932|
|6||Major General Yoshishige Shimizu||11 April 1932||18 March 1933|
|7||Major General Kennosuke Otsuka||18 March 1933||22 January 1934|
|8||Major General Sumei Kuwaki||22 January 1934||1 August 1935|
|9||Lieutenant General Ryuhei Ogisu||1 August 1935||1 March 1937|
|10||Major General Masataka Hata||1 March 1937||19 February 1938|
|11||Lieutenant General Hisaichi Tanaka||19 February 1938||8 September 1938|
|12||Major General Kazuo Otsu||15 October 1938||9 March 1940|
|13||Lieutenant General Mikio Uemura||9 March 1940||1 March 1941|
|14||Lieutenant General Takaji Wachi||1 March 1941||20 February 1942|
|15||Lieutenant General Shichiro Higuchi||20 February 1942||29 October 1943|
|16||Lieutenant General Shinpachi Kondo||29 October 1943||8 July 1944|
|17||Lieutenant General Haruki Isayama||8 July 1944||17 September 1945|
The Chinese Civil War was a civil war in China fought between the Kuomintang (KMT)-led government of the Republic of China (ROC) and forces of the Communist Party of China (CPC) lasting intermittently between 1927 and 1949. The war is generally divided into two phases with an interlude: from August 1927 to 1937, the KMT-CPC Alliance collapsed during the Northern Expedition, and the Nationalists controlled most of China. From 1937 to 1945, hostilities were put on hold, and the Second United Front fought the Japanese invasion of China with eventual help from the Allies of World War II. The civil war resumed with the Japanese defeat, and the CPC gained the upper hand in the final phase of the war from 1945 to 1949, generally referred to as the Chinese Communist Revolution.
The Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945) was a military conflict that was primarily waged between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan. In China, the war is known as the War of Resistance against Japanese Aggression, or as the Asian theatre of the World Anti-Fascist War, the latter term originating from Mao Zedong's wartime alliance with Stalin. The war made up the Chinese theater of the wider Pacific Theater of the Second World War. The beginning of the war is conventionally dated to the Marco Polo Bridge Incident 7 July 1937, when a dispute between Japanese and Chinese troops in Peking escalated into a full-scale invasion. This full-scale war between the Chinese and the Empire of Japan is often regarded as the beginning of World War II in Asia. In 2017 the Ministry of Education in the People's Republic of China decreed that the term "eight-year war" in all textbooks should be replaced by “fourteen-year war", with a revised starting date of 18 September 1931 provided by the Japanese invasion of Manchuria. According to historian Rana Mitter, historians in China are unhappy with the blanket revision, and the Republic of China did not consider itself to be continuously at war with Japan over these six years.
The Empire of Japan was a historical nation-state that existed from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 until the enactment of the post-World War II 1947 constitution and subsequent formation of modern Japan. It encompassed the Japanese archipelago and several colonies, protectorates, mandates, and other territories.
The History of the Republic of China begins after the Qing dynasty in 1912, when the formation of the Republic of China as a constitutional republic put an end to 2,000 years of imperial rule. The Manchu-led Qing dynasty ruled China proper from 1644 to 1912. The Republic experienced many trials and tribulations after its founding which included being dominated by elements as disparate as warlord generals and foreign powers.
The Imperial Japanese Army was the official ground-based armed force of the Empire of Japan from 1868 to 1945. It was controlled by the Imperial Japanese Army General Staff Office and the Ministry of the Army, both of which were nominally subordinate to the Emperor of Japan as supreme commander of the army and the Imperial Japanese Navy. Later an Inspectorate General of Aviation became the third agency with oversight of the army. During wartime or national emergencies, the nominal command functions of the emperor would be centralized in an Imperial General Headquarters (IGHQ), an ad hoc body consisting of the chief and vice chief of the Army General Staff, the Minister of the Army, the chief and vice chief of the Naval General Staff, the Inspector General of Aviation, and the Inspector General of Military Training.
The China Expeditionary Army was an army group of the Imperial Japanese Army from 1939 to 1945.
Tang Shengzhi was a Chinese warlord during the Warlord Era, a military commander during the Second Sino-Japanese War and a politician after World War II.
The Wang Jingwei regime is the common name of the Reorganized National Government of the Republic of China, the government of the puppet state of the Empire of Japan in eastern China called simply the Republic of China. This should not be confused with the contemporaneously existing National Government of the Republic of China under Chiang Kai-shek, which was fighting with the Allies of World War II against Japan during this period. The country was ruled as a one-party republic under Wang Jingwei, a very high-ranking former Kuomintang (KMT) official. The region that it would administer was initially seized by Japan throughout the late 1930s with the beginning of the Second Sino-Japanese War. Wang, a rival of Chiang Kai-shek and member of the pro-peace faction of the KMT, defected to the Japanese side and formed a collaborationist government in occupied Nanking (Nanjing) in 1940. The new state claimed the entirety of China during its existence, portraying itself as the legitimate inheritors of the Xinhai Revolution and Sun Yat-sen's legacy as opposed to Chiang Kai-shek's government in Chunking (Chongqing), but effectively only Japanese-occupied territory was under its direct control. Its international recognition was limited to other members of the Anti-Comintern Pact, of which it was a signatory. The Reorganized National Government existed until the end of World War II and the surrender of Japan in August 1945, at which point the regime was dissolved and many of its leading members were executed for treason.
