Tangra Mountains

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Tangra Mountains
Tangra.jpg
Central Tangra Mountains
Highest point
PeakMount Friesland
Elevation 1,700 m (5,600 ft) [1]
Dimensions
Length32 km (20 mi)
Width8.5 km (5.3 mi)
Geography
Tangra-Mountains-location-map.png
Location of Tangra Mountains on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands
ContinentAntarctica
RegionSouth Shetland Islands
Range coordinates 62°40′00″S60°06′00″W / 62.66667°S 60.10000°W / -62.66667; -60.10000 Coordinates: 62°40′00″S60°06′00″W / 62.66667°S 60.10000°W / -62.66667; -60.10000
Tangra Mountains (indicated by the right-side inscription 'Ice Bergs') on a fragment of George Powell's 1822 chart of the South Shetland Islands and South Orkney Islands Powell-Chart-1822.png
Tangra Mountains (indicated by the right-side inscription 'Ice Bergs') on a fragment of George Powell's 1822 chart of the South Shetland Islands and South Orkney Islands
Helmet Peak and Sofia Peak from Kuzman Knoll Tangra-Great-Needle.jpg
Helmet Peak and Sofia Peak from Kuzman Knoll
Mount Friesland from the west slope of Lyaskovets Peak Presian.jpg
Mount Friesland from the west slope of Lyaskovets Peak
Great Needle Peak from Bransfield Strait Great-Needle.jpg
Great Needle Peak from Bransfield Strait
Delchev Ridge from Melnik Peak Bruix.jpg
Delchev Ridge from Melnik Peak

Tangra Mountains (in Bulgarian Тангра планина, 'Tangra planina' \'tan-gra pla-ni-'na\) ( 62°40′00″S60°06′00″W / 62.66667°S 60.10000°W / -62.66667; -60.10000 ) form the principal mountain range of Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. The range had been nameless until 2001, when it was named after the Bulgar god Tangra. [2]

Bulgarian language South Slavic language

Bulgarian, is an Indo-European language and a member of the Southern branch of the Slavic language family.

Livingston Island Island of the South Shetland Islands

Livingston Island is an Antarctic island in the Southern Ocean, part of the South Shetlands Archipelago. It was the first land discovered south of 60° south latitude in 1819, a historic event that marked the end of a centuries-long pursuit of the mythical Terra Australis Incognita and the beginning of the exploration and utilization of real Antarctica. The name Livingston, although of unknown derivation, has been well established in international usage since the early 1820s.

South Shetland Islands A group of islands north of the Antarctic Peninsula

The South Shetland Islands are a group of Antarctic islands with a total area of 3,687 square kilometres (1,424 sq mi). They lie about 120 kilometres (75 mi) north of the Antarctic Peninsula, and between 430 kilometres (270 mi) to 900 kilometres (560 mi) south-west from the nearest point of the South Orkney Islands. By the Antarctic Treaty of 1959, the islands' sovereignty is neither recognized nor disputed by the signatories and they are free for use by any signatory for non-military purposes.

Contents

Tangra Mountains are 32 kilometres (20 mi) long between Barnard Point and Renier Point, 8.5 kilometres (5.3 mi) wide, and are bounded by Moon Bay and Huron Glacier to the north, Huntress Glacier to the northwest, False Bay to the west, and Bransfield Strait to the southeast, and is linked to Bowles Ridge by Wörner Gap, and to Pliska Ridge by Nesebar Gap. The mountain is divided in three principal ridges: Friesland Ridge in the west, Levski Ridge in the centre, and Delchev Ridge in the east.

Barnard Point

Barnard Point is a headland which marks the south-east side of the entrance to False Bay on the south side of Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. It is situated on Rozhen Peninsula, 1.5 km (1 mi) north-north-west of Botev Point and 6.6 km (4 mi) south-east of Miers Bluff.

Renier Point

Renier Point is a narrow point forming the east extremity of both Burgas Peninsula and Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. The feature was known to sealers as Point Renier as early as 1821. The name ‘Pin Point’, given by Discovery Investigations personnel on the Discovery II in 1935, has been rejected in favor of the original name.

