Takuma Tanada

Last updated
Takuma Tanada
Born October 30, 1919
Hawaii
Residence Napa, Ca
Alma mater B.S., M.S., University of Hawaii, 1942, 1944 in Botany
Scientific career
Fields Botany, Photomorphogenesis

Takuma Akuma Tanada (born October 30, 1919) [1] is a Japanese-American plant biologist who made several discoveries related to the effects of light radiation on plants, including his discovery of the Tanada effect. He conducted research at the United States Department of Agriculture and in 2011 was awarded a Congressional Gold Medal, the highest civilian award in the United States, for his assistance to the U.S. military in World War II. [2]

The Tanada effect refers to the adhesion of root tips to glass surfaces. It is believed to involve electric potentials. It is named for the scientist who first described the effect, Takuma Tanada.

United States Department of Agriculture U.S. federal executive department responsible for developing and executing federal government policy on farming, agriculture, forestry, and food

The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), also known as the Agriculture Department, is the U.S. federal executive department responsible for developing and executing federal laws related to farming, forestry, and food. It aims to meet the needs of farmers and ranchers, promote agricultural trade and production, work to assure food safety, protect natural resources, foster rural communities and end hunger in the United States and internationally.

Congressional Gold Medal award

A Congressional Gold Medal is an award bestowed by the United States Congress. The Congressional Gold Medal and the Presidential Medal of Freedom are the highest civilian awards in the United States. It is awarded to persons "who have performed an achievement that has an impact on American history and culture that is likely to be recognized as a major achievement in the recipient's field long after the achievement." However, "There are no permanent statutory provisions specifically relating to the creation of Congressional Gold Medals. When a Congressional Gold Medal has been deemed appropriate, Congress has, by legislative action, provided for the creation of a medal on an ad hoc basis." U.S. citizenship is not a requirement.

Tanada's was born in Hawaii in 1919 to Japanese immigrants. Tanada attended the University of Hawaii studying Botany, and received a B.S. in 1942, and a M.S. in 1944. [3] Tanada and his brother Shigeo volunteered for the Army. [2] [4] Tanada said he was rejected when he initially tried to join the military after the attack on Pearl Harbor, but was drafted later in part due to being fluent in Japanese. [2] He enlisted on June 21, 1944. [4] He translated top-secret Japanese communications for the Military Intelligence Service and was promoted to technical sergeant. [2]

The Military Intelligence Service was a World War II U.S. military unit consisting of two branches, the Japanese American Unit described here and the German-Austrian Unit based at Camp Ritchie, described partly in Ritchie Boys. The unit described here was primarily composed of Nisei who were trained as linguists. Graduates of the MIS language school (MISLS) were attached to other military units to provide translation, interpretation, and interrogation services.

Technical sergeant is the name of one current and two former enlisted ranks in the United States Armed Forces. Outside the United States, it is only used by the Philippine Army, Philippine Air Force and the Philippine Marine Corps.

After World War II ended, Tanada became an administrator to import and manufacture fertilizer. [2] Tanada was assigned to the United States Department of Agriculture, where he published works related to the effects of red and far-red light on plant roots. The photomorphogenic processes he discovered in relation to light spectrum on plant root adhesion became known as the Tanada effect. [5] He later discovered that the electric charge causing roots to stick to glass is generated by the trace element boron. [6]

In developmental biology, photomorphogenesis is light-mediated development, where plant growth patterns respond to the light spectrum. This is a completely separate process from photosynthesis where light is used as a source of energy. Phytochromes, cryptochromes, and phototropins are photochromic sensory receptors that restrict the photomorphogenic effect of light to the UV-A, UV-B, blue, and red portions of the electromagnetic spectrum.

Tanada married Toshiyo Shimizu on February 21, 1947 in Yokohama, Japan. [7] [8]

Yokohama Designated city in Kantō, Japan

Yokohama is the second largest city in Japan by population, and the most populous municipality of Japan. It is the capital city of Kanagawa Prefecture. It lies on Tokyo Bay, south of Tokyo, in the Kantō region of the main island of Honshu. It is a major commercial hub of the Greater Tokyo Area.

Tanada retired to Napa with his wife in 1983 to be close to Juliet Tanada, their daughter, an optometry teacher at Berkeley. His wife died in 1986. Although retired, Tanada still tends to a large fruit and vegetable garden in Browns Valley. [2]

Key publications

Digital object identifier Character string used as a permanent identifier for a digital object, in a format controlled by the International DOI Foundation

In computing, a Digital Object Identifier orDOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). An implementation of the Handle System, DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos.

PubMed Central (PMC) is a free digital repository that archives publicly accessible full-text scholarly articles that have been published within the biomedical and life sciences journal literature. As one of the major research databases within the suite of resources that have been developed by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), PubMed Central is much more than just a document repository. Submissions into PMC undergo an indexing and formatting procedure which results in enhanced metadata, medical ontology, and unique identifiers which all enrich the XML structured data for each article on deposit. Content within PMC can easily be interlinked to many other NCBI databases and accessed via Entrez search and retrieval systems, further enhancing the public's ability to freely discover, read and build upon this portfolio of biomedical knowledge.

Related Research Articles

Root part of plant

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Cytokinin

Cytokinins (CK) are a class of plant growth substances (phytohormones) that promote cell division, or cytokinesis, in plant roots and shoots. They are involved primarily in cell growth and differentiation, but also affect apical dominance, axillary bud growth, and leaf senescence. Folke Skoog discovered their effects using coconut milk in the 1940s at the University of Wisconsin–Madison.

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References

  1. Who's who Among Asian Americans, 1994-95. Gale Research. 1994. p. 575.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 COURTNEY, KEVIN. "WWII veteran receives nation's top civilian honor". Napa Valley Register. Retrieved 2016-02-08.
  3. "UIHistories Project Repository". uihistories.library.illinois.edu. Retrieved 2016-02-08.
  4. 1 2 "Statewide County HI Archives Military Records.....Army Enlistees Names TAKAHASHI - TANAKA WWII - Enlistment". USGenWeb Archives. USGenWeb Archives. January 28, 2008. Retrieved February 7, 2015.
  5. Sinha, Rajiv Kumar (2004-01-01). Modern Plant Physiology. CRC Press. p. 457. ISBN   9780849317149.
  6. Tanada, T (1978). "Boron – key element in the actions of Phytochrome and gravity?". Planta. 143: 111. doi:10.1007/bf00389059.
  7. Consular Reports of Marriage, 1910–1949. Series ARC ID: 2555709 - A1, Entry 3001. General Records of the Department of State, Record Group 59. National Archives at Washington D.C.
  8. National Archives and Records Administration (NARA); Washington, D.C.; Marriage Reports in State Department Decimal Files, 1910-1949; Record Group: 59, General Records of the Department of State, 1763 - 2002; Series ARC ID: 2555709; Series MLR Number: A1, Entry 3001; Series Box Number: 530; File Number:133