Bulgaria in Antarctica
|Bulgarian Antarctic Institute|
|National Centre of Polar Research|
|St. Kliment Ohridski Base|
|Lame Dog Hut|
|Livingston Island Museum|
|St. Ivan Rilski Chapel|
|Bulgarian toponyms in Antarctica|
|Antarctic Place-names Commission|
|Military Geographic Service|
The Tangra 2004/05 Expedition was commissioned by the Antarctic Place-names Commission at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Bulgaria, managed by the Manfred Wörner Foundation, and supported by the Bulgarian Antarctic Institute, the Institute of Mathematics and Informatics at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Bulgarian Posts, Uruguayan Antarctic Institute, Peregrine Shipping (Australia), and Petrol Ltd, TNT, Mtel, Bulstrad, Polytours, B. Bekyarov and B. Chernev (Bulgaria).
Dr. Lyubomir Ivanov (team leader), senior research associate, Institute of Mathematics and Informatics at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences; chairman, Antarctic Place-names Commission; author of the 1995 Bulgarian Antarctic Toponymic Guidelines introducing in particular the present official system for the Romanization of Bulgarian; participant in four Bulgarian Antarctic campaigns, and author of the first Bulgarian Antarctic topographic maps.
Doychin Vasilev, Bulgarian alpinist who has climbed five Himalayan 8,000 m peaks: Dhaulagiri (in 1995), Mount Everest (1997), Makalu (1998), and Shishapangma and Cho Oyu (1999).
Expedition vessels: Uruguayan Navy ship ROU Vanguardia, and Russian research ship Akademik Sergey Vavilov .
Land transportation: man sledding, skiing, and trekking.
Duration: 14 November 2004 to 29 January 2005.
Antarctica: 25 November 2004 to 11 January 2005;
Livingston Island: 28 November 2004 to 4 January 2005;
St. Kliment Ohridski Base: 28 November to 8 December 2004, and 2–4 January 2005;
Camp Academia (541 м): 3 December 2004 to 2 January 2005;
Catalunyan Saddle bivouac (1255 м): 14–16 December 2004;
Juan Carlos I Base: 18 December 2004;
Elhovo Gap/Leslie Hill bivouac (421 м): 24–28 December 2004;
Hannah Point: 4 January 2005;
Half Moon Island: 8 January 2005.
The Tangra 2004/05 team covered either on ski or on foot an overall distance of some 200 km, mostly in harsh weather conditions and challenging unfamiliar terrain in eastern Livingston Island, including the first crossing of Bowles Ridge, and first visit and routes to Vidin Heights, Gleaner Heights, Melnik Ridge, Levski Ridge, Saedinenie Snowfield, Kaliakra Glacier, Struma Glacier, middle Huron Glacier, Leslie Gap, Elhovo Gap, Gurev Gap, Yankov Gap, Pirdop Gate, Lozen Saddle, and the peaks Lyaskovets, Zograf, Lozen Nunatak, Erma Knoll, Aheloy Nunatak, Ravda, Komini, Ongal, Melnik, Castra Martis Hill, Radnevo, Zemen Knoll, and Miziya, as well as the third ascent of Presian Ridge and the island's summit Mount Friesland (1700 m). In particular, the survey team traversed the main crest of Tangra Mountains between Mount Friesland and Lyaskovets Peak.
Extensive geodetic and geographic information was gathered, including coordinates and elevation data, actual sea shoreline and ice-free zones configuration, as well as a detailed photographic documentation of previously unexplored and remote areas in the interior of Livingston Island and Greenwich Island.
Based on the survey, 146 geographical features were mapped for the first time, and the coordinates of other 8 features were updated. A new 1:100000 scale topographic map of the islands of Livingston and Greenwich was published in August 2005 in 1802 hard copies, and also made available in electronic version both in the website of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Bulgaria, and in the Wikimedia Commons. Data from the Tangra 2004/05 expedition was extensively used also in the 2009 Bulgarian map of Livingston, Greenwich, Robert, Snow, and Smith Islands.
In connection with the work carried out by the Tangra 2004/05 Expedition, 126 new Bulgarian names for hitherto nameless geographical features on Livingston Island and Greenwich Island were approved on 11 April and on 4 November 2005.
Invited lectures on the results of the expedition were given at the Faculty of Geology and Geography at Sofia University, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Bulgaria, the State Commission on Information Security, the Municipality of Radnevo etc.