Moon Bay

Moon Bay is a bay 7 nautical miles (13 km) wide which recedes 4 nautical miles (7 km) between Edinburgh Hill and Renier Point, on the east side of Livingston Island, in the South Shetland Islands off Antarctica. The glaciers Sopot Ice Piedmont, Iskar, Huron, Struma, Kaliakra, Panega and Debelt feed the bay.

The peaks and slopes of Tangra are heavily glaciated, and drained by the glaciers Huron, Huntress, Ruen Icefall, Peshtera, Charity, Tarnovo Ice Piedmont, Prespa, Macy, Boyana, Srebarna, Magura, Dobrudzha, Ropotamo, Strandzha, Pautalia, Sopot Ice Piedmont, and Iskar.

Ruen Icefall

The Ruen Icefall on Rozhen Peninsula in eastern Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands in Antarctica is situated south of Huntress Glacier, northwest of Prespa Glacier and northeast of Peshtera and Charity Glaciers. It descends towards False Bay from the circus overlooked by Simeon Peak, St. Cyril Peak and St. Methodius Peak in Friesland Ridge, Tangra Mountains.

Peshtera Glacier glacier in Antarctica

The Peshtera Glacier is a glacier on the Rozhen Peninsula, Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica situated southwest of Ruen Icefall and north of Charity Glacier.

Charity Glacier glacier in Antarctica

Charity Glacier is a glacier on Rozhen Peninsula, Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica draining the southwest slopes of St. Methodius Peak in Tangra Mountains, and flowing west-southwestwards into False Bay north of Barnard Point, between Zagore Beach and Arkutino Beach.

Camp Academia in the northwestern foothills of Zograf Peak is the perfect gateway to central Tangra Mountains via Catalunyan Saddle (1260 m) to the south and Lozen Saddle (437 m) to the east. Catalunyan Saddle was occupied by a bivouac of the Tangra 2004/05 Exploration team on 14–16 December 2004.

Camp Academia Antarctic camp in Bulgaria

Camp Academia is a geographical locality in eastern Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica, named for the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences in appreciation of Academy’s contribution to the Antarctic exploration. The site was first occupied in the 2004/05 austral summer, and has been designated since 2004 as the summer post office Tangra 1091, the southernmost branch of the Bulgarian Posts Plc.

Zograf Peak mountain in Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica

Zograf Peak rises to 1,011 metres at the northeastern extremity of the Friesland Ridge in the Tangra Mountains, Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. The peak is heavily glaciated and crevassed, with precipitous and partly ice-free northern slopes. The peak surmounts Huron Glacier to the north and Shipka Valley to the east, and is accessible via the saddle of elevation 975 m linking it to the north rib of Lyaskovets Peak. The peak is linked to the northeast by Lozen Saddle to Lozen Nunatak, Erma Knoll and Aheloy Nunatak.

Catalunyan Saddle

Catalunyan Saddle is a saddle of 1260 m height in the Friesland Ridge of the Tangra Mountains on Livingston Island, in the South Shetland Islands. The saddle is bounded by Lyaskovets Peak to the east and by Presian Ridge to the west. The saddle was named in honour of the Catalans Francesc Sàbat and Jorge Enrique from Juan Carlos I Base who established the first route via the saddle to Mount Friesland on 30 December 1991.

Friesland Ridge

Friesland Ridge is 15.5 km long from Botev Point in the southwest to Shipka Saddle to the northeast. The summit Mount Friesland ( 62°40′14.9″S60°11′10.7″W / 62.670806°S 60.186306°W / -62.670806; -60.186306 ) rises to exactly 1700 m. It was accurately measured by GPS in December 2003 by the Omega Foundation expedition led by Damien Gildea, which made the second ascent of Mount Friesland. [1] Other main peaks are St. Boris (1699 m), [3] Simeon (1580 m), St. Cyril (1505 m), Lyaskovets (1473 m), Presian Ridge (1456 m), St. Methodius (1180 m), Academia (1253 m), and Zograf (1011 m). First ascents: Mount Friesland by Francesc Sàbat and Jorge Enrique from Juan Carlos I Base on 30 December 1991; Lyaskovets Peak by L. Ivanov and D. Vasilev from Camp Academia on 14 December 2004; Zograf Peak by L. Ivanov from Camp Academia on 31 December 2004; [4] Simeon Peak by D. Boyanov, N. Petkov and N. Hazarbasanov from Huntress Glacier on 15 January 2017; and St. Boris Peak by D. Boyanov and N. Petkov from Camp Academia area on 22 December 2016. [3]

Friesland Ridge

Friesland Ridge is a ridge on Livingston Island in the South Shetlands, part of the Tangra Mountains. The summit, Mount Friesland, which rises to 1,700 metres (5,600 ft), is the northwesternmost of the ridge’s six main peaks. Its elevation was estimated at 1,684 metres (5,525 ft) by a 1995/96 Bulgarian survey; the present figure was produced by a 2003 Australian GPS survey, and closely matched by the Bulgarian survey Tangra 2004/05.

