Tajjalan

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Tajjalān is one of the few enigmatic methods in Hinduism employed by the Upanishadic seers to describe Reality or Brahman. It is a cosmological approach to the problem of Reality in the context of creation etc.

Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent and parts of Southeast Asia. Hinduism has been called the oldest religion in the world, and some practitioners and scholars refer to it as Sanātana Dharma, "the eternal tradition", or the "eternal way", beyond human history. Scholars regard Hinduism as a fusion or synthesis of various Indian cultures and traditions, with diverse roots and no founder. This "Hindu synthesis" started to develop between 500 BCE and 300 CE, after the end of the Vedic period, and flourished in the medieval period, with the decline of Buddhism in India.

The Upanishads, a part of the Vedas, are ancient Sanskrit texts that contain some of the central philosophical concepts and ideas of Hinduism, some of which are shared with religious traditions like Buddhism and Jainism. Among the most important literature in the history of Indian religions and culture, the Upanishads played an important role in the development of spiritual ideas in ancient India, marking a transition from Vedic ritualism to new ideas and institutions. Of all Vedic literature, the Upanishads alone are widely known, and their central ideas are at the spiritual core of Hindus.

Brahman metaphysical concept, unchanging Ultimate Reality in Hinduism

In Hindu philosophy, Brahman(ब्रह्म) is the material, efficient, formal and final cause of all that exists and the highest Universal Principle, the Ultimate Reality in the universe. These schools of thought also consider Brahman to be the pervasive, genderless, infinite, eternal truth and bliss which does not change, yet is the cause of all changes. Brahman as a metaphysical concept is the single binding unity behind diversity in all that exists in the universe.

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Meaning of Tajjalān

Tajjalān (Sanskrit: तज्जलान्) is an adjective, which means – 'absorbed and breathing in that', 'produced'. [1] It is a compound word interpreted as equivalent to taj-ja, tal-la and tad-ana that represent the attributes of Brahman. [2] It is the enigmatic method to describe Reality unlike the aphoristic method of the Mandukya Upanishad favoured in the later Sutra literature. Shandilya’s Upanishadic declaration –

Sanskrit ancient Indian language

Sanskrit is a language of ancient India with a history going back about 3,500 years. It is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism and the predominant language of most works of Hindu philosophy as well as some of the principal texts of Buddhism and Jainism. Sanskrit, in its variants and numerous dialects, was the lingua franca of ancient and medieval India. In the early 1st millennium CE, along with Buddhism and Hinduism, Sanskrit migrated to Southeast Asia, parts of East Asia and Central Asia, emerging as a language of high culture and of local ruling elites in these regions.

Adjective part of speech that describes a noun or pronoun

In linguistics, an adjective is word whose main syntactic role is to modify a noun or noun phrase. Its semantic role is to change information given by the noun.

<i>Mandukya Upanishad</i> One of the ancient Sanskrit scriptures of Hinduism

The Māṇḍūkya Upaniṣad is the shortest of all the Upanishads, and is assigned to Atharvaveda. It is listed as number 6 in the Muktikā canon of 108 Upanishads.

सर्वं खल्विदं ब्रह्म तज्जलानिति शान्त उपासीत
(sarvam khaluidam brahman tajjalān iti shānta upāsita) –
"All this (collectively) is Brahman, indeed: what evolves from That, what dissolves in That, what breathes or functions in That, should be closely and calmly studied……." - (Chandogya Upanishad III.14.1)

where this word first appears, [3] adopts the cryptic way for saying how God could be regarded as 'the origin', 'the end', and 'the life of all things'. [4] Creation literally refers to the beginning of the present cycle but the Vedic seers believed that creation is beginning-less and a never-ending process, and that Brahman is the essence of all that exists and does not exist. [5] Shankara gives the meaning of Tajjalān as – "From this "tad" Brahman the universe has arisen "ja", on dissolution it disappears "li" into this identical with Brahman; in the same way finally it is Brahman in whom the universe, after it is created, breathes "an" and lives - Tat-Ja-Li-An". He paraphrases tajja- with tasmad brahmano jatam because jan construed with tad-as can take the suffix da, so as to give the derivative tajja-. [6]

Adi Shankara Hindu philosopher monk of 8th century

Adi Shankara or Shankara, was an early 8th century Indian philosopher and theologian who consolidated the doctrine of Advaita Vedanta. He is credited with unifying and establishing the main currents of thought in Hinduism.

Implications

Tajjalān is a riddle that describes in a positive way the three basic attributes of Brahman with regard to explaining the process of creation etc. from the primeval Atman. Taittiriya Upanishad II.1/ III.1 proposes the Theory of the emanation of the elements from Brahman, the same Upanishad defines Brahman as Existence, Consciousness and Infinity and declares “that alone might be regarded as the Ultimate Reality of things, from which all these beings are born, by which they live when born, to which they repair and into which they are finally resolved”, because behind the cosmos there must be an existence which must be regarded as responsible for its origin, sustenance, and absorption. [7] Shandilya, through the use of the term, Tajjalān, reveals the secret name by which Brahman should be worshipped. Badarayana defines Brahman as – जन्माद्यस्य यतः (Janamādi asaya yatah) (Brahma Sutra I.1.2)– meaning, "That (is Brahman) from which (are derived) the birth etc. of this (universe)", in which regard Adi Shankara states that the phrase, janamādi is a bahuvrihi compound where the subject presented is apprehended along with its attributes. [8] This definition of Brahman is called, Tatasthalakshana.