Field work carried out during the survey was noted in 2012 by Discovery Channel, the Natural History Museum, the Royal Collection and the British Antarctic Survey as a timeline event in Antarctic exploration.
Aheloy Nunatak is a rocky 390m peak in the upper Huron Glacier in Livingston Island. The peak forms the northeast extremity of a minor ridge which also features Erma Knoll and Lozen Nunatak, and is linked to Zograf Peak by Lozen Saddle. The peak was first visited on 31 December 2004 by the Bulgarian Lyubomir Ivanov from Camp Academia, and was mapped in the Bulgarian Tangra 2004/05 topographic survey. The peak was named after the Black Sea town of Aheloy, Bulgaria.
Catalunyan Saddle is a saddle of 1260 m height in the Friesland Ridge of the Tangra Mountains on Livingston Island, in the South Shetland Islands. The saddle is bounded by Lyaskovets Peak to the east and by Presian Ridge to the west. The saddle was named in honour of the Catalans Francesc Sàbat and Jorge Enrique from Juan Carlos I Base who established the first route via the saddle to Mount Friesland on 30 December 1991.
Friesland Ridge is a ridge on Livingston Island in the South Shetlands, part of the Tangra Mountains. The summit, Mount Friesland, which rises to 1,700 metres (5,600 ft), is the northwesternmost of the ridge's six main peaks. Its elevation was estimated at 1,684 metres (5,525 ft) by a 1995/96 Bulgarian survey; the present figure was produced by a 2003 Australian GPS survey, and closely matched by the Bulgarian survey Tangra 2004/05.
Komini Peak is a peak with an elevation of 774 m (2,539 ft) on the north slopes of Levski Peak, in the Tangra Mountains, in Livingston Island, Antarctica.
Lyaskovets Peak is the easternmost peak of Friesland Ridge in the Tangra Mountains, eastern Livingston Island and has an elevation of 1,473 m. The peak is bounded by Catalunyan Saddle on the west and Shipka Saddle on the east, and is heavily glaciated and crevassed, with precipitous western, southern and eastern slopes. It surmounts Huron Glacier to the northwest and northeast, and Macy Glacier and Brunow Bay area to the south. Its northern offshoot forms Zograf Peak, and is linked to Lozen Nunatak, Erma Knoll and Aheloy Nunatak in Huron Glacier.
Melnik Peak is the 696 m summit of Melnik Ridge in eastern Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands in Antarctica. Surmounting Kaliakra Glacier to the north and west, and Struma Glacier to the southeast. The peak takes its name from Melnik Ridge.
Melnik Ridge is a narrow ridge rising to 696 m in eastern Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica bounded by Kaliakra Glacier to the north and west, and Struma Glacier to the south, and linked to Bowles Ridge by the 575 m high Yankov Gap. The ridge is 2.2 km long in the east-west direction, featuring Sliven Peak and Etropole Peak, with the summit Melnik Peak forming its west extremity. It has partly snow-free southern slopes. The ridge was first surveyed by Lyubomir Ivanov and Doychin Vasilev from Camp Academia on 28 December 2004, as part of Tangra 2004/05 topographic survey.
Miziya Peak is the 604 m summit of Vidin Heights on Varna Peninsula, eastern Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. The peak overlooks Kaliakra Glacier to the south, and Saedinenie Snowfield to the northwest. First ascent by Lyubomir Ivanov from Camp Academia on 25 December 2004, as part of Tangra 2004/05 survey.
Ongal Peak is a sharp glaciated peak on the Levski Ridge of Tangra Mountains, Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. It surmounts Shipka Valley on the north-northwest, and Huron Glacier and its tributaries on the north and northeast.
Presian Ridge is a ridge of elevation 1456 m extending 950 m in east-weat direction in Friesland Ridge, Tangra Mountains, Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. Situated between the island's summit Mount Friesland to the west and Catalunyan Saddle to the east. Surmounting Wörner Gap, Camp Academia locality and upper Huron Glacier to the north, and Macy Glacier to the south.
Radnevo Peak is a peak of elevation 481 m forming the southwest extremity of Vidin Heights on Varna Peninsula on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. Surmounting Kaliakra Glacier to the southeast and Saedinenie Snowfield to the northwest. Linked to Leslie Hill by Leslie Gap. The peak is named after the town of Radnevo in Southeastern Bulgaria.