Botev Point

Botev Point is the south extremity of both Rozhen Peninsula and Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica formed by an offshoot of Botev Peak in the Veleka Ridge of Tangra Mountains.

Shipka Saddle

Shipka Saddle is a deep ice-covered saddle in Tangra Mountains, Livingston Island, Antarctica between Friesland Ridge to the west and Levski Ridge to the east. The feature is 250 m long, with an elevation ca. 1,200 m. It forms part of the divide between the glacial catchments of Huron Glacier to the north and Macy Glacier to the south.

Levski Ridge

Levski Ridge is 8 km long between Shipka Saddle to the west and Devin Saddle to the east, and 8 km wide between Cherepish Ridge to the north and Christoff Cliff to the south. The summit Great Needle Peak ( 62°40′15″S60°03′10″W / 62.67083°S 60.05278°W / -62.67083; -60.05278 ) rises to 1680 m, and was first ascended and GPS-surveyed by the Bulgarian mountaineers Doychin Boyanov, Nikolay Petkov and Aleksander Shopov on 8 January 2015. [5] Other main peaks are Levski (1430 m), St. Ivan Rilski Col (1350 m), Helmet (1254 m), Serdica (1200 m), Vihren (1150 m), Ongal (1149 m), and Plovdiv (1040 m). Other first ascents: Ongal Peak and Komini Peak (774 m) by L. Ivanov from Camp Academia on 21 December 2004, and Plana Peak by D. Boyanov, N. Petkov and A. Shopov on 8 January 2015. [5]

Levski Ridge

Levski Ridge is the central ridge of the Tangra Mountains, Livingston Island. Its summit, Great Needle Peak rises to 1,680m and is the second highest summit of the island after Mount Friesland.

Devin Saddle

Devin Saddle is a saddle of 500 m in the Tangra Mountains, Livingston Island located between Levski Ridge to the west and Delchev Ridge to the east. It is part of the divide between the glacial catchments of Iskar Glacier to the north and Magura Glacier to the south. It is named after the Bulgarian town of Devin.

Cherepish Ridge

Cherepish Ridge is a narrow rocky 1.1 kilometres (3,600 ft) ridge in the South Shetland Islands of Antarctica. Rising to 650 metres (2,130 ft), the ridge runs in the south to north direction from the north of Intuition Peak, in the Tangra Mountains of Livingston Island. It was named after the Cherepish Monastery in the Iskar Gorge, Western Bulgaria.

Delchev Ridge

Delchev Ridge is 10 km long between Devin Saddle to the west and Renier Point to the east. The summit Delchev Peak ( 62°38′28″S59°56′16″W / 62.64111°S 59.93778°W / -62.64111; -59.93778 ) rises to 940 m, other main peaks are Ruse (800 m), Asen (800 m), Peter (800 m), Kuber (770 m), Elena (700 m), Spartacus (650 m), Yavorov (640 m), and Paisiy (550 m).

Mapping

British mapping of the mountains in 1968, Spanish mapping in 1991, Omega Foundation mapping in 2004, Bulgarian mapping in 2005 and 2009 from topographic surveys in 1995/96 and 2004/05.

See also

Related Research Articles

Academia Peak

Academia Peak is a peak rising to 1,253 m in the Friesland Ridge, Tangra Mountains on eastern Livingston Island in Antarctica. The peak has precipitous and ice-free north-western slopes and surmounts Huntress Glacier to the northwest and southwest. It was first ascended and GPS-surveyed by the Bulgarian climbers D. Boyanov, N. Petkov and N. Hazarbasanov from Nesebar Gap via the head of Huntress Glacier on 15 January 2017.

Komini Peak

Komini Peak is a peak with an elevation of 774 m (2,539 ft) on the north slopes of Levski Peak, in the Tangra Mountains, in Livingston Island, Antarctica.