The Taittirīya Upanishad is a Vedic era Sanskrit text, embedded as three chapters (adhyāya) of the Yajurveda. It is a mukhya Upanishad, and likely composed about 6th century BC.

Badarayana was an Indian philosopher about whom almost no personal details are reliably known. He wrote the foundational philosophical treatise Vedanta school of philosophy.

A bahuvrihi compound is a type of compound that denotes a referent by specifying a certain characteristic or quality the referent possesses. A bahuvrihi is exocentric, so that the compound is not a hyponym of its head. For instance, a sabretooth (smil-odon) is neither a sabre nor a tooth, but a feline with sabre-like teeth.

Significance

Tajjalān is the mysterious name of the universe as identified with Brahman which word summarises the three attributes of Brahman - as creator, preserver and destroyer of the universe, and presents the universe as non-different from Brahman in all three periods, past, present and future [9] [10] This is the cosmological proof for the existence of God, which also means that the individual soul is non-limited in its essential nature even though owing to abundance of ignorance it acquires various names and forms to become limited. The phrase, Tajjalān, supplies the reason to explain the mahavakya - "All this is Brahman". [11] This phrase is one of the two well-known examples of the cosmological approach to the problem of Reality. [12] Shandilya’s declaration – सर्वं खल्विदं ब्रह्म तज्जलानिति शान्त उपासीत, recommending meditation on Brahman with the aid of the word, Tajjalān, which word as a compressed formula summarizes the three attributes of the changeless Brahman, draws attention to the fact that the act of meditation (upāsita) must have an object to meditate upon. [13] [14]

Mahāvākyas

The Mahavakyas are "The Great Sayings" of the Upanishads, as characterized by the Advaita school of Vedanta.


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Self-consciousness in the Upanishads is not the first-person indexical self-awareness or the self-awareness which is self-reference without identification, and also not the self-consciousness which as a kind of desire is satisfied by another self-consciousness. It is Self-realisation; the realisation of the Self consisting of consciousness that leads all else.

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Ishvaratva in Sanskrit language is an abstract noun meaning 'godhood', it also means divinity.

Bhuman (Sanskrit:भूमन) means fullness or abundance; It is a synonym of Brahman. The word, Bhuman, is derived from the word, Bahu, meaning much or many, with the suffix – imam, added after it by dropping – i, to impart the sense of the abstract noun. This word refers directly to the Supreme Self who is superior to Prana though Prana is Bhuman because of proximity where the vow of Prana, consisting in transcending all other thing is alluded to.

Ikshana is a noun which means sight, care and superintendence but also refers to eye, sight, look, seeing, viewing, aspect, caring for, looking after, regarding.

Pradhāna is an adjective meaning – most important, prime, chief or major. The Shatapatha Brahmana gives its meaning as – 'the chief cause of the material nature' (S.B.7.15.27) or 'the creative principle of nature' (S.B.10.85.3). The Samkhya School of Indian philosophy employs the word, Pradhana, to mean the creative principle of nature, as the original root of matter, the Prime Matter but which according to Badarayana’s logic is the unintelligent principle which cannot be the one consisting of bliss.

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Śāṇḍilya Vidya is a set of teachings of vidyā or philosophy by the ancient Hindu sage Śāṇḍilya. It is part of the Agnirahasyama of the Shatapatha Upanishad, and its precepts are also set out in the Chandogya Upanishad. The work treats of the universal Absolute (Brahman) and of the practice of faith (Bhakti).

Svéna is derived from the root "sva" (स्व), a reflective adjective, meaning self or one’s own or belonging to oneself; "éna" is a pronominal suffix meaning - "by" as in कालेन (kāléna) – 'by time' or 'by present time'. "sva" + "éna" = Svéna means – 'by your own' or 'by one’s own conditioned nature'.

References

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  2. Monier Williams (2003-07-01). Indian Wisdom or Examples of …. Kessinger Publishing. p. 112. ISBN   9780766171985.
  3. Swami Gambhirananda. Chandogya Upanishad. Kolkata: Advaita Ashrama. p. 208. Verse 14.1
  4. Ramachandra Dattatrya Ranade (1986). A Constructive Survey of Upanishadic Philosophy. Mumbai: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan. p. 23.
  5. Swami Parameshwarananda. Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Upanishads. Sarup & Sons. p. 73.
  6. George Cordona (1999-01-01). Recent Research in Pananian Grammar. New Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. p. 137. ISBN   9788120816374.
  7. Ramachandra Dattatrya Ranade (1986). A Constructive Survey of Upanishadic philosophy. Mumbai: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan. p. 53.
  8. Adi Shankara. Brahma-Sutra-Bhasya. Kolkata: Advaita Ashrama. p. 13.
  9. Swami Parmeshwaranand (2000-01-01). Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Upanishads:S-Z. Sarup & Sons. p. 73. ISBN   9788176251488.
  10. Swami Nikhalananda (2003). The Principal Upanishads. Courier Dover Publications. p. 47. ISBN   9780486427171.
  11. George Thibaut (2004-06-01). The Vedanta Sutras with the commentary by Ramanuja Part 3. Kessinger Publishing. p. 157. ISBN   9781419186622.
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  14. Ananda E. Wood. Interpreting the Upanishads. Islamic Books. p. 23.