Ravda Peak is a rocky peak of elevation 664 m (2,178 ft) in Levski Ridge, Tangra Mountains, Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. Situated on the side ridge projecting northwards from Levski Peak into Huron Glacier. The peak was first ascended by the Bulgarian Lyubomir Ivanov from Camp Academia on 21 December 2004.
Simeon Peak rises to 1,580 m in Friesland Ridge, Tangra Mountains, Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. The peak is heavily glaciated, connected to St. Boris Peak to the northeast by Paril Saddle, and surmounts Huntress Glacier to the northwest, Ruen Icefall to the southwest, and Macy Glacier to the east. It was first ascended and GPS-surveyed by the Bulgarian climbers D. Boyanov, N. Petkov and N. Hazarbasanov from Nesebar Gap via the head of Huntress Glacier, Academia Peak, St. Boris Peak and Paril Saddle on 15 January 2017.
Tangra Mountains form the principal mountain range of Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. The range had been nameless until 2001, when it was named after the Bulgar god Tangra.
Vidin Heights are predominantly ice-covered heights rising to 604 m on Varna Peninsula, eastern Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. The feature is approximately 8 km long from the north end of Leslie Gap east-northeastwards to Inott Point and 9.6 km north-northeastwards to Sayer Nunatak. The summit, Miziya Peak, is located 9.25 km north by east of Mount Bowles, 4.24 km north-northeast of Leslie Hill, 9.47 km south of Williams Point and 7.52 km west of Edinburgh Hill. The heights feature also Samuel Peak 1.9 km east-southeast of Miziya Peak, and Sharp Peak at their east-northeast extremity. The heights surmount Saedinenie Snowfield to the northwest, Rose Valley Glacier to the northeast, Debelt Glacier and Panega Glacier to the southeast, and Kaliakra Glacier to the south.
Zemen Knoll is a peak of 453 m in the Vidin Heights on Varna Peninsula, Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. The knoll overlooks Kaliakra Glacier to the southeast, and Saedinenie Snowfield to the northwest and west. The feature is named after the town of Zemen in Western Bulgaria.
Zograf Peak rises to 1,011 m (3,317 ft) at the northeastern extremity of the Friesland Ridge in the Tangra Mountains, Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. The peak is heavily glaciated and crevassed, with precipitous and partly ice-free northern slopes. The peak surmounts Huron Glacier to the north and Shipka Valley to the east, and is accessible via the saddle of elevation 975 m linking it to the north rib of Lyaskovets Peak. The peak is linked to the northeast by Lozen Saddle to Lozen Nunatak, Erma Knoll and Aheloy Nunatak.
Camp Academia is a geographical locality in eastern Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica, named for the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences in appreciation of Academy’s contribution to the Antarctic exploration. The site was first occupied in the 2004/05 austral summer, and has been designated since 2004 as the summer post office Tangra 1091, the southernmost branch of the Bulgarian Posts Plc.
Mount Friesland is a mountain rising to 1,700.2 metres (5,578 ft) in the homonymous Friesland Ridge, the summit of Tangra Mountains and Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. Its north rib is connected to Pliska Ridge by Nesebar Gap on the west, and to Bowles Ridge by Wörner Gap on the north. On the east Mount Friesland is connected to Presian Ridge and further on to Catalunyan Saddle and Lyaskovets Peak. On the south-southwest it is connected by a short saddle to ‘The Synagogue’ a sharp-peaked rock-cored ice formation abutting neighbouring St. Boris Peak. The peak is heavily glaciated and crevassed, surmounting Huntress Glacier to the west, Perunika Glacier to the north-northwest, Huron Glacier to the northeast and Macy Glacier to the southeast. The local weather is notoriously unpleasant and challenging; according to the seasoned Antarctic mountaineer Damien Gildea who climbed in the area, 'just about the worst weather in the world'.
Great Needle Peak is the summit of the central Levski Ridge in Tangra Mountains on Livingston Island, Antarctica. Rising to 1,679.5 m, it is the third highest peak of both the mountains and the island after Mount Friesland (1700.2 m) and St. Boris Peak (1685 m). Great Needle Peak surmounts Huron Glacier and its tributary draining Devnya Valley to the north, Magura Glacier to the east, Srebarna Glacier to the south, and Macy Glacier to the southwest.