Lyaskovets Peak mountain in Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica

Lyaskovets Peak is the easternmost peak of Friesland Ridge in the Tangra Mountains, eastern Livingston Island and has an elevation 1,473 m. The peak is bounded by Catalunyan Saddle to the west and Shipka Saddle to the east and is heavily glaciated and crevassed, with precipitous western, southern and eastern slopes. It surmounts Huron Glacier to the northwest and northeast, and Macy Glacier and Brunow Bay area to the south. Its northern offshoot forms Zograf Peak, and is linked to Lozen Nunatak, Erma Knoll and Aheloy Nunatak in Huron Glacier.

Melnik Peak mountain in Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica

Melnik Peak is the 696 m summit of Melnik Ridge in eastern Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands in Antarctica. Surmounting Kaliakra Glacier to the north and west, and Struma Glacier to the southeast. The peak takes its name from Melnik Ridge.

Melnik Ridge

Melnik Ridge is a narrow ridge rising to 696 m in eastern Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica bounded by Kaliakra Glacier to the north and west, and Struma Glacier to the south, and linked to Bowles Ridge by the 575 m high Yankov Gap. The ridge is 2.2 km long in the east-west direction, featuring Sliven Peak and Etropole Peak, with the summit Melnik Peak forming its west extremity. It has partly snow-free southern slopes. The ridge was first surveyed by Lyubomir Ivanov and Doychin Vasilev from Camp Academia on 28 December 2004, as part of Tangra 2004/05 topographic survey.

Miziya Peak mountain in Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica

Miziya Peak is the 604 m summit of Vidin Heights on Varna Peninsula, eastern Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. The peak overlooks Kaliakra Glacier to the south, and Saedinenie Snowfield to the northwest.

Presian Ridge

Presian Ridge is a ridge of elevation 1456 m extending 950 m in east-weat direction in Friesland Ridge, Tangra Mountains, Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. Situated between the island's summit Mount Friesland to the west and Catalunyan Saddle to the east. Surmounting Wörner Gap, Camp Academia locality and upper Huron Glacier to the north, and Macy Glacier to the south.

Radnevo Peak mountain in Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica

Radnevo Peak is a peak of elevation 481 m forming the southwest extremity of Vidin Heights on Varna Peninsula on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. Surmounting Kaliakra Glacier to the southeast and Saedinenie Snowfield to the northwest. Linked to Leslie Hill by Leslie Gap. The peak is named after the town of Radnevo in Southeastern Bulgaria.

Simeon Peak

Simeon Peak rises to 1,580 m in Friesland Ridge, Tangra Mountains, Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. The peak is heavily glaciated, connected to St. Boris Peak to the northeast by Paril Saddle, and surmounts Huntress Glacier to the northwest, Ruen Icefall to the southwest, and Macy Glacier to the east. It was first ascended and GPS-surveyed by the Bulgarian climbers D. Boyanov, N. Petkov and N. Hazarbasanov from Nesebar Gap via the head of Huntress Glacier, Academia Peak, St. Boris Peak and Paril Saddle on 15 January 2017.

St. Boris Peak

St. Boris Peak is an ice-covered mountain rising to 1,698 m in Friesland Ridge, Tangra Mountains on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. It is the second highest peak of both the mountains and the island after Mount Friesland. The two are connected by a short saddle dominated by ‘The Synagogue’, a sharp-peaked rock-cored ice formation abutting upon St. Boris Peak. The peak is also connected to Simeon Peak by Paril Saddle, and surmounts Huntress Glacier to the northwest and west, and Macy Glacier to the southeast. The peak's central summit is rising to 1,685 m, while its highest point ‘The Synagogue’ rises to 1,699 m. The local ice relief is subject to change; according to a Bulgarian GPS survey by D. Boyanov and N. Petkov the elevation of Mt. Friesland was 1,693 m in December 2016, making St. Boris Peak the summit of both Tangra Mountains and the island in that season. According to the American high accuracy Reference Elevation Model of Antarctica (REMA), Mount Friesland is 8 m (26 ft) higher than the central summit of St. Boris Peak and 14 m (46 ft) higher than ‘The Synagogue’.