The Battle of Xuzhou was a military conflict between the Empire of Japan and the Republic of China forces in May 1938 during the Second Sino-Japanese War.
The Battle of Nanchang was a military campaign fought around Nanchang, Jiangxi between the Chinese National Revolutionary Army and the Japanese Imperial Japanese Army in the Second Sino-Japanese War. It was the first major conflict to occur following the Battle of Wuhan.
The Battle of Beiping–Tianjin, also known as the Battle of Peiping, Battle of Beijing, Battle of Peking, and the Peiking-Tientsin Operation or by the Japanese as the North China Incident was a series of battles of the Second Sino-Japanese War fought in the proximity of Beiping and Tianjin. It resulted in a Japanese victory.
The Nationalist government, officially the National Government of the Republic of China, also known as Second Republic of China but most commonly known simply as the Republic of China, refers to the government of the Republic of China between 1 July 1925 and 20 May 1948, led by the Kuomintang. The name derives from the Kuomintang's translated name "Nationalist Party".
Pang Bingxun was a high-ranking nationalist military commander who fought against the Imperial Japanese Army and Chinese Communist Army. He stopped the IJA 5th Division led by General Seishirō Itagaki, one of the principal architects of the 1931 Manchurian incident, from capturing Linyi and converging with General Rensuke Isogai's IJA 10th Division at Tai'erzhuang District, foiling their plan to assault Xuzhou.
The Japanese invasion of Taiwan was a conflict between the Empire of Japan and the armed forces of the short-lived Republic of Formosa following the Qing Dynasty's cession of Taiwan to Japan in April 1895 at the end of the First Sino-Japanese War. The Japanese sought to take control of their new possession, while the Republican forces fought to resist Japanese occupation. The Japanese landed near Keelung on the northern coast of Taiwan on 29 May 1895, and in a five-month campaign swept southwards to Tainan. Although their advance was slowed by guerrilla activity, the Japanese defeated the Formosan forces whenever they attempted to make a stand. The Japanese victory at Baguashan on 27 August, the largest battle ever fought on Taiwanese soil, doomed the Formosan resistance to an early defeat. The fall of Tainan on 21 October ended organised resistance to Japanese occupation, and inaugurated five decades of Japanese rule in Taiwan.
Hisao Tani was a lieutenant general in the Imperial Japanese Army in the Second Sino-Japanese War. He was implicated in the Nanjing Massacre and was executed by the Chinese government.
The 16th Division was an infantry division in the Imperial Japanese Army. Its tsūshōgō code name was the Wall Division, and its military symbol was 16D. The 16th Division was one of four new infantry divisions raised by the Imperial Japanese Army in the closing stages of the Russo-Japanese War (1904–1905). With Japan's limited resources towards the end of that conflict, the entire IJA was committed to combat in Manchuria, leaving not a single division to guard the Japanese home islands from attack. The 16th Division was initially raised from men in the area surrounding Kyoto 18 July 1905 under the command of Lieutenant General Yamanaka Nobuyoshi.
Rikichi Andō was a general in the Imperial Japanese Army and 19th and final Japanese Governor-General of Taiwan from 30 December 1944 to October 1945.
The Shanghai Expeditionary Army was a corps-level ad hoc Japanese army in the Second Sino-Japanese War.
The Republic of China (ROC) from 1912 to 1949, commonly known as China, was a sovereign state based in mainland China prior to the relocation of its government to Taiwan. At a population of 541 million in 1949, it was the world's most populous country. Covering 11.4 million square kilometres, it consisted of 35 provinces, 1 special administrative region, 2 regions, 12 special municipalities, 14 leagues, and 4 special banners. This period is sometimes referred to as the Republican Era or the Mainland Period.
The Kwantung Army was the largest army group of the Imperial Japanese Army from 1919 to 1945.
The Taiwanese worked in Japan’s defense and war-related industries in Taiwan and in other ways abetted Japan’s war efforts. Many Taiwanese served in the Japanese military, including units that fought in China. Taiwanese troops even participated in the atrocities against Chinese civilians at Nanjing (Nanking) and other places on the mainland. Of the Taiwanese who served in the Japanese military, more than 30,000 were killed in combat.