Zemen Knoll

Zemen Knoll is a peak of 453 m in the Vidin Heights on Varna Peninsula, Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. The knoll overlooks Kaliakra Glacier to the southeast, and Saedinenie Snowfield to the northwest and west. The feature is named after the town of Zemen in Western Bulgaria.

Tangra 2004/05 Bulgarian geographical expedition to Antarctica

The Tangra 2004/05 Expedition was commissioned by the Antarctic Place-names Commission at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Bulgaria, managed by the Manfred Wörner Foundation, and supported by the Bulgarian Antarctic Institute, the Institute of Mathematics and Informatics at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Bulgarian Posts, Uruguayan Antarctic Institute, Peregrine Shipping (Australia), and Petrol Ltd, TNT, Mtel, Bulstrad, Polytours, B. Bekyarov and B. Chernev (Bulgaria).

Paril Saddle

Paril Saddle is a saddle of elevation 1398 m in Friesland Ridge in Tangra Mountains on Livingston Island, Antarctica. Bounded by St. Boris Peak to the northeast, and Simeon Peak to the southwest. Overlooking Macy Glacier to the east and southeast, and Huntress Glacier to the west and northwest. Bulgarian topographic survey in 1995/96, and mapping in 2005 and 2009. It was first visited and GPS-surveyed by the Bulgarian climbers D. Boyanov, N. Petkov and N. Hazarbasanov on 15 January 2017.

Mount Friesland

Mount Friesland is a mountain rising to 1,700.2 metres (5,578 ft) in the homonymous Friesland Ridge, the summit of Tangra Mountains and Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. Its north rib is connected to Pliska Ridge by Nesebar Gap on the west, and to Bowles Ridge by Wörner Gap on the north. On the east Mount Friesland is connected to Presian Ridge and further on to Catalunyan Saddle and Lyaskovets Peak. On the south-southwest it is connected by a short saddle to ‘The Synagogue’ a sharp-peaked rock-cored ice formation abutting neighbouring St. Boris Peak. The peak is heavily glaciated and crevassed, surmounting Huntress Glacier to the west, Perunika Glacier to the north-northwest, Huron Glacier to the northeast and Macy Glacier to the southeast. The local weather is notoriously unpleasant and challenging; according to the seasoned Antarctic mountaineer Damien Gildea who climbed in the area, 'just about the worst weather in the world'.

Great Needle Peak mountain in Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica

Great Needle Peak is the summit of the central Levski Ridge in Tangra Mountains on Livingston Island, Antarctica. Rising to 1,679.5 m, it is the third highest peak of both the mountains and the island after Mount Friesland (1700.2 m) and St. Boris Peak (1685 m). Great Needle Peak surmounts Huron Glacier and its tributary draining Devnya Valley to the north, Magura Glacier to the east, Srebarna Glacier to the south, and Macy Glacier to the southwest.

References

Topographic map of Livingston Island Livingston-Island-Map-2010-15.png
Topographic map of Livingston Island
Notes
  1. 1 2 Gildea, Damien (2004). "Antarctica, Antarctic Peninsula, Livingston Island, South Shetland Islands, Second Ascent of Mt. Friesland and New Altitude". American Alpine Journal . 46 (78): 329–331. Retrieved 11 April 2015.
  2. Tangra Mountains. Archived 20 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine SCAR Composite Antarctic Gazetteer.
  3. 1 2 D. Boyanov and N. Petkov. The Peaks of Tangra Mountains: Project Report Part Two 2016/17. Sofia, February 2017 (in Bulgarian)
  4. D. Gildea. Mountaineering in Antarctica: complete guide: Travel guide. Primento and Editions Nevicata, 2015. 192 pp. ISBN   978-2-51103-136-0
  5. 1 2 N. Petkov. Livingston Island, Falsa Aguja and Sofia Peak. American Alpine Journal: Climbs And Expeditions, 2016. (Complete expedition report by N. Petkov and D. Boyanov)
Sources


Tangra-Mountains-View-1822.png
North view of Tangra Mountains depicting (left to right) Great Needle Peak, Levski Peak, Lyaskovets Peak, Mount Friesland, St. Boris Peak and Simeon Peak, with Desolation Island in the foreground; fragment of an illustration to George Powell's 1822 chart of the South Shetland and South Orkney Islands

This article includes information from the Antarctic Place-names Commission of Bulgaria which is used with permission.